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Composition

The Early Sumerian list encompasses four chronological sublists, broken down as
follows:
I/1a - Early Sumerian (3000-2800 BC)
1x 3Bd (Gen)

Sumerian CnC with household retainers and nobles with sickle


swords and axes of bronze..

8x 4Bw

Household & militia archers.

3x 2Ps

Levies (settled and/or nomadic) with slings, javelins and/or


bows.

I/1b - Early Sumerian (2799-2500 BC)


1x HCh (Gen)

Sumerian CnC with retainers/nobles on four wheeled battlecars


drawn by donkey/onager hybrids.

6x 4Pk

Well-organized spear phalanxes formed from household troops


and city-state militias.

2x 4Pk or 4Bd
3x 2Ps

More spearmen or Kish household axemen (4Bd).


Levies (settled and/or nomadic) with slings, javelins and/or
bows.

I/1c - Early Sumerian (2500-2334 BC)


1x 4Pk or HCh (Gen)

Sumerian CnC with retainers/nobles either dismounted with his


spear phalanx or mounted on four wheeled battlecars drawn by
donkey/onager hybrids.

1x HCh

Battle cars.

6x 4Pk

Well-organized spear phalanxes formed from household troops


and city-state militias.

1x 4Pk or 3Bd

More spearmen or Kish axemen.

1x 3Ax or 2Ps

Martu mercenaries (3Ax) in service of Umma or Apishal,


otherwise levies (2Ps).

2x 2Ps

Levies (settled and/or nomadic) with slings, javelins and/or


bows.

II/1d - Sumerian Revolt (2250 BC)


1x 4Pk or HCh (Gen)

Sumerian CnC with retainers/nobles either dismounted with his


spear phalanx or mounted on four wheeled battlecars drawn by
donkey/onager hybrids.

1x HCh

Battle cards

4x 4Pk

Well-organized spear phalanxes formed from household troops


and city-state militias.

1x 4Pk or 3Bd

More spearmen or Kish axemen.

2x 7Hd

Levies and emergency reserves.

1x 3Ax or 2Ps

Martu or Zagros Highland mercenaries (3Ax) in service of


Umma or Apishal, otherwise levies (2Ps).

2x 2Ps

Levies (settled and/or nomadic) with slings, javelins and/or


bows.

One disappointment is that the DBA 2 lists no longer support the Sumerian StraddleCars (LCh), which Barker suggests were used as couriers and scouts, but apparently not
in battle formation.

Akkad
Searching for a new period of history to wargame on holidays, I decided to choose a
period that markedly based its social life on warfare, Mesopotamia since 3000 B.C., and
the Akkadian period. Specifically, I decided to concentrate myself on the conquests of
Sargon, founder of the dynasty of Akkad.
This empire made warfare its principal way to obtain financial or economic profits,
creating a political and social steadiness, apparently strong and self supported. The
Sargon's Legend counselled warfare as a way of life, the sieges as the tactics, the use of
weapons as the solution, and conquest the goal. This way, Sargon built up a real
commercial empire. Since then, his campaigns aimed to send away the threat of others
political, military and economic competitors.
The conquest of this empire by Sargon in 2334 B.C. resulted on a profound alteration on
the armament and the structure of the ancient war machine. A lighter armed bow army
was the preponderant element on the outcome of the confrontation with the Sumer
armies, which presented a different morphology. The Sumer army was much heavier in
terms of its equipment, wearing helmets and shields of copper or bronze, and
manoeuvred in its typical closed formation - "the Sumerian apple."
On the contrary, the Akkadian armies were equipped in a lightness form, did not wear
the copper elements, becoming more swift on manoeuvring, together with the use of the
bows that allowed distant fight, giving them a incontestable superiority. Only an
extremely mobile army would permit an easy and quick capacity of manoeuvre,
important to establish a difference on the strategic equilibrium on the Mesopotamia
world. That was what made Sargon victorious.

The technical advantage of that bow allowed shooting down their foes at a distance.
Besides this factor, there was also the fact that the army would manoeuvre more quickly
and easily in comparison with the block pike formations. Thus, the Akkadian bowmen
had an important role, as the battle result would depend upon their capacity to decimate
the compact the Sumer shield ranks, creating breaches through which to infiltrate
infantry armed with axes, spears and daggers.
Observing the army lists, I noticed that I/11(a) army presents five elements of light
troops (4 x 2 Ps and 1 x 7 Hd), which in fact gives some lightness to this army.
However, the fundamental strategic element of Sargon (Bw) is not contemplated . Thus,
I elaborated a proposition for a variant army list, that in my point of view, is more
according with historical reality and which express the factor that made it possible for
Sargon to conquer and maintain his empire.
DBA I/11. (a)

Variant Army for I/11. (a)

Akkadian 2334BC-2139BC

Akkadian 2334BC-2139BC

HCh (Gen)

3Sp or 4Pk

4 Pk

4Pk

2Ps

2Ps

7Hd

2Ps or 7Hd

4Bw

HCh (Gen)
3Sp, 4Pk or 4Bw

Substituting the four bases of Ps for Bw and allowing an option for one more Bw,
reducing the Pk in a way to make the army more swift, light and effective.
In terms of the DBA tactical warfare factor interpretation, emerges the principal
problem. This is the incapacity of Bw to confront and became superior against Pk. The
unique solution is, in this case, to attribute a factor (+ 4 vs Pk, thus making a +1
difference) more accordingly to that historical reality, in such a way that the Sumerian
commander could experiment and understand the difficulty on holding the Akkadian
forces. That advantage, mathematically speaking, gives to the bows 21 victories, 5
pushes and 10 defeats, on a 10 for 1 proportion.
This fact suggests that apart from the high degree of playability and pleasure of the
DBA game, it reverts that punctual situations suffer the process of generalisation
(however this generalisation is understandable). At last, I state here the idea for keeping
the rules, the basic structure (philosophy), as they are, changing only the combat factor
for three to four main historical periods in history: Pre-Classic, Classic, Dark ages
and/or Medieval.
Early Egyptians

Composition
The Old & Middle Kingdom Egyptian army was comprised primarily of spear and
bowmen, each recruited from three different classes: Shemsu (retainers), Ahauty
(warriors) and Nome (conscripts). In addition, there was a small proportion of the army
(i.e. groups of Ahauty and the famous Menhat Axemen) who carried waraxes.
Old
Kingdom
(I/2a)

Middle
Kingdom
(I/2b)

Notes

1x 4Bd or Lit
(Gen)

1x LCh (Gen)

Pharaoh or General with his Shemshu


(retainers)

5x 4Bw

4x 4Bw

Ahouty (warrior class) archers

2x 3Bd

3x 3Bd

Ahouty (warrior class), including Menfat


axemen, marines, and spearmen of the
residence.

1x 3Bd or 3Bw

More Ahouty or Medjay/Nubian archers.

1x 7Hd

Nome (Egyptian conscripts)

2x 2Ps

Egyptian Javelinmen (w/quiver carriers),


Bedouin slingers, and/or Medjay/Nubian
archers

The DBM Early Egyptian (I/2) army list allows for up to 8 javelinmen with quiver
carriers as Reg. Ax(O) or Reg. Ps(S), which suggests that at least one of the 2Ps
elements could be reclassed as 1x 3Ax or 2Ps. The DBM list also allows for upgrading
the CnC element as Reg. Cv (O) after 1640 BC, which suggests that the I/2b CnC
should be revised as 1x LCh or Cv (Gen).

Tactics
Historically, the close fighters formed lines or columns in the center of the battleline
supported by archers and lighter auxiliaries on the wings. The archers would discharge a
rain of arrows at short range, and then the spear and axe-armed fighters would close for
the decisive melee. Middle Kingdom chariots were primarily missile platforms, often
held in reserve to be unleased in the pursuit.

Numidian Army Composition


2LH

The famous Numidian light horsemen

2Ps or
3AX

The not so famous Numidian light foot. The primary


sources recount the Numidians either fighting

loosely, as guerrillas, from ambush and raiding


which would suit the 2Ps choice while at times they
faced off the Romans in battle lines which would
suit the 3Ax option.

El

African elephants were employed in the armies of


Jugurtha and Juba

3Cv or
2Lh

Generals element, Cavalry option are Spanish/Gallic


mercenaries, who formed Juba's bodyguard

3/4Aux
or 4Bd

Aux are Roman trained foot, Gaetuli, Spanish


scutari, or Ligurian deserters. Blade are imitation
legionaries or Roman deserters.

Moorish Army Composition


3Cv or 2LH

Generals element. Cavalry are bodyguards.

2LH

Moorish horsemen

2Ps

Moorish infantry