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Assessment of Health and safety in Rehabilitation

of Galle Road project

Student No. 14000805


Civil and Environmental Engineering
Northshore College of Business and Technology
Date 7 April 2014

Table of Contents

Rehabilitation of Galle road. 2


Roles and Responsibilities of the Contractor .. 3
Hazards during construction 5

Workers occupational hazards 5


Hazards faced by general public. 5

Risk Assessment 6

Risk rating of occupational hazards 7


Risk rating of hazards faced by general public 7

Prevention of slips and trips 8

Uneven surfaces
Obstacles.
Cables
Slippery or wet surface

8
8
8
9

Hazards identified in Galle road rehabilitation project 10


References

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Rehabilitation of Galle Road


Thousands of people use the Galle road every day; it is by far one of the most used roads in Sri
Lanka. Until the Sothern Expressway came in operation this was the main gateway along the
coastline to the Southern part of the country. The road was originally owned to Road Development
Authority (RDA) but at present regular operations and maintenance work is handled by the CMC,
which is the agency responsible for the administration of the Colombo city.
The project is done by International Construction Consortium (ICC) (pvt) Ltd at an estimated cost of
Rs. 1131 Million.
Since the project is of large scale and involves a huge labour force there is an obligation to
investigate and review the role of ICC under the ICTAD Conditions of Contract regarding hazards or
any associated risks during the period of contract.
A site visit was undertaken and possible hazards and risks in the project were identified and
assessed.

Roles and responsibilities of the Contractor


According to the ICTAD conditions of contract the Contractor is solely responsible for the Health and
Safety of the workers employed in the construction process. The contractor is also responsible for
health and safety of the general public near the work site during the construction process. Therefore
the contractor should take many necessary steps to prevent such incidents

A summary of the Contractors roles and responsibility under ICTAD Conditions of Contract
is given below.
Contractor shall take full responsibility for adequate stability and safety of all site operations
and methods of construction
Contractor is responsible for the provision and maintenance of appropriate road signs exhibited
at both ends to give traffic clear direction
From the commencement of the works until the completion, the contractor shall take full
responsibility for the care hereof. In case any damage loss or injury shall happen to the works or to
any part thereof, from any cause whatsoever, save and except the excepted risks of while the
contractor shall be responsible for the care there of the contractor shall at his own cost, repair and
make good the same.
Any occurrences due to the forces of nature such as earthquake or any such operation of the
forces of nature which as an experienced contractor could not foresee or reasonably make provision
for or insure against, all of which are here in collectively referred to as the excepted risks.
Injuries or damages to persons or property resulting from any act or neglect of the employer,
his agent, servants or other contractors, not being employed by the contractor
Contractor shall at all-time take all responsible precautions to prevent any unlawful, riotous or
disorderly conduct by any among his employees and for the preservation of peace and protection of
person and protection of property in the neighbourhood or the works against the same
Contractor shall not be permitted to have excavations open on both sides of the road in a way
creating danger to traffic
If traffic is not possible to pass on the road; a temporary diversion close to road should be
displayed properly
Warning signs, painted barrels and warning tapes should be displayed to separate the
contractors material and equipment and the contractors working area from road way. At night time
red lanterns or warning lights shall be mounted on barricades, reflective tapes and stickers should be
placed on the barrels

According to regulations the contractor should form a Joint Health and Safety committee, since the
project will take more than 3 months to complete and consists of more than 20 workers. The
contractor should make sure that the workers are qualified to their job (e.g. electrician, welder, etc.)
and also make sure that all the workers in the site are at least 18 years of age. The contractor must
complete the Ministry of Labour (MoL) Registration form.

Before commencement of the construction work the Joint Health and Safety committee must
prepare the Occupational Health and Safety Plan, the OHS Plan. OHS plan contains detailed accounts
of all the identified hazards in the work site and possible ways to reduce or neutralize them.
The OHS plan can be divided into two parts, one focusing on the hazards pertaining on workers and
the other on hazard prevention of general public during each stage of the road construction.
Outline below are the steps to be taken regarding the health and safety of workers

Appointment of a Safety coordinator or Safety representative who has prior knowledge in


Health and Safety hazards in construction and their prevention techniques.
Preparation of the initial health and safety assessment of the jobsite.
Train workers in possible health and safety hazards and prevention methods
Providing workers with personal protective equipment and enforcing its use.
Make regular worksite safety inspections to identify possible new hazards.

Outlined below are the steps to be taken regarding the health and safety of the general public.

The general public in the vicinity of the construction site should be gathered and enlightened
on possible hazards pertaining the construction process and should be briefed on possible
ways to avoid them.
Temporary traffic management plan should be created which includes Traffic diversion ,
speed limits and signs
Road signage should be put us such as the use of cones, lane tapering, lane widths,
markings, safety zones, signals, signs and etc. for a variety of roadwork scenarios.
Where roadwork activities require the managing of traffic or pedestrians in nearby public
areas, trained flagmen (to slow down traffic) or trained stop-go men (to halt traffic) can be
used to ensure safety.
Vehicle crash barriers should be installed around road work in live traffic zones.
Sufficient lightings should be installed near road works at night so that vehicles are warned
of the location of the construction sites.

Once the OHS plan is prepared and implemented the contractor should make regular reassessment
of the plan and make suitable changes to it to maximize its effectiveness.
The contractor should ensure that there is ready access to the workers a telephone, two-way radio,
or any other system in the event of an emergency. The contractor should also inform any fatalities,
critical injuries or any other prescribed incidents to the Ministry of Labour.
Contractor shall at all-times take all responsible precautions to prevent any unlawful, riotous or
disorderly conduct by any among his employees and for the preservation of peace and protection of
person and protection of property in the neighbourhood or the works against the same
On completion of the works the contractor has to clear away all construction plants, remaining
unused materials, garbage and the temporary works and leave the site keeping it clean and neat.

Hazards during Construction


There are many hazards that pertain during the road construction process. These Hazards are
classified below as Hazard faced by the workers and Hazard faced by the general public

Workers Occupational Hazards


Occupational Hazard
Electric shock from exposed wires
Slips and trips

Falling objects from above


Being struck by traffic

Receiving injuries from hand tools

Being struck or crushed by a


workplace vehicle
Loud noise
Exposure to dangerous substances
(chemical and biological
Bad working positions
Dehydration due to heat
Inhalation of dust

Control Measure
Prevented by wearing insulated boots, hard hat and insulated
gloves
Prevented by clearly labelling pits, trenches, wet floors or any
other surface that can cause workers to slip or trip and putting up
perimeter fencing or taping around them.
Prevented by wearing hard hats and steel toe boots
Prevented by installation of proper road signage and by the
installation of traffic cones and vehicle crash barriers. During night
time the workers must be forced to wear reflective clothing so
that they can be easily spotted by incoming vehicles.
Prevented by making sure the worker has enough training to use
the tool and by making sure the tool is maintained properly and is
in mint condition.
By the use of siren sounds and blinking light signal to alert nearby
workers before moving the vehicle.
Prevented by the use of ear plugs
Prevented by the use of protective gloves, gas masks, eye googles
and protective clothing.
Prevented by giving workers training on good posture
Prevented by advising the workers to take regular rest and to take
regular fluid intakes such as water or tea.
By the use of dustproof masks.

Hazard faced by the general public


Hazard
Falling objects from above (e.g. during street
lamp installation)

Control measure
Prevented by use of netting, toe boards and
putting restriction boundaries around
construction area.
Prevented by putting restriction boundaries
around construction area and by the use of
sirens and horns during the movement of
vehicles into and out of site.
Prevented by storing materials within the site
and putting perimeter fencing.
Prevented by clearly labelling pits, trenches, wet
floors or any other surface that can cause
workers to slip or trip and putting up perimeter
fencing or taping around them.
Prevented by putting up barriers

Being struck or crushed by a workplace vehicle

Collapse of stored or stacked materials into


public
Slips and trips

Dust and debris shatter

Risk Assessment
Risk assessment is the determination of quantitative or qualitative value of risk related to a concrete
situation and a recognized hazard. Risk assessments are important because contractors must look at
all work activities that could cause harm in order to decide whether they are doing enough to meet
their legal obligations. Risk assessment is a part of the OHS plan and is done before commencement
of the construction process.
The risk associated with a hazard is calculated by the product of the likelihood of the hazard and the
impact rating of the hazard.
The impact rating of a hazard is assigned according to magnitude of the impact on workers and
public, below is the impact rating table
Impact
No injuries
Negligible injuries
Minor injuries (Temporary damage to body)
Major injuries(Permanent damage to body)
Single fatality
Multiple fatalities

Rating
1
2
3
4
5
6

The likelihood of a hazard is the probability of a hazard taking place and was estimated from
Construction accidents statistics in UK in 2012/2013 taken from the Health and Safety Executive of
Great Britain.
The likelihood of a hazard is also classified according to the probability of the hazard taking place. The
likelihood rating table is given below
Likelihood

Rating
1
2
3
4
5

Possible to occur (0%-5%)


A rare occurrence (5%-25%)
Not very likely to occur (25%-50%)
Likely to occur (50%-75%)
Very likely to occur (75%-100%)

The risk assessment of the hazards face by the workers is given below;
Occupational Hazard
Electric shock from exposed wires
Slips and trips
Falling objects from above
Being struck by traffic
Receiving injuries from hand tools
Being struck or crushed by a workplace
vehicle
Loud noise
Vibration from tools or vibrating
machinery
Exposure to dangerous substances
(chemical and biological
Bad working positions
Dehydration due to heat
Inhalation of dust

Likelihood
2
4
4
2
3
1

Impact
5
3
4
5
2
5

Risk
10
12
16
10
6
5

1
3

2
1

2
3

3
2
2

2
2
1

6
4
2

Therefore through the assessment it can be seen that slips and trips, electric shock and falling object
have the highest risk rating hence those are the hazards that need the most care taken to prevent.

The risk assessment of the hazards face by the general public is given below

Hazard faced by general public


Falling objects from above (e.g. during street lamp
installation)
Being struck or crushed by a workplace vehicle
Collapse of stored or stacked materials into public
Slips and trips
Dust and debris shatter

Likelihood
3

Impact
4

Risk
12

2
3
5
5

5
4
3
2

10
12
15
10

Therefore through the assessment it can be seen that slips and trips, collapse of stored materials and
falling object have the highest risk rating hence those are the hazards that need the most care taken
to prevent.

Prevention of Slips and trips


Through the assessment it can be found that slips and trips seem to the most dangerous hazard
affecting both workers employed and the general public.
The construction accidents statistics in UK in the year 2012/2013 tells that 28% of major injuries and
23% of minor injuries in UK is caused by slips and trips
The major causes of slips and trips are;

Uneven surfaces
Obstacles
Cables
Slippery or wet surface

Uneven surfaces
Uneven surfaces are one of the major causes of accidents in road construction. The unevenly
finished curbs, trenches and raised pile of ground all are prone to trip workers and cause them to
fall.
Possible ways to prevent slips and fall due to uneven surfaces are;

Workers using suitable footwear


Warning signs and proper lighting conditions
Providing designated walk paths and providing proper walking conditions such as placing
even wood sheets on top of uneven surfaces for people to walk on.

Obstacles
People tend to trip and fall when there is a unexpected obstacle in their pathway, these obstacles
are because someone has left something in the pathway such as tools, water bottles or garbage.
Possible ways to prevent slips and trips due to obstacles are;

Having proper cleaning routines


Providing dustbins for workers and pubic near site so that they dont throw away their
garbage in the site
Having designated walk paths
Providing proper lighting conditions

Cables
Many slips and trips occur due to cables. Possible ways to prevent slips and trips due to cable are;

Using cordless tools as much as possible


Making sure cables are not left lying around especially in the designated walk paths
Providing proper lighting conditions.

Slippery or wet surfaces


Slippery and wet surfaces are one of the major causes of accidents due to slips and trips. Possible
ways to prevent slips and trips due to slippery and wet surface are;

Placing signs at slippery floors


Providing temporary cover
Providing dry designated pathway

Therefore by using the above techniques the risk caused by slips and trips to the public and the
workers can be avoided.

Hazards Identified in Galle road rehabilitation project


Provided below are some of the neglected hazards identified during the road construction site visit
Unprotected excavation next to a pedestrian crossing in
wellawatta, creates a possibility of civilians or workers to
trip and fall.

Open and unprotected trench just next to pavement, there is also


lots of sharp tools creating a possibility of civilians or workers to
trip and fall into the trench with sharp tools which can be fatal

Uneven surface in the pedestrian walking paths which can cause


people to trip and fall.

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Reference
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