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THE POLICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION WITH POLICE PLANNING

Introduction
The passage into law on December 13, 1990 of Republic Act
No. 6975 entitled An Act Establishing the Philippine National
Police Under a Reorganized Department of the Interior and Local
Government and for Other Purposes, gave way to the creation of
the country's police force that is national in scope and
civilian in character. It is administered and controlled by the
National Police Commission.
With the effectivity of Republic Act No. 8551, otherwise
known
as
the
Philippine
National
Police
Reform
and
Reorganization Act of 1998, the PNP was envisioned to be a
community and service oriented agency. As mandated by law, the
PNP activated the Internal Affairs Service (IAS) on June 1,
1999. It is an organization within the structure of the PNP, and
it is headed by Inspector General.

Early Origins of the Police Forces


The police
the practice of
men to protect
and to maintain

under the local setting primitively evolved from


the different tribes to select able-bodied young
the people from the assault of the rival tribe,
peace and order within the village.

By the coming of the Spaniards, the countrys police system


started. The police were then called Guardillo, later the
function of law enforcement were assumed by the Cuerpo de
Carabineros de Seguridad Republica. In 1852, Guardia Civil took
over the peace keeping duties in the island under a Royal
Decree.
After the Spanish Era, another master begins, the Americans
came to our country to conquer and rule the Philippine Republic.
While the American Soldiers were busy fighting the tug army of
Gen. Aguinaldo, Gov. Taft, established a police which shall
maintain peace and order. On January 9, 1901, Manila Police was
formally organized by virtue of Act No. 175 of the Philippine
Commission. Thereafter adjoining places follow through.

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Implementation of Act No. 175


On August 8, 1901, with the sanction of the U. S. War
Department, Henry T. Allen, a graduate of the U.S. Military
Academy, a regular captain but then a Lieutenant Colonel of the
U.S. Cavalry Volunteers in the Philippines officially designated
and confirms by the Commission as Chief of Constabulary. His
designation as Chief was formally inaugurated, and on the same
day buckled down to work.
Realizing the fact that military solution to the problem is
unwired; the military authorities opted to recommend to the
Philippine Commission headed by William Taft to take over. In
accordance with the instructions of the Secretary of War Elihu
Root, the Commission took over the government from the military
on July 18, 1901 with Taft as Civil Governor.

Filipinianization of the Constabulary


The gradual Filipinianization of the Constabulary officer
corps proved to be a sound move for World War I which was soon
to break out and to drag the United States into it and many of
the top Constabulary's American officers joined the U.S.
Expeditionary Forces to France. This development gave the
opportunity
for
the
Filipinos
to
run
the
Constabulary
themselves. The first to be given the chance was Brig. Gen.
Rafael T. Crame, appointed PC Chief in December 1917. Thus, for
the first time in sixteen (16) years of existence, the
Constabulary was placed under Filipino leadership.
With the assumption of Brig. Gen. Crame, the Constabulary
Districts were renamed and their respective districts redefined.
The 4th District came to be known as District of Northern Luzon
based in San Fernando, La Union; the 1st District was renamed
District of Central Luzon; the 2nd District was renamed District
of Southern Luzon; the 3rd District was renamed District of
Visayas and the 5th District was renamed district of Mindanao
based in Zamboanga.

The Post War Constable


On October 28, 1944, President Sergio Osmea issued an
Executive Order creating all insular police called Military
Police Command, USAFFE pursuant to USAFFE General Orders Nos. 50
& 51, re-designated it as Military Police Command, AFWESPAC.
This idea was conceived to restore the bad image of the
Constabulary
during
the
Japanese
occupation
when
these
constables were made to run after the guerrillas.
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However, after the years of existence, the Constabulary was


revived on July 1, 1947. About 12, 000 officers and men were
withdrawn from the Military Police Command (MPC) and transferred
to the Department of Interior (DI), and designated as the
national police force is the Philippine Constabulary.
All the functions of the Military Police Command (MPC)
except those military in character "were thereafter exercised
and assumed by the PC in connection with Sections 832-840 & 848
of the Revised Administrative Code, were declared in full force
and effect, pursuant to EO No. 94 dated October 4, 1947.

Constitution of the Police Forces


The Administrative Code of the Philippines, promulgated on
September 10, 1955, provided for the constitution of police
forces in every cities and municipalities with the officers and
members thereof being appointed by the Mayors with the consent
of the City or Municipal Council. Under this set-up the police
are primarily a political entity that tended to serve the wills
of those in power.
In an effort to improve the quality and morale of all
existing police forces, R.A. No. 4864, known as the Police Act
of 1966 was enacted, by virtue of which, National Police
Commission was created, vested with the power to supervise and
control the police forces all over the country. Under this act
the administration, control and disciplinary measures, including
training of each member are placed under the exclusive
jurisdiction of the NAPOLCOM.

Integration of the Police Forces


The early seventies saw the rapid escalation of subversive
activities of the insurgents throughout the country. So, on
September 21, 1972, the then President Ferdinand E. Marcos
proclaimed Martial Law throughout the country by virtue of
Proclamation No. 1081, and subsequently Presidential Decree No.
765 was put into effect on August 8, 1975.
The said law instituted the integration of the nations
police forces with the Philippine Constabulary or the PC/INP,
virtually making the Integrated National Police a component of
the Armed Forces of the Philippines, and under the general
supervision of the Department of National Defense.

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Creation of the Philippine National Police


In response to the call for public safety and reforms
within the organization, Honorables Teodulo
Natividad, Blas
Ople, Regalado Maambong and Rustico Delos Reyes authored the
provisions of Sec. 6, Art. XVI in the 1987 Constitution, which
provides that, the state shall establish and maintain one
police force, which shall be national in scope and civilian in
character, to be administered and controlled by the NAPOLCOM.
The authority of local executives over the police units in their
respective jurisdiction shall be provided by the law.
This gave birth in the enactment of RA No. 6975, entitled
An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police Under the
Reorganized Department of the Interior and Local Government and
for Other Purposes, which took effect on January 2, 1991. The
said act was subsequently amended by RA No. 8551, entitled An
Act Providing for the Reform and Reorganization of the
Philippine National Police, and for Other Purposes, which took
effect on March 6, 1998.
Organization defined
It is a form of human association for the attainment of a goal
or objective. It is the process of identifying and grouping the
work to be performed, defining and delegating responsibility and
authority establishing relationships for the purpose of enabling
people work effectively.
Police Organization defined
Police organization is a group of trained personnel in the field
of public safety administration engaged in the achievement of
goals and objectives that promotes the maintenance of peace and
order, protection of life and property, enforcement of the laws
and the prevention of crimes.
The organization of the police force commonly requires the
following organizational units:
Functional Units
Bureau the largest organic functional unit within a large
department. It comprises of numbers of divisions.
Division a primary subdivision of a bureau.
Section functional unit within a division that is necessary
for specialization.

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Unit functional group within a section; or the smallest
functional group within an organization.
Territorial Units
Post a fixed point or location to which an officer is assigned
for duty, such as a designated desk or office or an
intersection or cross walk from traffic duty. It is a
spot location for general guard duty.
Route a length of streets designated for patrol purposes. It
is also called LINE BEAT.
Beat An area assigned for patrol purposes, whether foot or
motorized.
Sector An area containing two or more beats, routes, or posts.
District a geographical subdivision of a city for patrol
purposes, usually with its own station.
Area a section or territorial division of a large city each
comprised of designated districts.
Important Terminologies
Sworn Officers all personnel of the police department who have
oath and who posses the power to arrest.
Superior Officer - one having supervisory responsibilities,
either temporarily or permanently, over
officers of lower rank.
Commanding Officer - an officer who is in command of the
department, a bureau, a division, an area,
or a district.
Ranking Officer - the officer who has the more senior
rank/higher rank in a team or group.
Length of Service - the period of time that has elapsed since
the oath of office was administered.
Previous active services may be included or
added.
On Duty - the period when an officer is actively engaged in the
performance of his duty.
Off Duty - the nature of which the police officer is free from
specific routine duty.
Special Duty - the police service, its nature, which requires
that the officer be excused from the performance
of his active regular duty.
Leave of Absence - period, which an officer is excused from
active duty by any valid/acceptable reason,
approved by higher authority.
Sick Leave - period which an officer is excused from active duty
by reason of illness or injury.

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Suspension - a consequence of an act which temporarily deprives
an officer from the privilege of performing his
duties as result of violating directives or other
department regulations.
Department Rules - rules established by department
directors/supervisors to control the conduct
of the members of the police force.
Duty Manual - describes the procedures and defines the duties of
officers assigned to specified post or position.
Order - an instruction given by a ranking officer to a
subordinate, either a. General Order, b. Special, or c.
Personal
Report - usually a written communication unless otherwise
specifies to be verbal reports; verbal reports should
be confirmed by written communication.
Types of Police Organizational Structures
Line Organization
The straight line organization, often called the individual,
military or departmental type of organization, is the simplest
and perhaps the oldest type; but it is seldom encountered in its
channels of authority and responsibility extends in a direct
line from top to bottom within the structures, authority is
definite and absolute.
While the line type of organization has many advantages, it also
has some inherent weaknesses which, for many organizations, make
its use impractical. Perhaps its greatest advantage is that, it
is utterly simple. It involves a division of the work into units
of eighth person with a person in charge who has complete
control and who can be hold directly responsible or accountable
for results, or lack of them.
Functional Organization
The functional organization in its pure form is rarely found in
present day organizations, except at or near the top of the very
large organizations. Unlike the line type of structure, those
establishments organized on a functional basis violate the prime
rule that men perform best when they have but one superior. The
functional responsibility of each functional manager is
limited to the particular activity over which he has control,
regardless of who performs the function.

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Line and Staff Organization
The Line and Staff organization is a combination of the line and
functional types. It combines staff specialist such as the
criminalists, the training officers, the research and
development specialists, etc. Channels of responsibility is to
think and provide expertise for the line units. The line
supervisor must remember that he obtains advice from the staff
specialists.
In normal operations, the staff supervisor has line commands but
with recognized limitations such as coordination between line
and staff personnel can be achieved without undue friction.
Failure to recognize these line and staff relationship is the
greatest and most frequent source of friction and a barrier to
effective coordination. The advantage of this kind would be - it
combines staff specialist or units with line organization so
that service of knowledge can be provided line personnel by
specialist.
Classification of Line, Staff, and Auxiliary Function
Whatever their method of grouping internal activities, all
bureaucratic agencies segregate the function of line, staff, and
auxiliary personnel. The reasons for this tripartite
classification are best explained by examining each of the
functions.
Line Functions: Line functions are the backbone of the police
department; they include such operations as patrol, criminal
investigation, and traffic control, as well as supervision of
the personnel performing those operations. Line functions are
carried out but line members, including the patrol officer,
the detective, the sergeant, the lieutenant, the captain, and
the chief of police. Line members are responsible for:
Carrying out the majors purposes of the police department.
Delivering the services provided by the department.
Dealing directly with the departments clientele.
Making final decisions with respect to the activities they
perform.
Staff Functions: Staff functions are those operations designed
to support the line functions, Staff members are necessarily
advisors who are typically assigned to planning, research, legal
advice, budgeting, and educational services. Staff members are
often civilians with specialized training who serve within the

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department but do not deal with daily operation son the street.
Their main function is to study police policies and practices
and to offer proposals to the chief executive of the department.
Staff personnel tend to be:
Highly specialized.
Involved in an advisory capacity
Detached from the public
Not directly responsible for the decisions made by department
executive.
Auxiliary Functions: Auxiliary functions involve the logistical
operations of the department. These include training,
communications, jailing, maintenance, record keeping, motor
vehicles, and similar operations.
ELEMENTS OF THE ORGANIZATON
Specialization
The grouping of activities and segregation of line, staff, and
auxiliary functions are large-scale examples of specialization
within a bureaucratic organization.
Specialization of an individual level is also important in all
organizations, since it must be expected that some members will
know more, perform better and contribute more in one area of
activity than in others, Disparities in job ability among
persons may be the result of physical attributes, mental
aptitude, skills, interests education, training, motivation, or
adaptation, among other factors.
Specialization Defined: Specialization is the assignment of
particular workers to particular tasks. Thus, it can be thought
of in terms of either jobs or people.
Specialization of people (specialists) is the designation of
particular persons as having expertise in a specific area of
work. Here, specialization signifies the adaptation of an
individual to the requirements go some technical tasks through
training, conditioning or extensive on-the-job experience.
Example: Areas of police specialization include undercover
works, c rime scene operations, legal advising, computer work,
planning, community relations, drug reaction, gang activities,
or SWAT operations.

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Hierarchy of Authority
If all persons within an organization were given the freedom to
do what they like (and to refuse to do what they dislike), there
would be little likelihood of accomplishment.
Any
collaborative effort such as that in a police department thus
requires a system of checks and controls on individual behavior.
Hence, the department must have a person or persons with
authority to direct the actions of workers and ensure compliance
with standards in order to achieve the departments goals.
Hierarchy defined: A hierarchy represents the formal
relationship among superiors and subordinates in any given
organization. It can be visualized as a ladder, with each rung
(or rank) representing a higher or lower level of authority.
Each rank or position on a hierarchical ladder has specific
rights, while at the same time owing specific duties to the
positions above and below it. Any particular position of the
ladder is expected to direct and control the activities of the
ranks, while obeying the directions and instructions received
from higher ranks.
Authority Defined: Authority is the right to command and control
the behavior of employees in lower positions within an
organizational hierarchy. A hierarchy thus serves as the
framework for the flow of authority downward (and obedience
upward) through the department.
Example: Authority can be illustrated by the situation in which
a subordinate abstains from making his or her choice among
several courses of action and instead automatically accepts the
choice made by the supervisor regardless of whether one
personally agrees.
Authority Roles: Authority within an organization must be viewed
in terms of prescribed roles rather than of individuals. A
particular position within an organization carries the same
authority regardless of who occupies that position. While the
personality of the occupant may change the style or manner in
which authority is exercise, it should increase or decrease the
basic obligations of the occupant toward those in subordinate
positions.
Example: The authority of a police chief stems from the role
that a chief executive must play whether he or she is referred
to as chief, superintendent, commissioner, or some other title,

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and regardless the size or location of the department he or he
commands.
Span of Control
A span of control is the maximum number of subordinates at a
given position that superior can supervise effectively.
Determining the Span of Control
Effective organization requires that only a manageable number of
subordinates be supervised by one person at any given time. This
number will, of course, vary not only from one organization to
another (depending on each organizations definition of
effective supervision) but also within each organization
depending on the number of task and the size of personnel
available at a given time.
Delegation of Authority
Delegation is the conferring of an amount of authority by a
superior position onto a lower-level position. The person to
whom authority is delegated becomes responsible to the superior
for doing the assigned job. However, the delegators remain
accountable for accomplishment of the job within the guidelines
and quality standards of the agency.
Unity of Command
Traditional theories of organization insisted that each
employee should have only one supervisor of boss, and
considered this principle of unity of command the backbone of
any organizational structure. Thus, a patrol officer, for
example, would always receive orders from one sergeant and would
always report to that same sergeant. If the officer was
instructed or advised by a detective, garage sergeant, or any
other administrator (with the possible exception of the chief),
the officer is expected to check with his or her sergeant before
taking any action.
Formal Communication
Basically, communication is the process of sharing understanding
and information on common subjects. More precisely, it is an
intercourse between, through or more people by means of words,
letters symbols, or gestures for the purpose of exchanging
information. Procedures, channels, and standardized languages

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are essential to effective communication within such large
organization.
While the eight elements previously discussed are crucial to any
police organization, they would remain fragmented without some
means of integrating them into a meaningful and practical whole.
The integrating element is communication. Through
communication, personnel are kept informed of the objectives of
the organization, of the means selected for achieving them, and
of the information necessary for the continuing operation of the
department. Effective communication would ensure a common
understanding of department goals, policies, and procedures and
this helps to bind the agency together.
THE PRINCIPLES OF POLICE ORGANIZATION
Police organizations are either formal or informal. Formal
organizations are highly structured while informal organizations
are those without structures. Every formal police organization
whether small or large are governed by the following principles:
Principle of Unity of Objectives - an organization is effective
if it enables the individuals to contribute to the
organizations objectives.
Principle of Organizational Efficiency organization structure
is effective if it is structured in such a way to aid the
accomplishment of the organizations objectives with a minimum
cost.
Scalar Principle shows the vertical hierarchy of the
organization which defines an unbroken chain of units from top
to bottom describing explicitly the flow of authority. The
scalar principles are:
a. Line of Authority and Chain of Command - This principle of
organization suggests that communications should ordinarily go
upward through established channels in the hierarchy. Diverting
orders, directives, or reports around a level of command usually
has disastrous effects on efficiency of the organization.
b. The Span of Control of a supervisor over personnel or
units shall not mean more than what he can effectively direct
and coordinate. In span of control, levels of authority shall be
kept to a minimum.
c. The Delegation of authority shall carry with it a
commensurate authority and the person to whom the authority is
delegated shall be held accountable therefore. It implies that
delegation must carry with it appropriate responsibility.

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d. The Unity of Command - explains that subordinates should
only be under the control of one superior.
Functional Principle refers to division of work according to
type, place, time and specialization.
Line and Staff implies that a system of varied functions
arrange into a workable pattern. The line organization is
responsible for the direct accomplishment of the objectives
while the staff is responsible for support, advisory or
facilitative capacity.
Principle of Balance states that the application of principles
must be balanced to ensure the effectiveness of the structure in
meeting organizations objectives.
Principle of Delegation by Results states that authority
delegated should be adequate to ensure the ability to accomplish
expected results.
Principles of Absoluteness of Responsibility explains that the
responsibility of the subordinates to their superior for
performance is absolute and the superior cannot escape
responsibility for the organization on activities performed by
their subordinates.
Principle of Parity and Responsibility explains that
responsibility for action cannot be greater than that implied by
the authority delegated nor should it be less.
Authority Level Principle implies that decisions within the
authority of the individual commander should be made by them and
not be returned upward in the organizational structure.
Principle of Flexibility means that the more flexible the
organization, the more it can fulfill its purpose.
Other Principles in Police Organizations
Grouping of Similar Task
Tasks, similar or related in purpose, process, method, or
clientele, should be grouped together in one or more units under
the control of one person. Whenever, practicable, every function
of the police force shall be assigned to a unit.
According to Function
The force should be organized primarily according to the
nature of the basis to be performed. It should be divided into
groups so that similar and related duties may be assigned to
each.
According to Time Frame
The elements are divided into many shifts or watches
according to the time of the day. This is the most elementary

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form of police organization. Any large functional unit can also
be organized according to time if the demand exists.
According to Place of Work
A territorial distribution of a platoon, accomplished by
assigning patrolman on beats, is necessary to facilitate the
direction and control of the officers and to ensure suitable
patrol service at every point with in the jurisdiction.
Patrolman on street duty is usually under the supervision of a
patrol sergeant. When the number of patrolmen is great, it may
be desirable to divide them into squads assigned to specific
sectors of jurisdiction, with a sergeant in charge of each
squad.
According to Level of Authority
A police department is always divided according to the
level of authority. Example, there will be some patrolmen,
sergeants, some lieutenants, some captains, and so on. Vertical
combinations of superior officers, with each rank at a different
level of authority from any other, from channels through which
operations may be directed and controlled can be adopted in
certain cases to ensure coordination.
Specialization Based on Need
Specialized units should be created only when overall
departmental capability is thus significantly increased.
Specialization is a principle of organization which is the
result of the division of the force into separate units. The
degree of specialization is determined by the size and
sophistication of the department and by the extent to which unit
has exclusive responsibility for the performance of each group
of the operational task.

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
The police force shall be organized, trained and equipped
primarily for the performance of police functions. Its national
scope and civilian character shall always be paramount.

Composition of the PNP


The Philippine National Police (PNP) is hereby established,
initially consisting of the members of the police forces who
were integrated into the Integrated National Police (INP)
pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 765, and the officers and
enlisted personnel of the Philippine Constabulary (PC).
Officers and enlisted personnel of the PC shall include
those assigned with the Narcotics Command (NARCOM), Criminal
Investigation
Service
(CIS),
together
with
the
civilian
operatives, and those of the technical service of the Armed
Forces of the Philippines (AFP) assigned with the PC.
Also included are the absorbed regular operatives of the
abolished Inspection, Investigation and Intelligence Branch
(IIIB) of the National Police Commission (NAPOLCOM).

Organization of the PNP


The Philippine National Police (PNP) shall be headed by a
Chief with the rank of Director General, who shall be assisted
by two (2) Deputy Chiefs, i.e., one (1) for administration, who
is the second in command with the rank of Deputy Director
General, and one (1) for operations, who is third in command
with the rank of Deputy Director General.
The organizational structure is composed of the national
office, regional offices, provincial offices, district offices,
in case of large provinces and city and municipal stations. The
national office is composed of the following:
1.
The Office of the Chief, PNP. the Office of the Deputy
Chief for Administration, the Office of the Deputy Chief for
Operations, and the Office of the Chief, Directorial Staff;
2.
The fifteen (16) Staff Directorates as follows:
Directorate for Personnel
and Records Management (DPRM),
Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development (DHRDD),
Directorate for Logistics (DL), Directorate for Research and

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Development
(DRD),
Directorate
for
Comptrollership
(DC),
Directorate for Intelligence (DI), Directorate for Operations
(DO), Directorate for Plans (DP), Directorate for PoliceCommunity Relations (DPCR), Directorate for Investigation and
Detective
Management
(DIDM),
Directorate
for
Information
Technology & Communications Management (DITCM), and the five
Directorates for Integrated Police Operations (DIPOs).
3.
The Office of the Inspector General, Internal Affairs
Service (IG, IAS), Program Management Office (PMO), and Public
Information Office (PIO), which are all under the Office of the
Chief, PNP.
4.
The eleven (11)Administrative Support Units (ASU), as
follows: Chaplain Service, Information Technology Management
Service (ITMS), Communications and Electronic Service (CES),
Engineering Service (ES), Finance Service (FS), Headquarters
Support Service (HSS), Health Service (HS), Legal Service (L),
Logistic Service (LOGS), Training Service (TS), and Police
Retirees Benefit Service (PRBS).
5.
The eleven (10) Operational Support Units (OSU), as
follows: Aviation Security Group (ASG), Civil Security Group
(CSG), Crime Laboratory (CL), Criminal Investigation & Detection
Group (CIDG), Maritime Security Group (MSG), Police-Community
Relations Group (PCRG), Police Highway Patrol Group (PHPG),
Police Intelligence Group (PIG), Police Security & Protective
Group (PSPG), Special Action Force (SAF),and Anti-Kidnapping
Group (AKG).
6.
The PNP Regional Offices (PROs) corresponding to the
following: the Office of the Regional Director (ORD), the Office
of the Deputy Regional Director for Administration (ODRDA), the
Office of the Deputy Regional Director for Operations (ODRDO),
the Office of the Chief, Regional Directorial Staff (CRDS) with
staff divisions, as follows: Regional Personnel & Human Resource
Division (RPHRDD),
Regional Logistics & Research Development
Division (RLRD), Regional Comptrollership and Finance Division
(RCFD),
Regional
Intelligence
Division
(RID),
Regional
Investigation
and
Management
Division
(RIDMD),
Regional
Operations
Divisions
(ROPD),
Regional
Police
Community
Relations Division (RPCRD), and Regional Training and Plans
Division (RTPD).
7.
The five (5) Police District Offices (PDO) of the
National Capital Region (NCR), each headed by a District
Director (DD) and assisted by a Deputy District Director (DDD),

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and the District Internal Affairs Service (DIAS) which is under
the District Director.
8.
The Police Provincial Office (PPO) corresponding to
all provinces throughout the country, each headed by a
Provincial Director (PD) and assisted by a Deputy Provincial
Director (DPD), and the Provincial Internal Affairs Service
(PIAS) which is under the Provincial Director.
9.
The City Police Office (CPO) of highly urbanized
cities outside of NCR which shall be under the command and
direction of the Regional Director (RD) and equivalent to a
Provincial Police Office (PPO), headed by a City Director (CD)
and assisted by Deputy City Director (DCD), and the City
Internal Affairs Service (CIAS).
10.
The City/Provincial Public Safety Company (C/PPSC)
headed by the Group Director (GD) to enhance the
police
internal security operations in the province, and to assist the
AFP in counter-insurgency.
11.
The Police Station (PS) headed by a Chief of Police
(COP) which is established in every component city and
municipality, under the command and direction of the Provincial
Director (PD), and with subordinate Police Community Precincts
(PCP)
and
Community-Police
Assistance
Centers
(COMPAC),
classified as follows:
a.
Cities i.e., Type A - population of 100,000 or
more, Type B - population of 75,000 to less than 100,000, and
Type C - population of less than 75,000.
b.
Municipalities, i.e., Type A - population of
75,000 or more, Type B - population of 30,000 to less than
75,000, and Type C - population of less than 30,000.

Manning Levels
On the average nationwide, the manning levels of the PNP
shall be approximately in accordance with a police-to-population
ratio of one (1) policeman for every five-hundred (500) persons.
The actual strength by cities and municipalities shall depend on
the state of peace and order, population density and actual
demands of the service in the particular area. However, the
minimum police-to-population ratio shall not be less than one
(1) policeman for every one thousand (1,000) persons. Urban

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areas shall have a higher minimum police-to-population ratio as
maybe prescribed by regulations promulgated by the NAPOLCOM.

Rank Classifications
For purposes of efficient administration, supervision and
control, the rank classifications of the member of the PNP shall
be as follows:
PNP Ranks
AFP Ranks
Director General
General
Deputy Director General
Lieutenant General
Director
Major General
Chief Superintendent
Brigadier General
Senior Superintendent
Colonel
Superintendent
Lieutenant Colonel
Chief Inspector
Major
Senior Inspector
Captain
Inspector
Lieutenant
Senior Police Officer IV
Master Sergeant
Senior Police Officer III
Technical Sergeant
Senior Police Officer II
Staff Sergeant
Senior Police Officer I
Sergeant
Police Officer III
Corporal
Police Officer II
Private First Class
Police Officer I
Private
Cadets of the Philippine National Police Academy (PNPA) are
classified above the Senior Police Officer IV and below the
Inspector rank in the PNP.

Percentage Rank Distributions


The percentage rank distributions of the uniformed members,
except for the rank of Police Chief Superintendent and above,
shall be as follows:
Rank
Police Senior Superintendent
Police Superintendent
Police Chief Inspector
Police Senior Inspector
Police Inspector
Senior Police Officer IV
Senior Police Officer III
Senior Police Officer II
Senior Police Office I

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Percentage
.23%
.61%
1.22%
2.25%
4.10%
4.10%
7.74%
9.78%
12.50%

18
Police Officer III
Police Officer II
Police Officer I

14.95%
18.77%
23.75%
=======
Total 100.00%

At present there are ninety (90) star rank officers in the


PNP, i.e., from Police Chief Superintendent to Police Director
General.

RECRUITMENT & SELECTION


Whereas, Section 14 of R.A. No. 8551 amending Section 30 of
R.A. No. 6975, prescribes the minimum qualifications for
appointment of uniformed personnel in the Philippine National
Police (PNP).
R.A. 9708
An act extending for five years the reglementary period for
complying with the minimum educational qualification for
appointment to the PNP and adjusting the promotion system
thereof is amending for the purpose pertinent provisions of R.A
6975 and R.A. 8551 and for other purposes.

General Qualifications
Hereunder are the general qualifications and standards in
the recruitment and selection of police personnel, as follows:
1.

A citizen of the Philippines;

2.

A person of good moral character;

3.
Must have passed the psychiatric and psychological,
physical, medical and dental, and drug tests to be administered
by the PNP Health Service and Crime Laboratory Service or by any
NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose of
determining physical and mental health;
4.
Must possess a formal
recognized learning institution;

baccalaureate

degree

from

5.
Must be eligible in accordance with the standards set
by the Commission;

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6.
Must not have been convicted by final judgment of an
offense or crime involving moral turpitude;
7.
Must not have been dishonorably discharged from
military employment or on AWOL or Dropped from Rolls from the
PNP service or dismissed for cause from any civilian position in
the government;
8.
Must have no pending criminal case in any court,
including the Office of the Ombudsman or any administrative case
if already an employee of the government;
9.
Must be at least one meter and sixty-two cms. (1.62m)
in height for male and one meter and fifty-seven cms. (1.57m) in
height for female;
10.
Must weigh not more or less than five kilograms
(5kgs.) from the standard weight corresponding to his/her
height, age and sex; and
11.
Must not be less than twenty-one (21) nor more than
thirty (30) years of age.

Appropriate Eligibilities
The appropriate eligibilities to Police Officer I was those
acquired from the following:
1.

NAPOLCOM PNP Entrance Examination.

2.

R.A. No. 6506-Licensed Criminologist.

3.

R.A. No. 1080-Board and Bar Examinations

4.

P.D. No. 907-Honor Students.

5.

Civil Service Eligibilities.

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Distribution Criteria of Police Officer 1


To attain the equitable distribution, the allocation of
quota at the city or municipal levels shall be based on the set
of criteria, as follows:
1.
Police-to-population ratio as herein provided: highly
urbanized cities - 1:500 to 700; component cities - 1:650 to
800; and municipalities - 1:750 to 1000.
2.
Peace and order conditions, actual
service, and class of city and municipality.

demand

of

the

Regular Recruitment Quota


The recruitment quota given to any of the National Support
Units (NSU) shall be based on the actual demands of the
functional area covered. Within five (5) working days from
receipt of the proposed annual recruitment quota, the Commission
shall grant the Chief, PNP with the authority to recruit through
a Resolution which shall contain the approved quota distribution
and
supplemental
guidelines
peculiar
to
the
particular
recruitment.

Attrition Recruitment Quota


Upon receipt of the recruitment quota, the Mayor as
Chairperson of the Local Peace and Order Council (LPOC) shall
create an Ad Hoc Body composed of four (4) members, namely:
Vice-Mayor,
DILG-CLGOO/MLGOO,
POC
Member,
and
City
Director/Chief of Police. The City Director/Chief of Police
(CD/COP) shall serve as the Secretariat for this activity. He
shall publish the list of applicants in public places and
through the local media, if any, to encourage the public to
report any information relative to the worthiness of the
applicant to become law enforcer in their community.

Final Evaluation of Applicant


The final evaluation of applicant to the position of Police
Officer I includes the sequential conduct of the following
examinations, i.e., Physical Agility Test (PAT), Psychiatric or
Psychological Examination (PPE), Complete Physical, Medical and
Dental Examination (PMDE), and Final Screening Committee
Interview (FSCI).

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The Drug Test (DT) shall not follow the sequential step but
shall be conducted anytime after the PATon passers only, and
before the Final Screening Committee Interview (FSCI)on PMDE
passers only. The Character and Background Investigation (CBI)
shall be conducted on all PPE passers and must be completed
before the start of the Final Screening Committee Interview
(FSCI).

Appointing Authorities
The following shall be the appointing authorities to the rank
of Police Officer I:
1.
level.

The Chief, PNP for applicants recruited at the national

2.
The PNP Regional Director for applicants recruited at
the regional level.
3.
The Director of the concerned National Support
(NSU) for applicants recruited by such particular unit.

Unit

Status of Appointment
The following are the
appointed Police Officer I:

status

of

appointment

of

newly

1.
Temporary appointment shall be issued to a newly
recruited Police Officer I who meets the required minimum
qualifications, except the training required which is the PNP
Field Training Program (FTP). The FTP shall be composed of the
Public Safety Basic Recruit Course (PSBRC) and the Field Training
Exercise (FTX).
2.
Permanent appointment shall be issued to a Police
Officer I after the completion of the required PNP Field Training
Program for twelve (12) months actual experience and assignment in
patrol, traffic, and investigation.

Guidelines in the Appointment on Waiver Program


The following are the guidelines in the appointment of Police
Officer I under a waiver program:
1.
The age, height and weight for initial appointment to
the PNP may be waived only when the number of qualified
applicant fall below the approved quota, and the Commission en
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22
banc my grant age, height, and weight waiver. The RD, NAPOLCOM
may grant height waiver to a member of indigenous group.
2.
Waiver of the age requirement may be granted provided
that applicant shall not be less than 20 or not more than 35
years of age. For purposes of this paragraph, one is considered
to be not over 35 years old if he is no yet reached his or her
36th birthday on the date of the issuance of his or her
appointment.
3.
Waiver of the height requirements may be granted to
the male applicant who is at least one meter and fifty-seven
cms. (1.57m) and to a female applicant who is at least one meter
and fifty-two cms. (1.52m).

Selection Criteria on Waiver Program


Applicants who possess the least disqualification shall
take precedence over those who possess more disqualification.
The requirements shall be waived in the following order, i.e.,
age, height, and weight. Each applicant for waiver must possess
special qualifications, skills, or attributes useful to or
needed by the PNP, which are sufficient to compensate to his or
her lack or certain minimum qualifications.
Factors to be considered in the grant of waiver, are as follows:
outstanding accomplishments or possession of special skills in
law enforcement or police work, martial arts, marksmanships and
similar skills; special talents in the field of sports, music,
and others; and extensive experience or training in forensic
science and other technical services.
The Powers and Functions of the PNP

Enforce all laws and ordinances relative to the protection


of lives and properties;
Maintain peace and order and take all necessary steps to
ensure public safety;
Investigate and prevent crimes, effect the arrest of
criminal offenders, bring offenders to justice, and assist
in their prosecution.
Exercise the general powers to make arrest, search and
seizure in accordance with the Constitution and pertinent
Laws.

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Detain and arrest person for a period not beyond what is


prescribed by law, informing the person so detained of all
his/her rights under the Constitution;
Issue licenses for the possession of firearms and
explosives in accordance with law;
Supervise and control the training and operation of
security agencies and issue licenses to operate security
agencies, and to security guards and private detectives for
the practice of their profession; and
Perform such other duties and exercises all other functions
as may be provided by law. One of these is the Forestry
law wherein the PNP is primary enforcer in coordination
with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR).

PNP: National in Scope - Civilian in Character


National in scope simply means that the PNP is a nationwide
government organization whose jurisdiction covers the entire
breath of the Philippines archipelago which extends up to the
municipality of Kalayaan islands in the province of Palawan.
All PNP personnel both the uniformed and non-uniformed
components are national government employees. Civilian in
character means that the PNP is not a part of the military.
Although,. it retains some military attributes such as
discipline, it shall adopt unique non-military cultures, Code of
Ethics, and Standard of Professional conduct comparable to the
civilian police forces of other countries.
THE ANTI-CRIME MACHINERY Criminal Justice System (CJS)
Anti-crime strategies, programs for crime prevention and the
like in any society is practically based on an organized
criminal justice system.
Justice defined
Justice is rendering what is due or merited and that which is
due or merited.
According to Mortimer J. Adler, there are two principles of
justice:
Render to each his due
Treat equals equally and unequal unequally but in proportion to
their inequality.

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Justice, according to the Supreme Court of the Philippines, is
symbolically represented by a blindfolded woman, holding with
one hand a sword and with the other a balance.
What is Criminal Justice System?
The Criminal Justice System (CJS) is the machinery which
society uses in the prevention and control of crime. The
process is the totality of the activities of law enforcers,
prosecutors, defense lawyers, judges and corrections personnel,
as well as those of the mobilized community in crime prevention
and control.
In theory, CJS is an integrated process primarily concerned with
apprehension, prosecution, trial, adjudication, and correction
of criminal offenders.
What are the major components of the CJS?
Police or Law Enforcement
Prosecution
Courts
Corrections
Mobilized Community
What are the functions of the major components of the CJS?
To prevent and control the commission of crime;
To enforce the law;
To safeguard lives, individual rights, and properties;
To investigate, apprehend, prosecute and sentence those who
violated the rules of society; and,
To rehabilitate the convicts and reintegrate them into the
community as law-abiding citizens.
How does the CJS Operate?
The first four pillars, i.e., law enforcement, prosecution,
courts, and corrections, pertain to the traditional agencies
vested with the official responsibility in dealing with crime or
in crime control. The community pillar is the broadest pillar.
Under the concept of a participative criminal justice system in
the Philippines, public and private agencies, as well as
citizens, become a part of the CJS when they become involved in
issues and participate in activities related to crime prevention
and control.

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The Police or Law Enforcement Pillar
The first pillar consists mainly of the members of
Philippine National Police (PNP) and other law enforcement
agencies. The work of the PNP is the prevention and control of
crimes, enforcement of laws, and affecting the arrest of
offenders, including the conduct of lawful searches and seizures
to gather necessary pieces of evidences so that a complaint may
be filed with the Prosecutors Office.
The Prosecution Pillar
The second pillar takes care of the investigation of the
complaint. In the rural areas, the PNP may file the complaint
with the inferior courts (i.e. the Municipal Trial Courts or the
Municipal Circuit Trial Courts). The judges of these inferior
courts act as quasi-prosecutors only for the purpose of the
preliminary investigation. Once a prima facie case has been
determined, the complaint is forwarded to the City or Provincial
Prosecutors Office which will review the case. When the
complaint has been approved for filing with the Regional Trial
Court, a warrant of arrest for the accused will be issued by the
court once the information has been filled.
The Courts Pillar
The third pillar of the CJS is the forum where the
prosecution is given the opportunity to prove that there is a
strong evidence of guilt against the accused. It is also in the
courts that the accused is given his day in court to disprove
the accusation against him.
The Constitutional presumption is the innocence of any
person accused of a crime unless proved otherwise. This means
that the courts must determine the guilt of the accused beyond
reasonable doubt based on the strength of the evidence of the
prosecution.
If there is any reasonable doubt that the accused committed
the crime, he has to be acquitted.
The Rules of Court, however, provides that the accused can
be convicted of a lesser crime than the crime he has been
charged with in the information. But the elements of the lesser
offense should be necessarily included in the offense charged,
and such lesser crime was proven by competent evidence.

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26
The Corrections Pillar
The fourth pillar takes over once the accused, after having
been found guilty, is meted out the penalty for the crime he
committed. He can apply for probation or he could be turned
over to a non-institutional or institutional agency or facility
for custodial treatment and rehabilitation. The offender could
avail of the benefits of parole or executive clemency once he
has served the minimum period of his sentence.
When the penalty is imprisonment, the sentence is carried
out either in the municipal, provincial or national penitentiary
depending on the length of the sentence meted out.
The Community Pillar
The fifth pillar has a two-fold role. First, it has the
responsibility to participate in law enforcement activities by
being partners of the peace officers in reporting the crime
incident, and helping in the arrest of the offender. Second, it
has the responsibility to participate in the promotion of peace
and order through crime prevention or deterrence and in the
rehabilitation of convicts and their reintegration to society.
Rehabilitation takes place when the convict is serving his
sentence. A convict may be paroled or may even be placed on
probation.
Under the concept of a participative criminal justice
system in the Philippines, public and private agencies as well
as citizens, become a part of the CJS when they participate and
become involved with issues and activities related to crime
prevention. Thus, citizen-based crime prevention groups become
part of the CJS within the framework of their involvement in
crime prevention activities and in the reintegration of the
convict who shall be released from the corrections pillar into
the mainstream of society.
POLICE OPERATIONAL PLANNING
What is a Plan?
A plan is an organize schedule or sequence by methodical
activities intended to attain a goal and objectives for the
accomplishments of mission or assignment. It is a method or way
of doing something in order to attain objectives. Plan provides
answer to 5Ws and 1 H.

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27
What is Planning?
Planning is a management function concerned with visualizing
future situations, making estimates concerning them, identifying
issues, needs and potential danger points, analyzing and
evaluating the alternative ways and means for reaching desired
goals according to a certain schedule, estimating the necessary
funds and resources to do the work, and initiating action in
time to prepare what may be needed to cope with the changing
conditions and contingent events.
Planning is also the process of preparing for change and coping
with uncertainty formulating future causes of action; the
process of determining the problem of the organization and
coming up with proposed resolutions and finding best solutions.
The process of combining all aspects of the department and the
realistic anticipation of future problems, the analysis of
strategy and the correlation of strategy to detail.
The conceptual idea of doing something to attain a goal or
objective.
What is Police Planning?
Police Planning is an attempt by police administrators in trying
to allocate anticipated resources to meet anticipated service
demands. It is the systematic and orderly determination of facts
and events as basis for policy formulation and decision
affecting law enforcement management.
What is Operational Planning?
Operational Planning is the use of a rational design or pattern
for all departmental undertakings rather than relying on chance
in an operational environment. It is the preparation and
development of procedures and techniques in accomplishing of
each of the primary tasks and functions of an organization.
What is Police Operational Planning?
Police Operational Planning is the act of determining policies
and guidelines for police activities and operations and
providing controls and safeguards for such activities and
operations in the department. It may also be the process of
formulating coordinated sequence of methodical activities and
allocation of resources to the line units of the police

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28
organization for the attainment of the mandated objectives or
goals.
Objectives are a specific commitment to achieve a measurable
result within a specific period of time. Goals are general
statement of intention and typically with time horizon, or it is
an achievable end state that can be measured and observed.
Making choices about goals is one of the most important aspects
of planning. Relate this definitions with their description as
defined in chapter one.
The process of police operational planning involves strategies
or tactics, procedures, policies or guidelines. A Strategy is a
broad design or method; or a plan to attain a stated goal or
objectives. Tactics are specific design, method or course of
action to attain a particular objective in consonance with
strategy. Procedures are sequences of activities to reach a
point or to attain what is desired. A policy is a product of
prudence or wisdom in the management of human affairs, or policy
is a course of action which could be a program of actions
adopted by an individual, group, organization, or government, or
the set of principles on which they are based. Guidelines are
rules of action for the rank and file to show them how they are
expected to obtain the desired effect.
STRATEGIC PLANNING
Strategic Planning is a series of preliminary decisions on a
framework, which in turn guides subsequent decisions that
generate the nature and direction of an organization. This is
usually long ranged in nature. The reasons for Strategic
Planning are:
VISION - A vision of what a police department should be.
LONG-RANGE THINKING - Keeping in mind that strategy is deciding
where we want to be
STRATEGIC FOCUS
CONGRUENCE
A STRATEGIC RESPONSE TO CHANGE
A STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK
What is the Strategic Planning process?
TASK
TASK
TASK
TASK

1
2
3
4

Develop Mission and Objectives


Diagnose Environmental Threats and Opportunities
Assess Organizational Strengths and Weaknesses
Generate Alternative Strategies

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TASK
TASK
TASK
TASK

5
6
7
8

Develop Strategic Plan


Develop Tactical Plan
Assess Results of Strategic And Tactical Plan
Repeat Planning Process

In the process, the police administrator can use the potent tool
of alternatives. Alternatives (options) are means by which goals
and objectives can be attained. They maybe policies, strategies
or specific actions aimed at eliminating a problem. Alternatives
do not have to be substitutes for one another or should perform
the same function. For example, our goal is to improve officersurvival skills. The plan is to train the officers on
militaristic and combat shooting. The alternatives could be:
Alternative 1 - modify police vehicles
Alternative 2 - issuing bulletproof vests
Alternative 3 - utilizing computer assisted dispatch system
Alternative 4 - increasing first-line supervision, etc
FUNDAMENTALS OF POLICE PLANNING
What are the Objectives of Police Planning?
To increase the chances of success by focusing on results and
not so much on the objectives.
To force analytical thinking and evaluation of alternatives for
better decisions.
To establish a framework for decision making consistent with the
goal of the organization.
To orient people to action instead of reaction.
To modify the day-to-day style of operation to future
management.
To provide decision making with flexibility.
To provide basis for measuring original accomplishments or
individual performance.
What can be expected in planning?
Improve analysis of problems
Provide better information for decision-making
Help to clarify goals, objectives, priorities
Result is more effective allocation of resources
Improve inter-and intradepartmental cooperation and coordination
Improve the performance of programs
Give the police department a clear sense of direction
Provide the opportunity for greater public support
What are the characteristics of a good police plan?

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With clearly defined Objectives or Goals.


Simplicity, Directness and Clarity
Flexibility
Possibility of Attainment
Must provide Standards of Operation
Economy in terms of Resources needed for implementation
What are the guidelines in Planning?
The five (5) Ws and one (1) H
What to do mission/objective
Why to do reason/philosophy
When to do date/time
Where to do place
Who will do people involve
How to do strategy
What are the approaches in Police Planning?
A variety of approaches are employed in the planning
processes. Each is unique and can be understood as a method of
operationalizing the word planning. There are basically five
major approaches to planning which are:
Synoptic Approach
Incremental Approach
Transactive Approach
Advocacy Approach
Radical Approach
What is Synoptic Planning?
Synoptic planning or the rational comprehensive approach is
the dominant tradition in planning. It is also the point of
departure for most other planning approaches.
This model is based on a problem-oriented approach to
planning especially appropriate for police agencies. It relies
heavily on the problem identification and analysis of the
planning process. It can assist police administrators in
formulating goals and priorities in terms that are focused on
specific problems and solutions that often confront law
enforcement.

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Steps in Synoptic Planning
Prepare for Planning - The task of planning should be detailed
in a work chart that specifies (a) what events and actions are
necessary, (b) when they must take place, (c) who is to be
involved in each action and for how long, and (d) how the
various actions will interlock with one another.
Describe the present situation - Planning must have a mean for
evaluation. Without an accurate beginning database there is no
reference point on which to formulate success or failure.
Develop projections and consider alternative future states Projections should be written with an attempt to link the
current situation with the future, keeping in mind the desirable
outcomes. It is important for the police executive to project
the current situations into the future to determine possible,
probable and desirable future states while considering the
social, legislative, and political trends existing in the
community.
Identify and analyze problems - The discovery of the problems
assumes that a system to monitor and evaluate the current arena
is already on place. Closely related to the detection and
identification of issues is the ability of the police to define
the nature of the problem, that is to able to describe the
magnitude, cause, duration, and the expense of the issues at
hand. A complete understanding of the problem leads to the
development of the means to deal with the issues.
Set goals - Making choices about goals is one of the most
important aspects of planning. It makes no sense to establish a
goal that does not address a specific problem. Remembering that
the police departments are problem oriented, choices about goals
and objectives should adhere to the synoptic model.
Identify alternative course of action As stated earlier,
alternatives are means by which goals and objectives can be
attained. These are options or possible things to be done in
case the main or original plan is not applicable.
Select preferred alternatives there are three techniques to
select alternative:
Strategic Analysis this includes the study on the courses of
actions; suitability studies; feasibility studies; acceptability
studies; and judgment.

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Suitability each course of action is evaluated in accordance


with general policies, rules and laws. Feasibility - these
include the appraisal of the effects of a number of factors
weighed separately and together. Acceptability those judged
to be suitable and feasible are then analyzed in acceptability
studies.
Cost-effectiveness Analysis - This technique is sometimes called
cost-benefit or cost performance analysis. The purpose of this
form of selection is that the alternative chosen should maximize
the ratio of benefit to cost.
Must-wants Analysis This method of selecting a preferred
course of action combines the strengths of both strategic and
cost effectiveness analysis. Must wants analysis is concerned
with both the subjective weights of suitability, feasibility,
and acceptability and the objectives weights of cost versus
benefits.
Plan and carryout implementation - The police administrator must
be aware that the implementation requires a great deal of tact
and skill. It maybe more important how an alternative is
introduced to a police department than what actually is.
Monitor and evaluate progress - Evaluation requires comparing
what actually happened with what was planned for- and this may
not be a simple undertaking. Feedback must be obtained
concerning the results of the planning cycle, the efficiency of
the implementation process, and the effectiveness of new
procedures, projects or programs. This is an important step of
synoptic planning, trying to figure out what, if anything
happened as a result of implementing a selected alternative.
Summation of the synoptic planning approach This can be done
by making a summary of the presentation, could be tabular or
other forms of presentation.
Repeat the Planning Process repetition of the process of
planning enables the planner to thresh out possible flaws in the
plan.
What is Incremental Planning?
Incrementalism concludes that long range and comprehensive
planning are not only too difficult, but inherently bad. The
problems are seen as too difficult when they are grouped

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together and easier to solve when they are taken one at a time
and broken down into gradual adjustments over time.
What is Transactive Planning?
Transactive planning is carried out in face-to-face
interaction with the people who are to be affected by the plan
and not to an anonymous target community of beneficiaries.
Techniques include field surveys and interpersonal dialogue
marked by a process of mutual learning.
What is Advocacy Planning?
Beneficial aspects of this approach include a greater
sensitivity to the unintended and negative side effects of
plans.
What is Radical Planning?
The first mainstream involves collective actions to achieve
concrete results in the immediate future. The second mainstream
is critical of large-scale social processes and how they
permeate the character of social and economic life at all
levels, which, in turn, determine the structure and evolution of
social problems.
CONSIDERATIONS IN POLICE PLANNING
1. Primary Doctrines
Fundamental Doctrines These are the basic principles in
planning, organization and management of the PNP in support of
the overall pursuits of the PNP Vision, mission and strategic
action plan of the attainment of the national objectives.
Operational Doctrines These are the principles and rules
governing the planning, organization and direction and
employment of the PNP forces in the accomplishment of basic
security operational mission in the maintenance of peace and
order, crime prevention and suppression, internal security and
public safety operation.
Functional Doctrines These provide guidance for specialized
activities of the PNP in the broad field of interest such as
personnel, intelligence, operations, logistics, planning, etc.

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2. Secondary Doctrines
Complimentary Doctrines Formulated jointly by two or more
bureaus in order to effect a certain operation with regard to
public safety and peace and order. These essentially involve the
participation of the other bureaus of the Bureau of Jail
Management and Penology (BJMP), Bureau of Fire Protection (BFP),
Philippine Public Safety College (PPSC), National Bureau of
Investigation (NBI) and other law enforcement agencies.
Ethical Doctrines These define the fundamental principles
governing the rules of conduct, attitude, behavior and ethical
norm of the PNP.
3. The Principles of Police Organization
The principles of organization are presented in chapter three.
These principles are considered in police planning in order not
to violate them but rather for the effective and efficient
development of police plans.
4. The Four (4) Primal Conditions of the Police Organization
Authority The right to exercise, to decide, and to command by
virtue of rank and position.
Doctrine It provides for the organizations objectives. It
provides the various actions. Hence, policies, procedures, rules
and regulations of the organization are based on the statement
of doctrines.
Cooperation or Coordination
Discipline It is imposed by command or self-restraint to
insure supportive behavior.
Classifications of Police Plan
According to coverage: Police Plans could be Local Plans (within
police precincts, sub-stations, and stations), Regional Plans,
and National Plans.
According to Time: Police Plans are classified as:
Strategic or Long Range Plan It relates to plans which are
strategic or long range in application, and it determine the
organizations original goals and strategy.

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Example: Police Action Plan on the Strategy DREAMS and Program
P-O-L-I-C-E 2000, Three Point Agenda, and GLORIA (These are
discussed on the latter part of this Chapter).
Intermediate or Medium Range Planning It relates to plans,
which determine quantity and quality efforts and
accomplishments. It refers to the process of determining the
contribution on efforts that can make or provide with allocated
resources.
Example: 6 Masters Plans:
Master Plan Sandigan-Milenyo (Anti-Crime Master Plan)
Master Plan Sandugo (Support to Internal Security Operations
Master Plan)
Master Plan Banat (Anti-Illegal Drugs Master Plan)
Master Plan Sang-ingat (Security Operations Master Plan)
Master Plan Saklolo (Disaster Management Master Plan)
Sangyaman (protection and Preservation of Environment, Cultural
Properties, and Natural Resources Master Plan)
Operational or Short Range Planning - Refers to the production
of plans, which determine the schedule of special activity and
are applicable from one week or less than year duration. Plan
that addresses immediate need which are specific and how it can
be accomplished on time with available allocated resources.
Examples of OPLANS
Oplan Jumbo Aviation Security Group Strategic Plan against
terrorist attacks
Oplan Salikop Criminal Investigation and Detection Group
(CIDG) Strategic Plan against Organized Crime Groups
LOI PAGPAPALA is the entry point in the conceptualization of the
PNP Pastoral Program for the next five years with a Total Human
Development Approach (THD Approach).
The TMG through its "OPLAN DISIPLINA" that resulted in the
apprehension of 110,975 persons, the confiscation of 470
unlawfully attached gadgets to vehicles, and rendering various
forms of motorists assistance.
OPLAN BANTAY DALAMPASIGAN that sets forth the operational
guidelines on the heightened security measures and sea borne
security patrols.

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TYPES OF PLANS in general
Reactive Plans are developed as a result of crisis. A particular
problem may occur for which the department has no plan and must
quickly develop one, sometimes without careful preparation.
Proactive Plans are developed in anticipation of problems.
Although not all police problems are predictable, many are, and
it is possible for a police department to prepare a response in
advance.
Visionary Plans are essential statements that identify the role
of the police in the community and a future condition or state
to which the department can aspire. A vision may also include a
statement of values to be used to guide the decision making
process in the department.
Strategic Plans are designed to meet the long-range, overall
goals of the organization. Such plans allow the department to
adapt to anticipated changes or develop a new philosophy or
model of policing (e.g. community policing). One of the most
important aspects of strategic planning is to focus on external
environmental factors that affect the goals and objectives of
the department and how they will be achieved. Important
environmental factors include personnel needs, population
trends, technological innovations, business trends and demand,
crime problems, and community attitudes.
Operational Plans are designed to meet the specific tasks
required to implement strategic plans. There are four types of
operational plan:
1. Standing Plans provide the basic framework for responding to
organizational problems. The organizational vision and values,
strategic statement, policies, procedures, and rules and
regulations are examples of standing plans. Standing plans also
include guidelines for responding to different types of
incidents; for example, a civil disturbance, hostage situation,
crime in progress, and felony car stops.
2. Functional Plans include the framework for the operation of
the major functional units in the organization, such as patrol
and investigations. It also includes the design of the
structure, how different functions and units are to relate and
coordinate activities, and how resources are to be allocated.
3. Operational-efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity plans
are essentially the measures or comparisons to be used to assess
police activities and behavior (outputs) and results (outcomes).
If one of the goals of the police department is to reduce the
crime rate, any change that occurs can be compared to past crime

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rates in the same community or crime in other communities, a
state, or the nation. If the crime rates were reduced while
holding or reducing costs, it would reflect an improvement not
only in effectiveness but also in departmental productivity.
4. Time-specific Plans are concerned with a specific purpose and
conclude when an objective is accomplished or a problem is
solved. Specific police programs or projects such as drug
crackdown, crime prevention program, and neighborhood clean-up
campaign are good examples of time-specific plans.
KINDS OF POLICE PLANS
Policy and Procedural Plans to properly achieve the
administrative planning responsibility within in the unit, the
Commander shall develop unit plans relating to: (a) policies or
procedure; (b) tactics; (c) operations; (d) extra-office
activities; and (e) management.
Further, standard-operating procedures shall be planned to
guide members in routine and field operations and in some
special operations in accordance with the following procedures:
Field Procedure Procedures intended to be used in all
situations of all kinds shall be outlined as a guide to officers
and men in the field. Examples of these procedures are those
related to reporting, to dispatching, to raids, arrest, stopping
suspicious persons, receiving complaints, touring beats, and
investigation of crimes. The use of physical force and clubs,
restraining devices, firearms, tear gas and the like shall, in
dealing with groups or individuals, shall also be outlined.
Headquarters Procedures Included in these procedures are the
duties of the dispatcher, jailer, matron, and other personnel
concerned which may be reflected in the duty manual. Procedures
that involve coordinated action on activity of several offices,
however, shall be established separately as in the case of using
telephone for local or long distance calls, the radio teletype,
and other similar devices.
Special Operation Procedures Certain special operations also
necessitate the preparation of procedures as guides. Included
are the operation of the special unit charged with the searching
and preservation of physical evidence at the crime scenes and
accidents, the control of licenses, dissemination of information
about wanted persons, inspection of the PNP headquarters, and
the like.
Tactical Plans These are the procedures for coping with
specific situations at known locations. Included in this
category are plans for dealing with an attack against buildings

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with alarm systems and an attack against the PNP headquarters by
lawless elements. Plans shall be likewise be made for blockade
and jail emergencies and for special community events, such as
longer public meetings, athletic contests, parades, religious
activities, carnivals, strikes, demonstrations, and other street
affairs.
Operational Plans These are plans for the operations of
special divisions like the patrol, detective, traffic, fire and
juvenile control divisions. Operational plans shall be prepared
to accomplish each of the primary police tasks. For example,
patrol activities must be planned, the force must be distributed
among the shifts and territorially among beats, in proportion to
the needs of the service, and special details must be planned to
meet unexpected needs. Likewise in the crime prevention and in
traffic, juvenile and vice control, campaigns must be planned
and assignments made to assure the accomplishment of the police
purpose in meeting both average and regular needs. Each
division or unit has primary responsibility to plan operations
in its field and also to execute the plans, either by its own
personnel or, as staff agency, by utilizing members of the other
divisions.
Plans for operations of special division consist of two types,
namely: (1) those designed to meet everyday, year-round needs,
which are the regular operating program of the divisions; and
(2) those designed to meet unusual needs, the result of
intermittent and usually unexpected variations in activities
that demand their attention.
Regular Operating Programs These operating divisions/units
shall have specific plans to meet current needs. The manpower
shall be distributed throughout the hours of operation and
throughout the area of jurisdiction in proportion to need.
Assignments schedules shall be prepared that integrate such
factors as relief days, lunch periods, hours, nature, and
location of regular work. Plans shall assure suitable
supervision, which become difficult when the regular assignment
is integrated to deal with this short time periodic needs.
Meeting unusual needs The unusual need may arise in any
field of police activity and is nearly always met in the
detective, vice, and juvenile divisions by temporary
readjustment of regular assignment.
Extra-office Plans The active interest and the participation
of individual citizen is so vital to the success of the PNP
programs that the PNP shall continuously seek to motivate,
promote, and maintain an active public concern in its affairs.

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These are plans made to organize the community to assist in the
accomplishment of objectives in the fields of traffic control,
organized crime, and juvenile delinquency prevention. The
organizations may be called safety councils for crime
commissions and community councils for the delinquency
prevention. They shall assist in coordinating community effort,
in promoting public support, and in combating organized crime.
Organization and operating plans for civil defense shall also be
prepared or used in case of emergency or war in coordination
with the office of the Civil Defense.
Management Plans Plans of management shall map out in advance
all operations involved in the organization management of
personnel and material and in the procurement and disbursement
of money, such as the following:
Budget Planning Present and future money needs for personnel,
equipment, and capital investments must be estimated. Plans for
supporting budget request must be made if needed appropriations
are to be obtained.
Accounting Procedures Procedures shall be established and
expenditure reports be provided to assist in making
administrative decisions and in holding expenditures within the
appropriations.
Specifications and Purchasing Procedures Specifications shall
be drawn for equipment and supplies. Purchasing procedures
shall likewise be established to insure the checking of
deliveries against specifications of orders. Plans and
specifications shall be drafted for new building and for
remodeling old ones.
Personnel Procedures shall be established to assure the
carrying out of personnel programs and the allocation of
personnel among the component organizational units in
proportions need.
Organization A basic organizational plan of the command/unit
shall be made and be posted for the guidance of the force. For
the organization to be meaningful, it shall be accompanied by
the duty manual which shall define relationships between the
component units in terms of specific responsibilities. The duty
manual incorporates rules and regulations and shall contain the
following: definition of terms, organization of rank, and the
like, provided the same shall not be in conflict with this
manual.

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FIELD OPERATIONS: How planning affects them?
Field Operations shall be directed by the police commander and
the subordinate commanders and the same shall be aimed at the
accomplishment of the following primary tasks more effectively
and economically:
Patrol The patrol force shall accomplish the primary
responsibility of safeguarding the community through the
protection of persons and property, the preservation of the
peace, the prevention of crime, the suppression of criminal
activities, the apprehension of criminals, the enforcement of
laws and ordinances and regulations of conduct, and performing
necessary service and inspections.
Investigation The basic purpose of the investigation
division unit shall be to investigate certain designated crimes
and clear them by the recovery of stolen property and the arrest
and conviction of the perpetrators. To this end, the
investigation division shall supervise the investigation made by
patrolman and undertake additional investigation as may be
necessary of all felonies.
Traffic Patrol Police control of streets or highways,
vehicles, and people shall facilitate the safe and rapid
movement of vehicles and pedestrians. To this end, the
inconvenience, dangers and economic losses that arise from this
moment, congestion, delays, stopping and parking of vehicles
must be lessened. Control of traffic shall be accomplished in
three (3) ways:
Causes of accidents and congestion shall be discovered, facts
gathered and analyzed for this purpose;
Causes shall be remedied, charges shall be made in physical
condition that create hazards, and legislation shall be enacted
to regulated drivers and pedestrians; and
The public shall be educated in the provisions of traffic and
ordinances. Motorists and pedestrians shall be trained in
satisfactory movement habits, and compliance with regulations
shall be obtained by enforcement. The police shall initiate
action and coordinate the efforts of the agencies that are
concerned in the activities.
Vice Control It shall be the determined stand of the PNP
in the control of vices to treat vice offenses as they shall do
to any violation, and to exert efforts to eliminate them, as

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there attempt to eliminate robbery, theft, and public
disturbance. Control of vice, shall be based on law rather than
on moral precepts, and intensive operations shall be directed
toward their elimination. A primary interest in vice control
results from the close coordination between vice and criminal
activities. Constant raids of known vice dens shall be
undertaken.
Juvenile Delinquency Control Effective crime control
necessitates preventing the development of individuals as
criminals. The police commander shall recognize a need for
preventing crime or correcting conditions that induce
criminality and by rehabilitating the delinquent.
STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (SOPs)
Standard Operating Procedures or SOPs are products of police
operational planning adopted by the police organization to guide
the police officers in the conduct of their duties and
functions, especially during field operations.
The following are Police Security Service Package of the PNP
with the following standard operating procedures and guidelines:
SOP #01 POLICE BEAT PATROL PROCEDURES - This SOP prescribes
the basic procedures to be observed by all PNP Units and mobile
patrol elements in the conduct of visibility patrols.
SOP #02 BANTAY KALYE - This SOP prescribes the deployment of
85% of the PNP in the field to increase police visibility and
intensifies anti-crime campaign nationwide.
SOP #03 SIYASAT - This SOP prescribes the guidelines in the
conduct of inspections to ensure police visibility.
SOP #4 REACT 166 - REACT 166 was launched in 1992 as the
peoples direct link to the police to receive public calls for
assistance and complaints for prompt action by police
authorities. This SOP prescribes the procedures in detail of
Duty Officers, Telephone Operators and Radio Operators for REACT
166; and their term of duty and responsibilities.
SOP #5 LIGTAS (ANTI-KIDNAPPING) - With the creation of the
Presidential Anti-Organization Crime Task Force (PAOCTF), the
PNP is now in support role in campaign against kidnapping in
terms of personnel requirements. SOP #5 sets forth the PNPs
guidelines in its fight against kidnapping activities.
SOP #6 ANTI-CARNAPPING - This SOP prescribes the conduct of an
all-out and sustained anti carnapping campaign to stop/minimize
carnapping activities, neutralize syndicated carnapping groups,
identify/prosecute government personnel involved in carnapping

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activities, and to effectively address other criminal activities
related to car napping.
SOP #7 ANTI-TERRORISM - This prescribes the operational
guidelines in the conduct of operations against terrorists and
other lawless elements involved in terrorist activities.
SOP #8 JOINT ANTI-BANK ROBBERY ACTION COMMITTEE (ANTI-BANK
ROBBERY) - This SOP provides overall planning, integration,
orchestration or coordination, and monitoring of all efforts to
ensure the successful implementation.
SOP #9 ANTI-HIJACKING/HIGHWAY ROBBERY This SOP sets forth
the guidelines and concepts of operations to be observed in the
conduct of anti-highway robbery/hold-up/hijacking operations.
SOP #10 PAGLALANSAG/PAGAAYOS-HOPE - This SOP sets forth the
concept of operations and tasks of all concerned units in the
campaign against Partisan Armed Groups and loose fire.
SOP # 11 MANHUNT BRAVO (NEUTRALIZATION OF WANTED PERSONS) This SOP sets forth the objectives and concept of operation
tasks of all concerned units in the neutralization of wanted
persons.
SOP #12 ANTI-ILLEGAL GAMBLING - This SOP sets forth the
operational thrusts to be undertaken by the PNP that will
spearhead the fight against all forms of illegal gambling
nationwide.
SOP #13 ANTI-SQUATTING - This SOP sets forth the concept of
operation in the campaign against professional squatters and
squatting syndicates.
SOP #14 JERICHO - This SOP prescribes the operational
guidelines to be undertaken by the National Headquarter (NHQ) of
PNP in the establishment of a quick reaction group that can be
detailed with the office of the Secretary of Interior and Local
Government (SILG), with personnel and equipment requirements of
that reaction group supported by the PNP.
SOP #15 NENA (ANTI-PROSTITUTION/VAGRANCY) - This SOP sets
forth the operational thrusts to be undertaken by the PNP that
will spearhead the fight against prostitution and vagrancy.
SOP #16 ANTI-PORNOGRAPHY - This prescribes the guidelines to
be followed by tasked PNP Units/Offices in enforcing the ban on
pornographic pictures, videos and magazines.
SOP #17 GUIDELINES IN THE CONDUCT OF ARREST, SEARCH, AND
SEIZURE -This SOP prescribes the procedures and manner of
conducting an arrest, raid, search and/or search of person,
search of any premises and the seizure of properties pursuant to
the 1987 Philippine Constitution, Rules of Court, as amended and
updated decision of the Supreme Court.
SOP #18 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF SANDIGAN MASTER PLAN
SOP #19 ANTI-ILLEGAL LOGGING
SOP #20 ANTI-ILLEGAL FISHING

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SOP #21 ANTI-ILLEGAL DRUGS
DISASTER AND EMERGENCY PLANNING
Emergency and disaster planning is one of the most
important interrelated function in a security system. It is
important in any organization as physical security, fire
protection, guard forces, security of documents and personnel
security.
Emergency and disaster planning refers to the preparation
in advance of protective and safety measures for unforeseen
events resulting from natural and human actions.
Disaster plans outline the actions to be taken by those
designated for specific job. This will result in expeditious
and orderly execution of relief and assistance to protect
properties and lives. These plans must also be rehearsed so that
when the bell ring, there will be speed and not haste in the
execution. Speed is the accurate accomplishment of a plan as per
schedule, while haste is doing a job quickly with errors. Plans
therefore must be made when any or all of the emergencies arise.
Those plans, being special in nature, must be prepared with
people whose expertise in their respective field is legion
together with the coordination and help of management, security
force, law enforcement agencies, and selected employees.
Planning is necessary to meet disaster and emergency
conditions and it must be continuing and duly supported by
management. One aspect of the plans will be to consider recovery
measures to be undertaken by the organization. Being prepared
for the eventuality gives better chances of protection and
eventual recovery than those not prepared. Without planning, the
emergency or disaster can become catastrophic. With a good,
suitable plan to follow, the unusual becomes ordinary, hence,
the mental preparedness for easy survival and recovery.
Understanding Disaster
A DISASTER is a sudden, unforeseen, extraordinary occurrence. It
can be considered as an EMERGENCY but an emergency may not
always be a disaster.
An EMERGENCY falls into 2 broad categories:

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floods, earthquake, famine,


typhoon, diseases, volcanic
eruption, crashes, industrial
accident, fires, landslide,
avalanches, tsunamis, etc.

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Disaster
(Natural Crisis)
Induced
Catastrophe
(Man-made Crisis
Commonalities:

arson, bombing, kidnapping,


robbery, hostage-taking,
skyjacking, assassination, ambush,
and other acts terrorism

Deciding Policy
Assessing Threat
Identifying Resources
Selecting crisis team personnel
Locating crisis management center
Equipping the crisis center
Testing contingency plans and emergency procedures
Dealing with the media
Dealing with victims and their families
Dealing with other affected person (such as employees)
Getting the organizations normal work done
Returning to normal after the crisis
Plan Checklist

Identify the type of crisis/disaster/induced catastrophe


Identify which operation, facility, personnel at risk
Prioritize accordingly
Determine effects of emergencies in the operation
Identify broad categories that must be addressed in your
contingency planning
Review existing emergency plans to identify gaps
Consider the environment with in which your emergency plans will
be implemented.
Assessing the Risk
Pro-crisis Actions - The planning process begins with an
understanding of the situation and recognition that a number of
policy decisions must be made before the actual planning can
begin.; Many emergencies can be prevented completely with
adequate thought and action. Others can be anticipated often
by doing nothing but mere common sense. REMEMBER! It was not
raining when NOAH build the ark.

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Checklist for a Disaster Action Plan
Identify the type of disaster occurred in the area
Identify those that could affect your operation in the area
Determine which scenarios are plausible
Survey your physical facilities and operating procedures to
determine preparedness
Survey surrounding area to determine if there are operations or
facilities near which might create emergencies
Establish a liaison with law enforcement agencies and emergency
response groups
Know where to get help, how to get help, and what help you can
expect
Know who currently has authority to make key decisions with in
your organization and who control access to decision makers in
an emergency
Review emergency procedures, its completeness and accuracy
Phases in Emergency/Disaster Planning
Phase I
Assessment of the
Situation

This will be a research in depth by a knowledgeable and


specially trained group on the vulnerabilities as well as the
resources available for the disaster plan. Surveys and
Inspection may be conducted

Phase II
Writing the Plan

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The plan will have to be written based on the findings in phase
I. The plan can be code title, management will just call for the
name of the plan.

Phase III
Testing the Plan
Dry runs of the emergency plan is a part of the entire process
of planning to determine plan reliability and to identify
deficiencies and make neceassry corrections or adjustments.

Phase IV
Critique the Plan

This involves the analysis of feedbacks. The unworkable


procedures should be noted and finally corrected.

Checklist for Reviewing Policies, Procedures, and Plans


Compile and review your organizations policies on various
contingencies before establishing your plans
Ensure that these policies are known throughout the organization
and that they are included in your emergency manuals
Ensure that your procedures and plans are consistent with your
organizations established policies and goals
Identify appropriate outside consultants and other sources of
assistance in developing and implementing your plans and
procedures

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Ensure that appropriate personnel have any security clearances
or background cheks which might be required
Establish a viable record-keeping system and procedures to
ensure they are followed
Organizing Disaster Management Team
Disaster Team Leadership
Disaster team leadership is vested in one person, who
should designate an alternate capable of acting independently in
his or her absence.
One of the team leaders primary tasks is to ensure that
control is maintained over the teams activities, information
flow, and the implementation of decisions and organizational
policies. For these reason, the team leader should be a person
who has demostarted ability to function under pressure, must
have sufficient authority to make on the spot decisions with in
the framework of overall organizations policy, access to
decision makers when required, and the ability to recognize
which decisions to make independently and which to refer to
upper management.
Disaster Action Team Members
Depending on the size of the organization and the number of
people available, the following team mebers maybe considered:
Team leader/ Alternate
Executive Assistance
Public Affairs
Liaison Officers
(for family/victim/government/International)
Administrative Support
Communications Specialist
Legal Specialist
Medical and Relief Operations Officer
Financial Specialist
Each disaster team member must be oriented and trained on their
respective role and the functional requirements for disaster
management.

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Disaster Action Team Duties
On Pre-event
Supervise the formulation of policies
Ensure the development of procedures
Participate in preparing plans
Oversee and participate in exercise of plans
Select crisis management/disaster center
Participate in personnel training
Review preparation of materials
Delegate authority
Brief personnel
Ensure the assembly of supplies
Ensure preparation of rest, food, medical areas
During the Event
Establish shift schedules immediately
Delegate tasks
Focus on underlying problem
Maintain control
Follow organizational policies
Use prepared procedures
Innovate as needed
Ensure that information is shared with the entire team
Review all press release and public statements
Double check or confirm informations if possible
Aid victim and their families
Try to anticipate future consequences
Control stress of team members
Ensure log maintenance
On Post Event (After the Incident)
Evaluate effectiveness of plans
Evaluate adequacy of procedures
Debrief personnel
Evaluate equipment and training used
Revise plans and procedures in the light of new experience
Reward personnel as appropriate
Assist victims as appropriate
Document events
Prepare after-action reports
Arrange an orderly transition to normal conditions
Retain archives

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The chain of events during a disaster is simplified as follows:
Security receives initial report of emergency
Security notifies Disaster Team Leader
Team leader decides if immediate action is required
If action is required, he notifies the other team members to
convene at the crisis management center
Initial liason established and actions taken: create log,
contact of family, employees involved, government or law
enforcement liaison contacts, prepare contingency press
guidance, others.
Respond to event
Crowd Control and Riot Prevention
Background
Riot, in general is an offense against the public peace. It is
interpreted as a tumultuous disturbance by several persons who
have unlawfully assembled to assist one another, by the use of
force if necessary, against anyone opposing them in the
execution of some enterprise of a private nature; and who
execute such enterprise in a violent manner, to the terror of
the people.
Under the law, it is punishable for any organizer or leader of
any meeting attended by armed persons for the purpose of
committing any of the crimes punishable under the Revised Penal
Code, or any meeting in which the audience is incited to the
commission of the crimes of treason, rebellion or insurrection,
sedition or assault upon a person in authority or his agents
(Art. 146, RPC). It is also punishable for any person who shall
cause any serious disturbance in a public place, office, or
establishment, or shall interrupt or disturb public functions or
gatherings or peaceful meetings (Art 153, RPC).
Some Basic Definition of Terms
Tumultuous The disturbance or interruption shall be
deemed tumultuous if caused by more than three persons who are
armed or provided with means of violence.
Outcry The means to shout subversive or proactive words
tending to stir up the people to obtain by means of force or
violence.

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Crowd It consists of a body of individual people with no
organization, no single partnership. Each individuals behavior
is fairly controlled and ruled by reason. All the participants
have been thrown by circumstance into a crowd for some common
purpose that may give them at least one thing in common.
Mob A mob takes on the semblance of organization with
some common motive for action, such as revenge for a crime
committed on the scene where the crowd assembled, an aggravated
fight, or a confrontation with the police. At times like this,
there is already a strong feeling of togetherness (we are one
attitude).
Riot It is a violent confusion in a crowd. Once a mob
started to become violent, it becomes a riot.
What is the Role of Planning in Crowd Control or Riot
Prevention?
A sound organizational planning, training, logistical support
and a high departmental morale are the essential success
elements in modern counter-riot operations.
The control of violent civil disorder involving large segments
of the population, especially in congested urban areas, requires
a disciplined, aggressive police counter-action which at the
same time adheres to the basic law enforcement precepts. This is
done through effective police operational planning.
Through planning, the law violators can be arrested and
processed with in the existing legal frameworks by the exercise
of reasonable force. Without an immediate decisive police
action, the continually recurring conditions of civil unrest and
lawlessness could quickly evolve into a full-scale riot. Police
planning could provide the best police reaction and order can be
restored with a minimum of property damage and injury.
What are the Police Purpose and Objectives in Anti-Riot
Operations?
Containment Unlawful assembly and riot are as contagious as a
plague unless they are quarantined from the unaffected areas of
the community. In here, all persons who are at the scene should
be advised to leave the area, thereby reducing the number of
potential anti-police combatants.
Dispersal The crowd of unlawful assembly or riot should
be dispersed at once. It may appear at first to be a legal
assembly but the nature of the assembly at the time of the

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arrival of the police may clearly distinguish it as being
unlawful. Once it is determined, the responsibility of the
police to command the people to disperse. Crowd control
formations may be done if necessary to expedite their movements.
Prevention of Entry or Reentry- The police have to protect
the area once the people have been moved out or dissipated into
smaller groups to prevent them from returning. Enforce
quarantine by not allowing the group to resume their actions.
Arrest Violators One of the first acts of the police upon
arrival at the scene of the disturbance is to locate and isolate
individuals who are inciting the crowd to violate or fragrantly
violating the law. Prevent any attempt by the crowd or mob to
rescue those arrested by enforcing total quarantine.
Establish Priorities Depending upon the circumstances, it
is always necessary to establish priorities. Assessing the
situation to determine the nature of assistance and number of
men needed is part of the planning process.
What are the Basic Procedures in Anti-Riot Operations?
Assess the Situation
determine whether the original purpose of the gathering was
lawful or not
determine also the lawfulness at the time of arrival at the
scene
assess their attitude, emotional state, and their general
condition
determine any state of intoxication and other conditions that
may lead to violence
identify the cause of the problem
locate and identify leaders or agitators
Survey the Scene
determine as soon as possible the best position of the command
post
locate the best vintage point for observations
consider geographical factors such as natural barriers,
buildings, and weather condition
note the best method of approach
Communicate
report on your assessment, keeping your assessment brief but
concise, giving your superior the sufficient data with which to
proceed for plans of action

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ask for assistance or help from the command post hence remain
close to the radio as possible until additional units arrived or
to communicate new developments
Maintain a Watchful Waiting
make your presence known to the people in the vicinity
if the crowd is too much to handle, stay near the command post
and wait for additional support units
use radio or other means of communications to call for
assistance
make preparations for decisive police action.
Concentrate on Rescue and Self-Defense
take care of the immediate needs of the situation until help
arrives
apply first aid to injured people and self protection must be
considered
remember the primary objective of protecting lives, property and
the restoration of order
Maintain an Open Line of Communication
keep the dispatcher advised on the progress of the scene
continue directing the support units to the scene and the
general perimeter control
Establish a Command Post
follow what is in your contingency plan for civil disturbance
make every officer aware of the command post for proper
coordination
Take immediate action for serious violations
arrest perpetrators
isolate the leaders or agitators from the crowd
show full police force strength
Give the dispersal order
disperse the crowd upon order
anti-riot formations and procedures must be used
use of force necessary for dispersal maybe considered
What are the General Guidelines in Handling Riot?

Preplanning must be high on the agenda whenever the


department anticipates any disorder or major disturbance.

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Meet with responsible leaders at the scene and express your


concern for assuring them their constitutional guarantees.
Request them to disperse the crowd before attempting to
take police action.
Maintain order and attempt to quell the disturbance without
attempting to punish any of the violators.
Use only the force that is necessary but take positive and
decisive action.
Post the quarantine area with signs and barricades, if
necessary.
Keep the traffic lane open for emergency and support
vehicle.
Consider the fact that most impressive police action at the
scene of any type of major disturbance is the expeditious
removal of the leaders by a well-disciplined squad of
officers.

For riot control, consider the following:


Surprise Offensive The police action in its initial stages at
a riot must be dramatic. The elements of surprise may enhance
effectiveness of riot control
Security of Information Plans for action and communications
regarding the movement of personnel and equipment should be kept
confidential
Maximum utilization of Force A show of police force should be
made in a well-organized manner, compact, and efficient in a
military-type squad formations.
Flexibility of Assignments Officers and teams should be
flexibly assigned to various places where the need is greatest.
Simplicity Keep the plan as simple as possible and the
instructions are direct to avoid mass confusion among the
officers.
What are the Special Problems in Crowd Control and Anti-Riot
Operations?
Snipers Certain psychopathic people may attempt to take
advantage of the mass confusion and excitement at a riot scene
by taking a concealed position and shooting at people with some
type of weapons, usually rifle.
Arsonist Persons holding torch in their hands are potential
arsonists. They must be taken into custody immediately.

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Looters Acts of simple misdemeanor thefts or may consists of
robbery of breaking and entering. Take the suspects into custody
by whatever means are necessary.

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REFERENCES

www.rkmfiles.net.,Retrieved November 2012.


Manwong, Rommel K.; Delizo, Darlito Bernard- Law Enforcement
Administration, A Textbook in Criminology, Manila. RK Manwong
Publications, 2006.
Republic Act No. 6975, An Act Establishing the Philippines
National Police Under the Reorganized Department of the Interior
and Local Government and for other purposes.
Republic Act 9708, An act extending for five years the
reglementary period for complying with the minimum educational
qualification for appointment to the PNP and adjusting the
promotion system thereof is amending for the purpose pertinent
provisions of R.A 6975 and R.A. 8551 and for other purposes.
Soriano, Oscar G.; Police Organization and Administration: with
Police Planning and R.A 6975 and R.A. 8551,Great Books
Publishing,2011.
Manwong, Rommel K., Criminology Licensure Examination Review
Materials.
Compiled Lecture Notes, West Negros University, Bacolod City,
2007.
Criminology Licensure Examination Review Materials, Angeles
University Foundation Review Center.
www.pnp.gov.ph

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