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23

Probability and Statistics (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad


Code No: A109210302/R09

Set-3

II B.Tech. I Semester Examinations

May/June-2012

Solutions

PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS


( Common to ME, MECT, MEP, AME, CSE, MIE and MIM )

Time: 3 Hours

Max. Marks: 75
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
---

1.

(a)

Two dice are thrown 4 times. Getting a sum of 9 on the faces is a success. Find the probability that the sum gets.
(i)

Twice

(ii) Three times. (Unit-II, Topic No. 2.1)


(b)

If the probability that a bolt to be defective is


(i)

1
. Find,
8

The mean

(ii) The variance for the distribution of defective bolts of 640. [7+8] (Unit-I, Topic No. 1.8)
2.

(a)

Write about the different states of the Stochastic process. (Unit-VIII, Topic No. 8.1)

(b)

0 2 / 3 1/ 3
The three state markov chain is given by the transition probability matrix P = 1/ 2 0 1/ 2 . Prove that

1/ 2 1/ 2 0
the chain is irreducible. [15] (Unit-VIII, Topic No. 8.2)

3.

(a)

If A and B are any two events, then prove that,


P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B). (Unit-I, Topic No. 1.4)

(b)

1
sin x in,
Probability density function of a random variable f(x) = 2
0,

(i)

0x

. Find,

elsewhere

The mean

(ii) Mode
(iii) Median

(iv) p 0 < x <


4.

. [7+8] (Unit-I, Topic No. 1.8)


2

A manufacture claimed that atleast 95% of the equipment which he supplied to factory conformed to specifications.
An examination of a sample of 200 pieces of equipment revealed that 180 were faulty. Test his claim at a significant
level of,
(a) 0.05
(b) 0.01. [15] (Unit-IV, Topic No. 4.2)
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S.24
5.

6.

Spectrum ALL-IN-ONE Journal for Engineering Students, 2012

(a)

In a certain factory there are two independent processes for manufacturing the same item. The average weight
in a sample of 250 items produced from one process is found to be 120 gms with a standard deviation of 12 gms
while the corresponding figures is a sample of 400 items from the other process are 124 and 14. Is there
significant difference between the mean (test at 95% level). (Unit-III, Topic No. 3.28)

(b)

A sample of 100 students id found to have a mean height of 160 cms. Can this be regarded as a sample from a
population with mean height of 165 cms and standard deviation 25 cms. [8+7] (Unit-III, Topic No. 3.7)

(a)

In an investigation on the machine performance the following results are obtained,


Number of units inspected

Number of defectives

Machine 1

375

17

Machine 2

450

22

Test whether there is any significant performance of two machines at = 0.05. (Unit-IV, Topic No. 4.3)
(b)

A firm manufacturing rivets wants to limit variations in their length as much as possible. The length (in cms) of
10 rivets manufactured by a new process are,
2.15, 1.99, 2.05, 2.12, 2.17, 2.01, 1.98, 2.03, 2.25, 1.93
Examine whether the new process can be considered superior to the old if the old population has standard
deviation 0.145 cm. [15] (Unit-III, Topic No. 3.9)

7.

Show that if Ui and Vi are the deviations of the variables xi and yi from their respective means then,

1
r=1
2N

1
r=1+
2N
8.

i =1

L =1

U i Vi (or)
x y

U i Vi . [15] (Unit-VI, Topic No. 6.1)


x y

Customers arrive at a one window drive-in bank according to a poisson distribution is exponential with mean 5
minutes. The car space in front in front of the window including that for the serviced can accamadate a maximum of
3 cars can wait outside the space,
(a)

What is the probability that an arriving customer can drive directly to space infront of the window?

(b)

What is the probability that an arriving customer can drive directly to space infornt of the window?

(c)

How long is an arriving customer expected to wait before starting service? [15] (Unit-VII, Topic No. 7.4)

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Probability and Statistics (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad

S.25

SOLUTIONS TO MAY/JUNE-2012, SET-3, QP


Q1.

(a)

Two dice are thrown 4 times. Getting a sum of 9 on the faces is a success. Find the probability
that the sum gets,
(i) Twice
(ii) Three times.
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q1(a) M[7]
Given that,
n =4
S = sample space consists of 36 elements
S = {(1,1), (1,2), (1,3), (1,4), (1,5), (1,6), (2,1), (2,2), (2,3), (2,4), (2,5), (2,6), (3,1), (3,2), (3,3), (3,4), (3,5), (3,6),
(4,1), (4,2), (4,3), (4,4), (4,5), (4,6), (5,1), (5,2), (5,3), (5,4), (5,5), (5,6), (6,1), (6,2), (6,3), (6,4), (6,5), (6,6)}
Let p be the probability of getting 9 as sum.
The possible events are = {(3,6), (6,3), (4,5), (5,4)}
Total number of events = 4
p=

p=

4
1
=
36 9
1
9

Let q be the probability of not getting a sum of 9.

q=1p=1

1 8
=
9 9

From binomial distribution, we have,


B(x, n, p) = n C x p x q n x
(i)

Twice
The probability of getting a sum of 9 two times (i..e, twice) is given by,
2

1 8
9 9

42

p(x = 2) = 4 C2

1 8

81 9

= 4 C2

1 64

81 81

=6

384
6561

p(x = 2) =

128
2187

p(x = 2) = 0.0585
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S.26
(ii)

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Three Time Thrice


The probability of getting a sum of 9 three times (i.e., thrice) is given by,
3

1 8
p(x = 3) = C3
9 9

4 3

1 8
p(x = 3) = C3
9 9
3

1 8
9 9

p(x = 3) = 4 =

32
6561

p(x = 3) = 4.877 103


p(x = 3) = 0.004877
(b)

If the probability that a bolt to be defective is


(i)

1
. Find,
8

The mean

(ii) The variance for the distribution of defective bolts of 640.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q1(b) M[8]

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-I, Q63.
Q2.

(a)

Write about the different states of the stochastic process.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q2(a)

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-VIII, Q1.

(b)

The three state markov chain is given by the transition probability matrix P = 12
1
2

0
1

0
1

Prove that the chain is irreducible.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q2(b)

Answer :
Given that the three state of markov chain is given by the transition matrix

1
P=
2

1
2

2
3
0
1
2

1
3

1
2

The condition for irreducible markov chain is,

Pij( n ) > 0

[ for some n value and i and j]

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Probability and Statistics (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad

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Then, it can be said that a state can be reached from every other state.

0
00

P= 1 1 2

2 1 2
0

P = P P= 1 2

1 2
2

0
1

1
2
0

0
1
2
1 2

0 0 + 1 2 2 3 + 13 1 2

P2 = 1 2 0 + 0 1 2 + 1 2 1 2
1 2 0 + 1 2 1 2 + 0 1 2

0 + 1 3 + 1 6

P2 = 0 + 0 + 1 4
0 + 1 4 + 0

0 + 0 + 13 1 2
1 2 +0+ 1 1
2
3
2
2
1 2 +0+0
2
3

0 + 0 + 16
1 +0+ 1
3
4
1 +0+0
3

0 + 2 3 12 + 0

1 1 +0+0
2
3

1 1 + 1 1 + 0
2
3
2
2

0 + 13 + 0
1 +0+0
6

1 + 1 + 0
6
4

0.5 0.1666 0.3333

P2 = 0.25 05833 0.1666


0.25 0.3333 0.4166
0.5 0.1666 0.3333

P3 = P2 P= 0.25 05833 0.1666


0.25 0.3333 0.4166

1
2

1
2

2
3
0
1
2

1
3

1
2

0.5 2 3 + 0 + 0.10.33 1 2
0.5 13 + 0.16 1 2 + 0
0 + 0.1666 1 2 + 0.3333 1 2

P3 = 0.25 0 + 0.58 1 2 + 0.16 1 2 0.25 2 3 + 0.58 0 + 0.16 1 2 0.25 1 2 + 0.58 1 2 + 0


0.25 0 + 0.33 1 2 + 0.416 1 2
0.25 2 3 + 0 + 0.416 1 2
0.25 1 3 + 0.3 1 2 + 0

0.5
0.25
0.25

P = 0.375 0.25 0.375

0.375 0.375 0.25


3

Q For P2 and P3, Pij > 0


Therefore, it can be said that the given markov chain is irreducible.
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S.28
Q3.

(a)

Spectrum ALL-IN-ONE Journal for Engineering Students, 2012


n = Sample size = 200 (given)
X = Number of faulty items = 180 (given)

If A and B are any two events, then prove


that,
P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B).

p=

May/June-12, Set-3, Q3(a) M[7]

Answer :

For answer refer Unit-I, Q11.


(b)

Probability density function of a random


1
sin x in 0 x
variable f(x) = 2
0
elsewhere

180
200

p = 0.9

Z=

Find,
(i)

X
n

The mean

0.9 0.95
0.95 0.05
200

(ii) Mode
(iii) Median

Z=

(iv) p 0 < x < .

2
Z=

May/June-12, Set-3, Q3(b) M[8]

Answer :

For answer refer Unit-I, Q76.


A manufacture claimed that atleast 95% of
the equipment which he supplied to factory
conformed to specifications. An examination
of a sample of 200 pieces of equipment
revealed that 180 were faulty. Test his claim
at a significant level of,
(a) 0.05
(b) 0.01.
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q4 M[15]
Q4.

(i)

(ii)

Null hypothesis (H0): p = 0.95


Alternative hypothesis (H1): P < 0.95
Level of significance: = 0.05
Test statistic
Q5.
Z=

Where,

PQ
n

p = 0.95
Q = 1 p = 1 0.95

Q = 0.05

0.05
0.0154

Z = 3.244

Given that,

pP

0.05
0.0475
200

(Calculated value)

0.05
Z = 1.645
(Tabulated value at 0.05 level of significance)
3.244 < 1.645
Q Z < Z
Null hypothesis H0 is rejected
0.01
Z = 3.244
(Calculated value)
Z = 2.33
(Tabulated value at 0.01 level of significance)
3.244 < 2.33
Q Z < Z
Null hypothesis H0 is rejected.
(a) In a certain factory there are two independent processes for manufacturing the
same item. The weight in a sample of
250 items produced from one process is
found to be 120 gms with a standard deviation of 12 gms while the corresponding figures is a sample of 400 items from
the other process are 124 and 14. Is there
significant difference between the mean
(test at 95% level).
May/June-12, Set-3, Q5(a) M[8]

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Probability and Statistics (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad

S.29

Answer :
Given that,
Size of first sample, n1 = 250
Size of second sample, n2 = 400
Mean of first sample, x1 = 120 gms
Mean of second sample, x2 = 124 gms
S.D of first sample, S1 = 12 gms
S.D of second sample, S2 = 14 gms
Level of significance, = 95%
Null Hypothesis H0
There is no significance difference between the two means i.e., x1 = x2
Alternative Hypothesis H1
There is significant difference between the two means i.e., x1 x2
We know that, the test statistic,
Z=

x1 x2
S12

n1
=

S 22

144 196
+
250 400

1.066

(12) 2 (14) 2
+
250
400

n2

120 124

4
0.576 + 0.49

4
1.0325

Z = 3.874
|Z| = | 3.9| =3.9
The tabulated value of Z at 95% level of significance is 1.96. Since, the calculated value of Z is greater than the
tabulated value of Z i.e., 3.9 > 1.96, the null hypothesis H0 is rejected.
Thus, there is a significant different between the average of these two samples i.e., x1 x2 .
(b)

A sample of 100 students id found to have a mean height of 160 cms. Can this be regarded as
a sample from a population with mean height of 165 cms and standard deviation 25 cms.
Answer :
May/June-12, Set-3, Q5(b) M[7]
Given that,
Sample size, n = 100
Mean height = 160 cms
Standard deviation, = 25 cms
Mean of sample ( x ) = 165 cms
Null Hypothesis H0
The given sample has been taken from a population with mean height i.e., = 165 cms.
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Alternative Hypothesis H1
The given sample has not been taken from a population with mean height i.e., 165 cms
Assume level of significance, = 5%
We know that, test statistic,
Z=

Z=

Z=

n
165 160
5
=
25
25
10
100
5
10 = 2
25

Z =2
The tabulated value of Z at 5% level of significance is 1.96 for two-tailed test.
As the calculated value of Z is greater than tabulated value for 5% level of significance i.e., 2 > 1.96 the null
hypothesis is rejected.
Thus, the given sample has not been taken from a population with mean height i.e., 165.
Q6.

(a)

In a investigation on the machine performance the following results are obtained,


Number of units inspected

Number of defectives

Machine 1

375

17

Machine 2

450

22

Test whether there is any significant performance of two machines at = 0.05.


May/June-12, Set-3, Q6(a)

Answer :
For answer refer Nov.-10, Set-4, Q4(a).
(b)

A firm manufacturing rivets wants to limit variations in their length as much as possible. The
length (in cms) of 10 rivets manufactured by a new process are,
2.15, 1.99, 2.05, 2.12, 2.17, 2.01, 1.98, 2.03, 2.25, 1.93
Explain whether the new process can be considered superior to the old if the old population
has standard deviation 0.145 cm.
May/June-12, Set-3, Q6(b)

Answer :
For answer refer Unit-III, Q70.
Q7.

Show that, if Ui and Vi are the deviations of the variables xi and yi from their respective means,
then,

1
r=1
2N

i =1

U i Vi (or)
x y

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Probability and Statistics (May/June-2012, Set-3) JNTU-Hyderabad


N

1
r=1+
2N

L =1

S.31

U i Vi .
x y

May/June-12, Set-3, Q7(a) M[15]

Answer :

Let, Ui and Vi be the deviations of the variables xi and yi from their mean and x and y be their corresponding standard
deviation.
U i Vi

Let us consider,
y
i =1 x
N

U
V
i i =
i =1
x
y
N

[Q (a b)2 = a2 + b2 2ab]

U i2 Vi 2 2U iVi
2 + 2

x
y
x
y
i =1

2x

But we know that

i =1

2
i

i =1

2y

2
i

Vi 2

i =1

x y

... (1)

2
i

i =1

= N,

2x

i =1

2y

=N

Vi
Ui2
i =1
=
=N

2
2y
i =1 x
N

... (2)

U V
And,

r=

i =1

i i

N x y
N

U V
Nr =

i =1

i i

N x y

... (3)

Substituting equations (2) and (3) in equation (1), we get,


2

U i Vi = N + N Nr

y
i =1 x
N

U i Vi = 2N 2 Nr

y
i =1 x
N

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Spectrum ALL-IN-ONE Journal for Engineering Students, 2012

U i Vi
2Nr = 2N

y
i =1 x
N

2N
1
r=

2N
2N

1
r = 1
2N

U i Vi

y
i =1 x
N

U i Vi


i =1 x
y
N

Hence proved.
Q8.

Customers arrive at a one window drive-in bank according to a poisson distribution is exponential
with mean 5 minutes. The car space in front in front of the window including that for the serviced
can accamadate a maximum of 3 cars can wait outside the space.
(a)

What is the probability that an arriving customer can drive directly to space in front of the
window?

(b)

What is the probability that an arriving customer can drive directly to space infornt of the
window?

(c)

How long is an arriving customer expected to wait before starting service?


May/June-12, Set-3, Q8 M[15]

Note: The given question is incorrect. The correct question is,


Customers arrive at a one window drive in bank according to a Poisson distribution with mean 10
per hour. Service time per customer is exponential with mean 5 minutes. The car space in front of
the window including that for the serviced can accommodate a maximum of 3 cars. Other cars
can wait outside the space.
(i)

What is the probability that an arriving customer can drive directly to the space in front of the
window?

(ii)

What is the probability that an arriving customer will have to wait outside the indicated
space?

(iii) How long is an arriving customer expected to wait before starting service.
Answer :
For answer refer Unit-VII, Q18.

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