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Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs
Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs
Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Burnt-on sand

Nature of Defect

Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering

to the casting. Defect occurs more frequently with thick- walled castings at high casting temperature.

Remedies

Increase amount of lustrous carbon producers and coke producers in the moulding sand. Increase amount of new sand if sintering point of the sand is low and oolitization is high.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Explosion Penetration

Nature of Defect

Extensive penetration, when the mould is fi lled too quickly.

Remedies

Reduce amount of free water.

Increase milling time of the moulding sand. Increase ooliti- zation rate of the moulding sand.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Micro-cavities

Nature of Defect

Porous structure found in the area of the casting which is last to solidify.

Remedies

Defect occurs with alloys having a wide solidifi cation range. Little infl uencing by the moul- ding sand. Reduction of organic material and an increase in the moisture level will improve thermal conductivity of the moulding sand.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Penetration

Nature of Defect

Roughness caused by the molten metal penetrating the immediate sand grains of the mould surface, particularly in softly rammed areas.

Remedies Use fi ner sand. Improve ram- ming of the moulds. Reduce compactability of the moulding sand. Increase amount of carbonaceous additive. Increase amount of coke in the moulding sand.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Sand Inclusions

Nature of Defect

Irregularly formed sand inclusions just underneath the casting surface, associated with products from the metal slag reaction in other areas.

Remedies

Keep the moulding sand suffi - ciently plastic by good sand preparation and sand cooling. Adjust to optimum compac- tability. Reduce the tendency of the mould to stick to the pattern by the use of parting agents.

Swelling Nature of Defect Irregular bulges, in most cases widely spread, sometimes with rough surface and/or
Swelling
Nature of Defect
Irregular bulges, in most cases
widely spread, sometimes with
rough surface and/or pene-
tration.
Remedies
Copyright:
Reduce compactability of the
moulding sand. Ram moulds
better and more evenly. Make
sand less sensitive to over- and
underramming by increasing
the amount of bentonite.
S&B Industrial Minerals GmbH
Schmielenfeldstr. 78
45772 Marl
info@ikominerals.com
www.ikominerals.com
Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Broken Mould

Nature of Defect

Flash-like metal penetration in the mould, sometimes parts of the mould are included in the casting.

Remedies

Add more bentonite to increase

green tensile strength. Raise compactability of the moulding sand.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Lustrous Carbon Inclusions

Nature of Defect

Formation of surface irregulari- ties, inclusions and laps due to non-wetting characteristic of lustrous carbon, often associated with the use of Cold-Box cores.

Remedies

Use dried Cold-Box cores. Reduce amount of lustrous carbon producer in the moulding sand. Use carbonaceous additive with a higher coking residue.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Scarred Surface

Nature of Defect

Scarred casting surface around hot spots, particularly with SG cast iron.

Remedies

Reduce amount of impurities present in the sand that are destroying the oxide skin.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs
Pinholes
Pinholes

Nature of Defect

Accumulation of small sub- surface rounded holes. Defects appear after annealing and light machining.

Remedies

Normally the defect is of a metallurgical nature. The mould material may have a certain effect. In case of pin holes the moisture, the organic additions and the amount of nitrogen in the moulding sand should be reduced.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Slag Inclusions

Nature of Defect

Non-metallic irregular shaped inclusions, when occurring, tend to be on upper casting surfaces.

Remedies

The defects are caused by slag being present with the molten metal in the pouring ladle. If the formation is due to eroded sand, reduce the amount of inert fi nes and use a more active lustrous carbon producer. Increase milling time of the moulding sand.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Metal Penetration

Nature of Defect

Firmly adhering agglomerates of sand/metal at hot spots and in softly rammed areas.

Remedies

Reduce compactability of the sand. Improve ramming of the moulds. Increase amount of carbonaceous additive and coke in the moulding sand.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs
Erosion
Erosion

Nature of Defect

The sand is washed away, mostly near to the sprue, often accom- panied by sand inclusions. Bulges arise on the casting near to the gate.

Remedies

Avoid drying out of the

moulding sand. Increase amount of bentonite in the sand. Increase milling time of the moulding sand. Increase mould compaction. Use carbonaceous additive with a high lustrous carbon producing ability.

Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Fissure Defects

Nature of Defect

Narrow, crack-like cavities vertical to the surface. Dendrite formation in the cavities.

Remedies

The defect is of a metallurgical

nature due to too much nitrogen contained in the iron. Reduce the amount of nitrogen in the moulding sand. Use low nitrogen containing carbonaceous addi- tive. Reduce addition of carbon- aceous additive in the moulding sand.

Surface Blowholes Nature of Defect Cavities with smooth walls, singularly or in groups. Remedies Low casting
Surface Blowholes
Nature of Defect
Cavities with smooth walls,
singularly or in groups.
Remedies
Low casting temperatures are
often the cause. Benefi ts may
be obtained by increasing mould
permeability. Reduce fi nes or
add coarser new sand. Reduce
organic additions to the sand.
Burnt-on sand Nature of Defect Thin sand crusts fi rmly adhering to the casting. Defect occurs

Surface Roughness

Nature of Defect

Rough casting surface fi nish due

to coarse sand.

Remedies

Use fi ner sand. Increase amount

of lustrous carbon producing material in the moulding sand. Increase the amount of fi nes e.g. coke in the sand.

Scabbing Nature of Defect Mushroom type defect with sharp edges parallel to the casting surface. Remedies
Scabbing
Nature of Defect
Mushroom type defect with
sharp edges parallel to the
casting surface.
Remedies
Increase bentonite level. Use
carbonaceous additive with a
wide softening range. Increase
the amount of carbonaceous
additive in the moulding sand.
Reduce amount of new sand.
Blowholes at Angles Nature of Defect Smooth wall cavities at the angles of the casting. Remedies
Blowholes at Angles
Nature of Defect
Smooth wall cavities at the
angles of the casting.
Remedies
The cause is insuffi cient feeding
and rate of solidifi cation.
Infl uencing by moulding sand is
possible. Reduce the moisture
content and the organic additions
of the sand. Improve the venting
of the mould.