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REPORT TO CLARIFY TO CESC THE SIMULATION VARIABLES AND CONCEPTS

USED IN CYMI OFFER 13.10.0021 (PVSYST)

1/09/2010

INDEX

 1. DEFINITIONS: 3 2. PVSYST DATA 6 3. DIAGRAM OF FLUXES OF ENERGY 7 4. PERFORMANCE RATIO: Calculation 9

ANNEX:

PVSYST SIMULATION: 1.05 MW

1. DEFINITIONS:

Bellow there are the main variables used by PVSYST in the simulation (the definitions have been obtained from PVSYST and internet):

Irradiance (sunlight intensity or power) the radiation received in a surface of a square meter in a second (W/m2). The irradiation (energy) determines the radiation received in a surface of a square meter during one hour (Wh/m2)

The radiation reaching the earth's surface can be represented in a number of different ways. Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI) is the total amount of shortwave radiation received from above by a surface horizontal to the ground. This value is of particular interest to photovoltaic installations and includes both Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI) and Diffuse Horizontal Irradiation (DIF).

(kWh/m2/year)

- Incident global irradiation in the collector plane:

Near shadings factor on global = GlobShd / GlobInc. It includes the losses produced by the shadings of the elements located around the photovoltaic module

- IAM factor

The incidence effect (the designated term is IAM, for "Incidence Angle Modifier") corresponds to the weakening of the irradiation really reaching the PV cells's surface, with respect to irradiation under normal incidence.

- and bo = the standard calculated value by PVSYST for PV modules is 0.05.

(in PVSYS) FIAM

=

1

bo · (1/cos i - 1),

with i = incidence angle on the plane,

- Effective irradiance on collector plane:

It is the energy that arrives to the collector plane after consider the near shading factor and the IAM.

- Efficiency of cell at STC

The efficiency of the cell at STC is the parameter which compares the energy produced

by the module with the STC.

It is the losses produced when the irradiance is lower than 1000 W/m2 (STC). The behaviour of a crystalline PV module is showed in the graphs of "Efficiency vs. Irradiance". It is possible to see by mean of the graphic that the efficiency decreases for lower irradiances.

- Thermal losses

The thermal behaviour of the field influences the electrical performances. It is determined by a thermal balance between ambient temperature and cell's heating up due to incident irradiation.

- Ohmic wiring losses

The wiring ohmic resistance induces losses ( R · I² ) between the power available from the modules and that at the terminals of the array. These losses can be characterised by just one parameter R defined for the global array

- Module quality loss

It is well-known that most of PV modules series don't match the manufacturer nominal specifications. Up to now, this was one of the greater uncertainties in the PV system performance evaluation.

Now, with "guaranteed" power assertions and increasing availability of independent expertises, the situation seems going toward some clarification. Module series are sold with a given tolerance, and actual powers usually lie under the nominal specified power, but stay in the tolerance.

- Mismatch losses

Losses due to "mismatch" are related to the fact that the real modules in the array do not rigorously present the same I/V characteristics.

- STC: Standard Test Conditions

It is laboratory test conditions. STC includes three factors:

 1 Irradiance (sunlight intensity or power), in Watts per square meter falling on a flat surface. The measurement standard is 1 kW per sq. m. (1,000 Watts/m2) 2 Air Mass refers to “thickness” and clarity of the air through which the sunlight passes to reach the modules (sun angle affects this value). The standard is 1.5. 3 Cell temperature, which will differ from ambient air temperature. STC defines cell testing temperature as 25 degrees C.

- Nominal Operating Cell Temperature (NOCT): The estimated temperature of a solar PV module when it is operating under 800 W/m2 irradiance, 20°C ambient temperature and a wind speed of 1 meter per second. NOCT is used to estimate the nominal operating temperature of a module in the field.

- MPP: maximum power point:

PV cells have a single operating point where the values of the current (I) and Voltage (V) of the cell result in a maximum power output. These values correspond to a particular load resistance, which is equal to V/I as specified by Ohm's Law. A PV cell has an exponential relationship between current and voltage, and the maximum power point (MPP) occurs at the knee of the curve, where the resistance is equal to the negative of the differential resistance (V/I = -dV/dI)

-Performance Ratio

This is a quantity, defined namely by the European Communities (JRC/Ispra), which represents the ratio of the effectively produced (used) energy, with respect to the energy which would be produced by a "perfect" system continuously operating at STC under same irradiance (Incident Global in the plane). The PR includes the array losses (Shadings, PV conversion, mismatch, wiring, etc) and the system losses (inverter efficiency). Unlike the "Specific energy production" indicator, expressed in [kWh/kWp/year], this is not directly dependent on the meteo input or plane orientation, allowing the comparison of system quality between installations in different locations and orientations.

2. PVSYST DATA

3. DIAGRAM OF FLUXES OF ENERGY

Note: The indicated below are not exactly in the calculations due to the decimals.

A ) For 1 m2 d’apperture

GlobHor = 1,905.8 kWh/m2/year

FTransp= +7.3% (transposition factor)

(Tilt=20º)

Incident global irradiation in the collector plane (kWh/m2/year)

(Tilt=20º)

GlobInc= 2,045.7 kWh/m2/year

Near shading losses = - 2 %

IAM losses = - 2,8 %

"Effective" global irradiation in the collector plane corrected for IAM and shadings simultaneously (kWh/m2/year)

GlobEff = 1,947.7 kWh/m2/year

B) For 1,05 MW of power installed

"Effective" global irradiation in the installation (kWh/year)

GlobEffirr_inst = Globm2 · GlobEff = 8,217 · 1,947.7 = 16,004,251 kWh/year Globm2 = Area of module · nº modules

GlobEffirr_inst = 16,004,251 kWh/year

η

=

12.8 %

Global virtual energy cells output (kWh/year)

2,054,231 kWh/year

Irradiance Losses = - 3.6 % Temperature Losses = -9.2 % Array Soiling loss = -0.5 % Module Quality Losses = - 3.2 % Module array mismatch Losses = -2.2 % Ohmic wiring Losses = -2 %

Global virtual array output (kWh/year) 1,658,828 kWh/year

Inverter losses = - 2.8 %

Available Energy at Inverter Output without transformer (kWh/year) 1,612,294 kWh/year

Normalized System Production (kWh/(KWp·year)) Yf = EoutInv/PowerPeak = 1,612,294 / 1,048 = 1,538

Yf = 1,538 kWh/(KWp·year)

4. PERFORMANCE RATIO: Calculation

 Yr Reference Incident Energy in collector plane = GlobInc [kWh/(m²·year)] in STC Yf Normalized System Production = EOutInv [kWh/(kWp·year)]

PR = Yf/Yr

Yr = GlobInc (calculated in 3.a) = 2,045.7 Yf = (calculated in 3.b) = 1,538 PR = 75.2 %

Note: The performance ratio is a dimensionless coefficient ( 1 m2 = 1 kWp in STC )

ANNEX:

PVSYST SIMULATION: 1.05 MW

 PVSYST V4.37 02/09/10 Page 1/4 Grid-Connected System: Simulation parameters Project : Gajner Geographical Site Gajner Country India Situation Time defined as Latitude 27.9°N Longitude 73.0°E Legal Time Time zone UT+6 Altitude 232 m Albedo 0.20 Meteo data : Gajner , synthetic hourly data Simulation variant : Gajner Policristalino 1,05 MWp Simulation date 02/09/10 11h35 Simulation parameters Collector Plane Orientation Tilt 20° Azimuth 0° Horizon Free Horizon Near Shadings according to module PV Array Characteristics PV module Si-poly Model XL24195 Manufacturer XL TELECOM & ENERGY LIMITED Number of PV modules Total number of PV modules Array global power Array operating characteristics (50°C) Total area In series 24 modules In parallel Unit Nom. Power At operating cond. I m pp 224 strings 195 Wp 945 kWp (50°C) 1648 A Nb. modules 5376 Nominal (STC) 1048 kWp U mpp 574 V Module area 8217 m² PV Array loss factors Heat Loss Factor ko (const) 29.0 W/m²K kv (wind) 0.0 W/m²K / m/s 45 °C 3.0 % at STC 0.1 % at STC 0.5 % 3.0 % 2.0 % at MPP => Nominal Oper. Coll. Temp. (800 W/m², Tamb=20°C, wind 1 m/s) NOCT Wiring Ohmic Loss Global array res. 11.4 mOhm Loss Fraction Serie Diode Loss Array Soiling Losses Module Quality Loss Module Mismatch Losses Incidence effect, ASHRAE parametrization Voltage Drop 0.7 V Loss Fraction Loss Fraction Loss Fraction Loss Fraction IAM = 1-bo (1/cos i - 1) bo Parameter 0.05 System Parameter System type Grid-Connected System Inverter Model JEMA IF 1000KW Data sheet 410-850 V Manufacturer Inverter Characteristics Operating Voltage Unit Nom. Power 1000 kW AC User's needs : Unlimited load (grid)
PVSYST V4.37
02/09/10
Page 2/4
Project :
Simulation variant :
Gajner
Gajner Policristalino 1,05 MWp
Main system parameters
PV Field Orientation
PV modules
PV Array
Inverter
User's needs
System type
Grid-Connected
according to module
tilt
Model
20°
azimuth
XL24195
Pnom
Nb. of modules
Model
5376
Pnom total
JEMA IF 1000KW
Pnom
195 Wp
1048 kWp
1000 kW ac
Perspective of the PV-field and surrounding shading scene
Zenith
East
West
South
Gajner: 1,1MW 8.5 m_xltelenergy
90
Attenuation for diffuse: 0.969
13h
1: 22 june
and albedo: 0.292
1
2: 22 may - 23 july
2
14h
3: 20 apr - 23 aug
4: 20 mar - 23 sep
5: 21 feb - 23 oct
12h
75
3
6: 19 jan - 22 nov
7: 22 december
15h
11h
4
60
16h
5
10h
45
6
17h
7
9h
30
18h
8h
15
19h
7h
Behind
Behind
the plane
the plane
0
-120
-90
-60
-30
0
30
60
90
120
Azimuth [°]
Sun height [°]
PVSYST V4.37
02/09/10
Page 3/4
Grid-Connected System: Main results
Project :
Simulation variant :
Gajner
Gajner Policristalino 1,05 MWp
Main system parameters
PV Field Orientation
PV modules
PV Array
Inverter
User's needs
System type
according to module
tilt
Model
Nb. of modules
Model
Grid-Connected
20°
azimuth
XL24195
Pnom
5376
Pnom total
JEMA IF 1000KW
Pnom
195 Wp
1048 kWp
1000 kW ac
Main simulation results
System Production
Produced Energy
Performance Ratio PR
1612 MWh/year
Specific
1538 kWh/kWp/year
75.2 %
Normalized productions (per installed kWp): Nominal power 1048 kWp
Performance Ratio PR
8
0.8
PR : Performance Ratio (Yf / Yr) : 0.752
Lc : Collection Loss (PV-array losses)
1.27 kWh/kWp/day
Ls : System Loss (inverter,
)
0.12 kWh/kWp/day
7
Yf : Produced useful energy (inverter output) 4.21 kWh/kWp/day
0.7
6
0.6
5
0.5
4
0.4
3
0.3
2
0.2
1
0.1
0
0.0
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
Jun
Jul
Aug
Sep
Oct
Nov
Dec
Gajner Policristalino 1,05 MWp
Balances and main results
GlobHor
T Amb
GlobInc
GlobEff
EArray
EOutInv
EffArrR
EffSysR
kWh/m²
°C
kWh/m²
kWh/m²
kWh
kWh
%
%
January
113.1
14.70
146.5
137.7
123325
119874
10.24
9.96
February
128.5
17.40
154.4
147.1
129413
125824
10.20
9.92
March
167.4
23.50
183.7
176.0
151505
147328
10.04
9.76
April
195.0
28.30
199.0
190.9
160241
155864
9.80
9.53
May
216.1
31.30
206.7
197.8
163345
158792
9.62
9.35
June
206.7
31.10
192.3
183.6
151842
147581
9.61
9.34
July
185.7
29.50
176.3
167.6
140049
136087
9.67
9.39
August
174.2
28.50
172.7
164.6
138000
134088
9.73
9.45
September
161.1
28.30
170.4
162.9
136379
132533
9.74
9.47
October
138.6
26.20
158.9
151.4
128964
125343
9.88
9.60
November
114.3
21.40
144.8
137.2
118890
115591
9.99
9.72
December
105.1
16.70
140.1
131.0
116621
113390
10.13
9.85
Year
1905.8
24.77
2045.7
1947.7
1658576
1612294
9.87
9.59
Legends:
GlobHor
T Amb
GlobInc
GlobEff
Ambient Temperature
Global incident in coll. plane
Effective Global, corr. for IAM and shadings
EArray
EOutInv
EffArrR
EffSysR
Effective energy at the output of the array
Available Energy at Inverter Output
Effic. Eout array / rough area
Effic. Eout system / rough area
Normalized Energy [kWh/kWp/day]
Performance Ratio PR
PVSYST V4.37
02/09/10
Page 4/4
Grid-Connected System: Loss diagram
Project :
Simulation variant :
Gajner
Gajner Policristalino 1,05 MWp
Main system parameters
PV Field Orientation
PV modules
PV Array
Inverter
User's needs
System type
according to module
tilt
Model
Nb. of modules
Model
Grid-Connected
20°
azimuth
XL24195
Pnom
5376
Pnom total
JEMA IF 1000KW
Pnom
195 Wp
1048 kWp
1000 kW ac
Loss diagram over the whole year
1906 kWh/m²
+7.3%
Global incident in coll. plane
-2.0%
-2.8%
1948 kWh/m² * 8217 m² coll.
efficiency at STC = 12.8%
IAM factor on global
PV conversion
2054231 kWh
efficiency at STC = 12.8%
-3.6%
PV loss due to irradiance level
-9.2%
PV loss due to temperature
-0.5%
Array Soiling loss
-3.2%
Module quality loss
-2.2%
Module array mismatch loss
-2.0%
Ohmic wiring loss
1658828
kWh
Array virtual energy at MPP
-2.8%
Inverter Loss during operation (efficiency)
0.0%
Inverter Loss over nominal inv. power
Inverter Loss due to power threshold
Inverter Loss over nominal inv. voltage
-0.0%
0.0%
-0.0%
1612294
kWh
Inverter Loss due to voltage threshold
Available Energy at Inverter Output