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Просмотров: 34 стр.Physics Discussion of theory

Dec 06, 2014

Physics Tak Dot 2

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Physics Discussion of theory

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Physics Tak Dot 2

Physics Discussion of theory

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type of motion and discuss its properties; thus, for instance, some have imagined helices and conchoids as described by

certain motions which are not met with in nature, and have very commendably established the properties which these

curves possess in virtue of their definitionsbut we have decided to consider the phenomena of bodies falling with an

acceleration such as actually occurs in nature and to make this definition of accelerated motion exhibit the essential

features of observed accelerated motions. And this, at last, after repeated efforts we trust we have succeeded in

doing. In this belief we are confirmed mainly by the consideration that experimental results are seen to agree with

and exactly correspond with those properties which have been, one after another, demonstrated by us. When,

therefore, I observe a stone initially at rest falling from an elevated position and continually acquiring new increments

of speed, why should I not believe that such increases take place in a manner which is exceedingly simple and rather

obvious to everybody? If now we examine the matter carefully we find no addition or increment simpler than that

which repeats itself always in the same manner. This we readily understand when we consider the intimate

relationship between time and motion; for just as uniformity of motion is defined by and conceived through equal times

and equal spaces (thus we call a motion uniform when equal distances are traversed during equal time-intervals), so also

we may, in a similar manner, through equal time-intervals, conceive additions of speed as taking place without

complication; thus we may picture to our mind a motion as uniformly and continuously accelerated when, during any

equal intervals of time whatever, equal increments of speed are given to it. Thus if any equal intervals of time

whatever have elapsed, counting from the time at which the moving body left its position of rest and began to descend,

the amount of speed acquired during the first two time-intervals will be double that acquired during the first timeinterval alone; so the amount added during three of these time-intervals will be treble; and that in four, quadruple that

of the first time interval. To put the matter more clearly, if a body were to continue its motion with the same speed

which it had acquired during the first time-interval and were to retain this same uniform speed, then its motion would

be twice as slow as that which it would have if its velocity had been acquired during two time intervals. And thus, it

seems, we shall not be far wrong if we put the increment of speed as proportional to the increment of time; hence

the definition of motion which we are about to discuss may be stated as follows: A motion is said to be uniformly

accelerated, when starting from rest, it acquires, during equal time-intervals, equal increments of speed.

Kinematics is the branch of physics that studies the motion of a body or system without reference to force or acceleration. The term

Kinematics began usage in the mid-19th century and comes from the greek kinemat which means "motion." One of the best examples

of Kinematics would be uniform accelerated motion where uniform means constant or motion with constant acceleration.

Motion is one of the important topics of physics. We know that if we are not in moving state but still earth is moving. Motion is the part of the

mechanics branch of physics. Many laws are given for describing the concept of motion and change in motion. The motion and change in that

is described in terms of force which is required for making an object in motion state. Some basic terms for describing motion are speed,velocity,

AND acceleration. when an object is moved in circular path then its motion is circular motion. The uniform circular motion describes as the

motion of an object in a circular path with a constant speed. When an object is moved in circular path then its direction is changed continues

with constant speed Or it is moved in the tangent direction of the circle while the velocity is in the direction of motion of an object which is also

in the tangential direction. Motion with constant acceleration is best demonstrated by an object free falling at the surface of the earth.

A motion which covers equal distance in equal interval of time is called a Uniform motion.

For the body to be in the uniform motion, it must be moving in the straight line path.

Uniformly accelerated motion is motion with a constant, uniform change in velocity. It means that the

acceleration is constant and velocity is varying with respect to time, we see this by this formula (v - v(initial) ) /

t (Time).This often, but does not always, include a change in speed. It occurs when the speed of an object changes at

a constant rate. The acceleration is the same over time. By relating acceleration to other variables such as speed, time and

distance we are able to manipulate data in many ways. It is the motion used to describe horizontal and vertical motion where

acceleration stays the same.

What is speed?

Speed is a scalar quantity that refers to "how fast an object is moving." Speed is a scalar quantity and does

not keep track of direction. It can be thought of as the rate at which an object covers distance. As an object

moves, it often undergoes changes in speed. A fast-moving object has a high speed and covers a relatively

large distance in a short amount of time. Contrast this to a slow-moving object that has a low speed; it covers

a relatively small amount of distance in the same amount of time. An object with no movement at all has a

zero speed. Since a moving object often changes its speed during its motion, it is common to distinguish

between the instantaneous speed which is the speed at any given instant in time, and the average speed

which is - the average of all instantaneous speeds; found simply by a distance/time ratio.

For instance, an object falling in a vacuum under the influence of gravity has nearly uniform acceleration with a

change in speed, while a planet orbiting a star in a circular orbit has uniform acceleration with no change in

speed.

Velocity is a vector quantity that refers to "the rate at which an object changes its position." As such, velocity

is direction aware. When evaluating the velocity of an object, one must keep track of direction. The direction

of the velocity vector is simply the same as the direction that an object is moving. It would not matter whether

the object is speeding up or slowing down. If an object is moving rightwards, then its velocity is described as

being rightwards. If an object is moving downwards, then its velocity is described as being downwards. The

instantaneous velocity is the measure of velocity of an object at a particular moment. It shows how far the object would go within the

next second of time.

Any acceleration of an object necessarily implies a net force in the direction of acceleration.

Acceleration is a vector quantity that is defined as the rate at which an object changes its velocity with respect

to time, in a given direction. An object is accelerating if it is changing its velocity. It is positive when velocity is

increasing and negative if the velocity is decreasing. The negative acceleration is also called retardation and deceleration. In this section we

has an acceleration of 1 ms it will increase its velocity (in a given direction) 1 ms-1 every second that it

accelerates. A person is accelerating if he/she is moving fast yet acceleration has nothing to do with going fast.

A person can be moving very fast and still not be accelerating. Acceleration has to do with changing how fast

an object is moving. If an object is not changing its velocity, then the object is not accelerating. The data at the

right are representative of a northward-moving accelerating object. The velocity is changing over the course of

time. In fact, the velocity is changing by a constant amount - 10 m/s - in each second of time. Anytime an

object's velocity is changing, the object is said to be accelerating; it has acceleration.

will learn more about instantaneous acceleration.The

-2

Since accelerating objects are constantly changing their velocity, one can say that the distance travelled, time

is not a constant value. A falling object for instance usually accelerates as it falls. When an object is in free fall you

can measure the time it takes to fall a distance and determine the acceleration on the object due to gravity. A free fall apparatus can be

used to determine the precise time it takes to travel a certain distance so the acceleration can be determined. An object in free fall

would only be under the force of Gravity. Air resistance plays a very minor role in free fall since unless the fall was happening at an

incredible distance the air resistance would be small. Since acceleration is a vector quantity, it has a direction associated

with it. The direction of the acceleration vector depends on two things: whether the object is speeding up or

slowing down or whether the object is moving in the + or direction. The general principle for determining

the acceleation is: If an object is slowing down, then its acceleration is in the opposite direction of its motion.

This general principle can be applied to determine whether the sign of the acceleration of an object is positive

or negative, right or left, or up or down. In physics, the use of positive and negative always has a physical

meaning. It is more than a mere mathematical symbol. As used here to describe the velocity and the

acceleration of a moving object, positive and negative describe a direction. Both velocity and acceleration are

vector quantities and a full description of the quantity demands the use of a directional adjective. When an

object is accelerating at a constant rate its motion can be modelled by two simple equations, a = ( Vf - Vi ) / t and d = 1/2 ( Vf +

Vi ) t . Using these equations gives you the ability to discover information about the motion while lacking a variable. The

equations can be rearranged and substituted into each other to compensate for the lack of the distance, initial speed, final

speed, acceleration or the time variable. In summary, acceleration is defined as the rate of change of the velocity over the time taken. In

one dimension, the term acceleration is defined at the rate at which the object slows down and speeds up. The instantaneous acceleration is

defined as the acceleration at any particular time period and it is When the object is moving with variable acceleration and the object

possesses different acceleration at different instant.

In an environment with negligible friction, a constant force of uniform magnitude produces constant and

uniform acceleration. In the case of gravitational acceleration mentioned above, the constant force is gravity,

which accelerates an object toward the gravitational center of another mass. This is true even if the initial

direction of motion is opposite to the gravitational force, like a ball thrown straight up, because deceleration

in one direction is equivalent to acceleration in the opposite direction. In the case of an orbiting object such as

a planet, the force of gravity accelerates the body not in the direction of motion, nor in the opposite direction,

but at a right angle to it. This is similar to the centripetal forces that hold together the materials of a spinning

wheel.

www.physicslearningsite.com,

dallaswinwin.com

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Speed-and-Velocity

http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/1DKin/Lesson-1/Acceleration

http://ibphysicsstuff.wikidot.com/uniformaccmotion

http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_is_uniformly_accelerated_motion

http://www.lakeheadschools.ca/scvi_staff/brecka/Gr11_physics_web/downloadable_content/unit1/text1/ph

ys11_1_5.pdf

http://jhamann.hubpages.com/hub/Uniformly-Accelerated-Motion

http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/tns153.htm

http://physics.tutorvista.com/motion/uniform-motion.html

http://physics.tutorvista.com/motion/uniform-motion.html

http://www.physicslearningsite.com/acceleration.html

http://www.physicslearningsite.com/acceleration.html

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