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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES

DRYING

Compilation of Lectures and Solved Problems

DRYING

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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- is the removal of relatively small amounts of solvent, at temperatures below its boiling point, by circulating air or some other gas over the material in order to carry away the solvent vapor.

- This is an adiabatic (constant enthalpy) drying process in which heat required for the vaporization of solvent comes solely from the sensible heat of the frying medium

- In the usual drying or dehumidification process, water is the solvent and air is the drying medium. The drying process cools the air adiabatically at a constant wet bulb. The dry bulb temperature approaches the wet bulb temperature and could reach it at the saturation point.

Moisture Content, wet basis,

Expressed as kg moisture per kg wet solid or kg moisture per combined kg of dry solid and moisture.

Moisture Content, dry basis,

Expressed as kg moisture per kg dry solid

Bound Moisture

Is the moisture content of a substance which exerts an equilibrium vapor pressure less than that of the pure liquid at the same temperature; it is the moisture difficult to remove, but which can be removed only under special conditions

Unbound Moisture

Refers to the moisture content of a substance which exerts an equilibrium vapor pressure equal to that of the pure liquid at the same temperature.

Equilibrium Moisture Content,

Is the limiting moisture to which a given material can be dried under specific conditions of air temperature and humidity; corresponds to bound moisture

Free Moisture Content,

Moisture content of a substance in excess of the equilibrium moisture; only free moisture can be evaporated, and the free moisture content of a solid depends upon the vapor concentration in the gas

Critical Moisture Content,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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The average moisture content at the end of constant rate drying period or at the start of the falling rate period

Constant Rate Drying Period

The drying period during which the rate of water removal per unit of drying surface constant

Falling Rate Drying Period

is

The drying period during which the instantaneous drying rate continually decreases

METHODSOF DRYING OPERATIONS

1. Batch Drying – actually a semi-batch process wherein a quantity of the substance to be dried is exposed to a continuously flowing stream of air into which the moisture evaporates; batch or semi-batch equipment is operated intermittently or cyclically under steady state conditions: the dryer is charged with the substance, which remains in the equipment until dry, whereupon the dryer is emptied and recharged with a fresh batch

2. Continuous Drying – the substance to be dried as well as the gas passes continually through the equipment; no typically stagewise methods are ordinarily used, and all operations involve continuous contact of the gas and the drying substance; continuous dryers are usually operated in steady state fashion

METHODS OF SUPPLYING THE HEAT NECESSARY FOR EVAPORATION OF MOISTURE

1. Direct Dryers – heat is supplied entirely by direct contact of the substance with the hot gas into which the evaporation takes place

2. Indirect Dryers – heat is supplied quite independently of the gas used to carry away the vaporized moisture

NATURE OF THE SUBSTANCE TO BE DRIED

1. Rigid Solid – wood or fibreboard

2. Flexible material – cloth or paper

3. Granular solid – mass of crystals

HEAT TRANSFER IN DRYERS

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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CALCULATION OF HEAT DUTY:

Heat must be applied to a dryer to accomplish the following:

1. Heat the feed (solids and liquid) to the vaporization temperature

2. Vaporize the liquid

=

( ) + ( )

=

3. Heat the product (solids and liquid) to their final temperature

=

+

4. Heat the vapour to its final temperature

=

5. Heat the air or other added gas to final temperature

The total heat transferred per unit mass of dry bone solid is:

= + + +

= ̅ ( ) + ( ) + + ̅ +

̇

=

+ ̅

+ ( ) + +

+

In an adiabatic dryer, the heat transferred to the solids, liquid and vapour, comes from the cooling of the gas

̇

=

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS

=

=

EVALUATION OF HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

1. For air flowing parallel to the drying surface

= =

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

5

2. For flow of gas perpendicular to the surface, (air velocities between 0.90 and 4.5 m/s)

(

=

° ; )

Constant drying rate is simply,

HEAT TRANSFER UNITS

=

̇ = ( )

Some adiabatic dryers, especially rotary dryers, are conveniently rated in terms of the number of heat transfer units they contain.

=

=

When the initial liquid content of the solids is high and most of the heat transferred is for

may be taken as the logarithmic mean difference between the dry bulb and

wet bulb temperatures

vaporization,

= ( )

( )

=

=

=

= =

( )

=

( )

( )

=

where:

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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= total heat transferred per unit mass of dry bone solid = rate of heat transfer in a section of the dryer = specific heat of dry bone solid

= specific heat of liquid

= specific heat of vapour

= humid heat of gas at inlet humidity = temperature of feed = final solids temperature = vaporization temperature = final vapour temperature = heat of vaporization ̇ = mass rate of dry bone solid

̇ = mass rate of dry gas

= over-all heat transfer coefficient = heat transfer area

= average temperature difference (not necessarily the logarithmic mean)

= dryer volume = volumetric heat transfer coefficient = Nusselt number = heat transfer coefficient between gas and surface of slab = equivalent diameter = thermal conductivity

BATCH DRYING: CALCULATIONS OF DRYING TIME

Drying in batches is relatively an expensive operation and is consequently limited to small-scale operations, to pilot plant and development work and to drying valuable materials whose total cost will be little influenced by added expense in the drying operations

Examples of batch dryers

o Tray, Cabinet or Shelf Dryers – used for drying solids which must be supported on trays

Unless stated otherwise, moisture contents of solids are on the wet basis and should be converted to dry basis before solving any problem

Batch dryers operate under constant drying conditions

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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TIME OF DRYING UNDER CONSTANT DRYING CONDITIONS

Where:

R

Falling Constant Rate Rate X e X f X c X i
Falling
Constant
Rate
Rate
X e
X f
X c
X i

= rate of drying, lb H 2 O/ft 2 ·h or kg H 2 O/m 2 ·h = rate of drying at falling rate = rate of drying at constant rate = equilibrium moisture content (dry basis)

=

= final moisture content (dry basis) = initial moisture content (dry basis) = drying time = weight of dry bone solid, kg or lb = total drying area, ft 2 or m 2

critical moisture content (dry basis)

At Constant Drying Conditions (CDC)

=

1. Constant Rate Period – as long as the liquid covers the entire surface of the solid, the rate of drying is constant. During this period, water diffuses through the solid at a rate sufficient to keep the entire surface wet

=

=

=

= ( )

= ( )

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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2. Falling Rate Period – when part of the solid surface is no longer wetted by the liquid, the drying rate decreases. Most of the water escapes by vaporizing at the surface of the solid

( ) = ( )

=

( ) =

=

=

=

=

( )

= ( )

3. Total Drying Time (Constant Rate + Falling Rate)

= +

= ( ) + ( )

= + ( )

DRYING EQUIPMENT

1. Dryers for Solids and Pastes

a. Tray Dryers

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Consists of a rectangular chamber of sheet metal containing two trucks that supports racks; each rack carries a number of shallow trays that are loaded with the material to be dried

Heated is circulated at 2 – 5 m/s between trays by fan and motor and passes over heaters; air is distributed uniformly over the stack of trays through baffles

Useful on small production rate; they find most frequent application for valuable products like dyes and pharmaceuticals

b. Screen Conveyor Dryers

A layer (25 mm to 150 mm) thick of material to be dried is slowly carried on a travelling metal screen through a long drying chamber or tunnel

The chamber consists of series of separate sections, each with its own fan and air heater. At the inlet end of the dryer, the air usually passes upward through the screen and the solids; near the discharge end, where the material is dry and may be dusty, air is passed downward through the screen. The air temperature and humidity may differ in the various sections to give optimum conditions for drying at each point

Typically 2 m wide and 4 – 50 m long, giving drying times of 5 – 120 minutes; the minimum screen size is about 30 mesh

Handles variety of solids continuously and with a very gentle action; particularly applicable when the drying conditions must be appreciably changed as the moisture content of the solid is reduced

c. Tower dryers

Contains a series of circular trays mounted one above the other on a central rotating shaft

Solid feed is dropped on the topmost tray is exposed to a stream of hot air or gas that passes across the tray. The solid is then scrapped off and dropped to the tray below. The flow of solids and gas may be either parallel or counter-current

d. Rotary Dryers

Consists of a revolving cylindrical shell, horizontal or slightly inclined toward the outlet

Wet feed enters one end of the cylinder; dry material discharges from the other

Rotary dryers are heated by direct contact of gas with the solids, by hot gas passing through an external jacket, or by steam condensing in a set of longitudinal tubes mounted on the inner surface of the shell

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The allowable mass velocity of the gas in a direct dryer depends on the dusting characteristics of the solid being dried and ranges from 2,000 to 25,000 kg/m 2 ·h for coarse particles; inlet gas temperatures are typically 120 – 175°C for steam heated air and 550 - 800°C for flue gas from a furnace.

Dryer diameters range from 1 – 3 m; the peripheral speed of the shell is commonly 20 – 25 m/min.

Direct contact rotary dryers are designed on the basis of heat transfer

Where:

=

=

=

= rate of heat transfer, BTU/h = dryer volume, ft 3 = dryer length, ft

= average temperature difference, taken as logarithmic mean of wet-blub

depressions at inlet and outlet of the dryers = mass velovity, lb/ft 2 ·h = dryer diameter, ft = volumetric heat transfer coefficient, BTU/ft 3 ·h·°F

e. Screw Conveyor Dryers

A continuous indirect-heat dryer, consisting essentially of a horizontal screw conveyor (or paddle conveyor) enclosed in a cylindrical jacketed shell

Solid fed in one end is conveyed slowly through the heated zone and discharges from the other end. The vapour evolved is withdrawn through pipes set in the roof of the shell

Handles solids that are too fine and too sticky for rotary dryers; they are completely enclosed and permit recovery of solvent vapors with little or no dilution by air.

f. Fluid Bed Dryers

Solid particles are fluidized by air or gas in a boiling-bed unit; mixing and heat transfer are very rapid; wet feed is admitted to the top of the bed; dry product is taken out from the side, near the bottom

Where:

= . + .

. /

= heat transfer coefficient between and gas and solid, BTU/ft 2 ·h·°F = particle diameter, ft = thermal conductivity at mean film temperature, BTU/ft·h·°F

g. Flash Dryers

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Wet pulverized solid is transported for a few seconds in a hot gas stream

The rate of heat transfer from the gas to the suspended solid particles is high and drying is rapid so that no more than 3 or 4 s is required to evaporate substantially all the moisture from the solid

Flash drying may be applied to sensitive materials that in other dryers would have to be dried indirectly by a much cooler heating medium

2. Dryers for Solutions and Slurries

a. Spray Dryers

A slurry or liquid solution is dispersed into a stream of hot gas in the form of a mist of fine droplets. Moisture is rapidly vaporized from the droplets, leaving residual particles of dry solid, which are then separated from the gas stream. The flow of liquid and gas may be co-current, counter current or a combination of both in the same unit

Droplets are formed inside a cylindrical drying chamber by pressure nozzles, two-fluid nozzles, or, in large dryers, high speed spray disks

An equation for the volume-surface mean diameter of the drops from a disk atomizer is:

Where:

diameter of the drops from a disk atomizer is: Where: = . . = average drop

= .

.

= average drop diameter, m or ft

.

.

= disk radius, m or ft = spray mass rate per unit length of disk periphery, kg/m·s or lb/ft·s

= surface tension of liquid, kg/m 3 or lb/ft 3 = disk speed, r/s = viscosity of liquid, Pa·s or lb/ft·s = disk periphery, 2Πr, m or ft

b. Thin Film Dryers

Competitive with spray dryers but relatively expensive

c. Drum Dryers

Consist of one or more heated metal rolls on the outside of which a thin layer of liquid is evaporated to dryness. Dried solid is scraped off the rolls as they slowly revolve

PROBLEM # 01.

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A hot air dryer handles 1,000 kg/h of wet feed with a moisture content of 20% wet basis to reduce the moisture content to 12.5% dry basis. Atmospheric air at 23.9°C with a relative humidity of 60% is preheated to a dry bulb temperature of 82.2°C. The exhaust air leaves the dryer at 60°C. Calculate: (a) the volume of the atmospheric air handled by the pre- heater, and (b) the duty of the pre-heater in kcal/h.

Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (November 1989)

SOLUTION:

Air

23.9 C

60% RH HEATER 60 C 82.2 C DRYER F = 1,000 kg/h x i =0.20
60% RH
HEATER
60 C
82.2 C
DRYER
F = 1,000 kg/h
x i =0.20
X f =0.125

1. Final moisture content wet basis

=

= 0.125

1 +

(1 + 0.125)

= 0.1111

2. Dry product balance:

(1 ) = 1

= (1 0.20) 1,000

(1 0.1111)

= 899.9888

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

3. Water evaporated

= +

= 1,000 899.9888 = 100.0112

4. Humidity of air entering the pre-heater

At 23.9°C, = 22.243

= 100 = (60)(22.243)

100

= 13.3458

= (18)(13.3458)

(28.84)(760

13.3458) = 0.0112

5. Humidity of air entering the dryer

= = 0.0112

6. Humidity of air leaving the dryer

Assume

temperature of 60°C

adiabatic

drying

= 0.019

conditions,

using

the

psychrometric

7. Amount of dry air entering the dryer

= ( )

=

100.0112

(0.019 0.0112)

(0.019 − 0.0112)

= 12,821.9487

8. Specific volume of dry atmospheric air From the psychrometric chart at 23.9°C

= 13.4

1

16.0185

=

0.8365

chart

at

dry

bulb

13

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

9. Humid volume of atmospheric air

= 0.8365

= 0.8516

+ 0.0112

0.08205 (296.9 )

(1 ) 18

10. Volume of entering air

= 12,821.9487 0.8516

= , .

11. Humid heat of air entering the dryer From the psychrometric chart at = 0.0112

= 0.244

°

12. Heat requirement

= ( )

= 12,821.9487 0.244

= , .

° (82.2 23.9)°

14

PROBLEM # 02.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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A Proctor & Swartz coconut meat dryer processes 1,133.8 kg of desiccated coconut per hour. The following are other data:

Specific heat of coconut meat

-

0.754 kJ/kg·K

Density of coconut meat from the shearing and washing section

-

1.520 kg/m 3

Initial moisture content of coconut meat

-

20%

Final moisture content of coconut meat

-

1.5%

Coconut meat inlet temperature

-

21°C

Coconut meat outlet temperature

-

38°C

Drying condition

-

71°C db

Drying condition RH

-

20%

Barometer reading Compute the heat input to the dryer.

-

89.6 kPa

SOLUTION:

Air RH = 20% t F = 71 C

DRYER

DRYER
- 89.6 kPa SOLUTION: Air RH = 20% t F = 71 C DRYER F =
- 89.6 kPa SOLUTION: Air RH = 20% t F = 71 C DRYER F =

F = 1,133.8 kg/h x i = 0.20 t si = 21 C

x f = 0.015 t sf = 38 C

1. Moisture content (dry basis)

=

=

1

=

=

0.20

0.20 = 0.25

0.015

0.015 = 0.0152

1

1

1

2. Mass of bone-dry solid

̇ = 1,133.8

80

= 907.04

100

3. Mass of water in the feed

̇ = 1,133.8

20

= 226.76

100

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

4. Mass of product after drying Consider solid balance

(1 ) = 1

= (1 0.20) 1,133.8

(1 0.015)

= 920.8528

5. Mass of water evaporated Consider over-all material balance

= +

= 1,133.8 920.8528 = 212.9472

6. Mass water in the product

̇ = 920.8528

1.5

= 13.8128

100

7. Vaporization temperature From steam table at 89.6 kPa drying operation

= 96.48 °

8. Sensible

heat

to

raise

temperature (96.48°C)

= ̇

, ( )

= 907.04 0.754

= 51,621.3879

temperature

of

solid

(96.48 21)

9. Sensible

heat

to

raise

temperature

if

water

temperature (96.48°C)

= ̇

, ( )

= 226.76 4.1868

= 71,660.6190

(96.48 21)

from

initial

(21°C)

to

vaporization

from

initial

(21°C)

to

vaporization

16

10. Latent heat to vaporize the moisture

=

From steam table at 89.6 kPa,

= 2,261.55

= 212.9472 2,261.55 = 481,591.7526

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11. Sensible heat to raise temperature of the bone dry solid from vaporization temperature (96.48°C) to final product temperature (38°C)

= ̇

,

= 907.04 0.754

= 39,994.9492

(38 96.48)

12. Sensible heat to raise temperature of water remaining in the material from vaporization temperature (96.48°C) to final product temperature (38°C)

= ̇

,

= 13.8128 4.1868

= 3,381.9821

(38 96.48)

13. Total heat requirement of the system

= 51,621.3879 + 71,660.6190 + 481,591.7526 + 39,994.9492

= + + + +

+

3,381.9821

= 561,496.8282

1

3,600

1

1

= .

PROBLEM # 03.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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Ipil-ipil leaves will be dried in a moving train of tray dryers. The wet leaves containing 75% water (wet basis) is to be dried to 15% (wet basis) in trays measuring 1 m x 1.5 m. The wet leaves are spread out in the tray to a uniform thickness of 8 cm. Calculate:

a) The number of trays needed to produce 1 metric ton of the dried leaves

b) The amount of water removed/MT of product. The density of the wet leaves is 0.75 g/cc

c) If dry hot air at 20% RH and a dry bulb temperature of 110°F is blown into the dryer and moist air leaves at 105°F dry bulb and 86°F wet bulb temperatures, how many ft 3 of dry hot air will be needed per MT of product?

Source: CHE Board Exam Problem

SOLUTION:

Air

110 F

20% RH product? Source: CHE Board Exam Problem SOLUTION: Air 110 F db = 105 F wb =

db = 105 F wb = 86 F

DRYER
DRYER
DRYER

DRYER

DRYER
DRYER
SOLUTION: Air 110 F 20% RH db = 105 F wb = 86 F DRYER x

x i =0.75

P = 1 MT

x f =0.15

1. Weight of feed

(1 ) =

= (1 0.15)(1,000 )

1

(1 0.75)

= 3,400

2. Required number of trays

= 1 1.5 8

# =

1

= 0.12

100

# =

3,400

750

0.12

# = . ~

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

13.

14.

kg water removed

= +

= 3,400 1,000 = 2,400

= ,

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

humidity of entering air For the entering air, at 20% RH and 110°F:

° = 1.2763

= 100

= (1.2763 ) 100 = 0.25526

= (18)(0.25526)

20

(28.84)(14.7 0.25526) = 0.0110

Humidity of air leaving the dryer For the exit air at T db = 105°F and T wb 86°F

= 0.023

Amount of dry air entering the dryer

= ( )

=

2,400

(0.023 0.011)

= 200,000

Specific volume of dry air From the psychrometric chart at 110°F

= 14.3

Humid volume of atmospheric air

= 14.3 . .

+

0.0110 0.7302

.

° (570° )

(1 ) 18

= 14.5544

Volume of entering air

= 200,000

1

14.5544

0.454

= .

19

PROBLEM # 04.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

20

A wet material from a process plant containing 100% (dry basis) moisture has to be dried

to produce a product with 10% moisture. Heated air at 100°C and 10% relative humidity is

being supplied to the dryer and leaves at 60°C and a dew point of 52.5°C. Part of the outlet air is re-circulated and mixed with ambient air at 30°C and 70% relative humidity. Neglecting heat losses due to radiation to the surroundings and pre-heating of the solid materials and its receptacle, calculate: (a) volume of ambient air, m 3 /min, and (b)

percentage of the outlet air re-circulated and mixed with ambient air when producing 500 kg/h of product.

Source: CHE Board Exam Problem (May 1988)

SOLUTION:

Air

30 C 1 70% RH db = 60 C R Dew pt = 52.5 C
30 C
1
70% RH
db =
60 C
R
Dew pt = 52.5 C
4
2
3
DRYER
X i =1.00

1. Feed rate Consider dry material balance

(1 ) = 1

=

=

1

1 1 + 1 = 0.50

=

+

0.10

1 1 + 0.10 = 0.0909

=

+

= (1 0.0909) 500

(1 0.50)

= 909.0909

2. Water evaporated/removed from the material Consider over-all material balance

= +

= 909.0909 500 = 409.0909

100 C

10% RH

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21

3. Humidity of ambient air For air at 30°C, 70%RH, from table 2-5 CHE HB 8 th edition

= 31.824

= 100

= (31.824 )(70)

100

= 22.2768

=

(18)(22.2768)

( ) = (28.84)(760

22.2768) = 0.0188

4. Humidity of air entering the dryer For air at 100°C, 10%RH, from table 2-5 CHE HB 8 th edition

= 760

= 100

= (760 )(10)

100

=

= 76

(18)(76)

( ) = (28.84)(760 76) = 0.0693

5. Humidity of leaving the dryer For air at 60°C and dew point of 52.5°C, from the pychrometric chart

= 0.0950

6. Amount of dry air required in the dryer

= ( )

=

409.0909

(0.095 0.0693)

= 15,917.9338

7. Dry air balance at the entrance of dryer

= + = 15,917.9338

Consider water balance:

= +

1
1
= 15,917.9338 . 0.0693 − ( ) 0.0188 ℎ 0.095 = 11,611.7138 − 0.1979 2
= 15,917.9338 . 0.0693
− ( ) 0.0188
0.095
= 11,611.7138 − 0.1979
2

Equate

1
1

and

2
2

15,917.9338 = 11,611.7138 0.1979

= 5,368.6822

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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8. Specific volume of ambient air From figure 19.2 Unit Operations of Chemical Engineers, 7 th edition, McCabe, et.al.

1

.

.

= 13.75 .

16.0185

.

.

.

=

0.8584

. .

9. Humid volume of ambient air

= 0.8584 . .

= 0.8844

.

+ 0.0188

0.08205 (303 )

(1 ) 18

10. Volume of ambient air

= 5,368.6822 .

0.8844

1

.

60

= .

11. Weight of wet air recycled, from equation

1
1

= 15,917.9338 5,368.6822 = 10,549.2516 .

= 10,549.2516 . + 10,549.2516 . 0.0950

= 11,551.4305 .

12. Weight of wet air leaving the dryer

= +

= 15,917.9338 . + 15,917.9338 . 0.0950

= 17,430.1375 .

13. % recycled air

% =

11,551.4305 .

17,430.1375 .

100

% = . %

PROBLEM # 05.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

23

An adiabatic tunnel dryer reduces the moisture content of pineapple stumps used as a fuel in the boiler of a pineapple cannery. Ambient air is heated and blown through the tunnel dryer countercurrent to the flow of pineapple stumps. The operating conditions are:

Pineapple Stumps:

Feed rate Moisture content, feed Moisture content, product

100 MT/day 100% Dry basis 30% dry basis

Ambient Air:

Temperature

29.4°C

Relative Humidity

80%

Hot Air:

Inlet temperature

76.9°C

Outlet relative humidity

100%

Calculate: (a) the quantity of moisture removed from the pineapple stumps in MT/day; (b) the humidity of the inlet air; (c) the temperature of the air leaving the dryer; (d) the volume of ambient air needed for drying in m 3 /h

CHE Board Exam Problem (May 1993)

SOLUTION:

Ambient Air T 1 = 29.4 C 80% RH

(May 1993) SOLUTION: Ambient Air T 1 = 29.4 C 80% RH 100% RH T 2

100% RH

T 2 = 76.9 C

HEATER

DRYER

1 = 29.4 C 80% RH 100% RH T 2 = 76.9 C HEATER DRYER F

F = 100 MT/day X i = 1.0

= 76.9 C HEATER DRYER F = 100 MT/day X i = 1 . 0 X

X f = 0.30

1. Dried pineapple stumps produced

(1 ) = 1

=

=

1

1 1 + 1 = 0.50

=

+

0.30

1 1 + 0.30 = 0.2308

=

+

= (1 0.50) 100

(1 0.2308)

= 65.0026

2. Moisture removed

= +

= 100 65.0026

= .

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

3. Humidity of ambient air From table 2-5 CHE HB 8 th edition at 29.4°C

= 30.745

= 100 = (30.745 )(80)

100

= 24.596

=

(

) =

(18)(24.596 )

(28.84)(760 24.596) = 0.0209

24

4. Humidity of inlet air to dryer Since ambient air undergoes only sensible heating, therefore,

=

= .

5. Wet bulb temperature of inlet air to the dryer From figure 19.2 (McCabe, et al), for air at 76.9°C and H = 0.0209

= 97° = 36.11°

6. Wet bulb temperature of outlet air from the dryer For adiabatic drying,

= = 97° = 36.11°

Temperature of the outlet air, outlet air humidity and amount of air needed are all inter- connected, thus the remaining questions can be solved only by trial and error.

a. Assume value of outlet air dry bulb temperature

b. Using the psychrometric chart (figure 19.2) with wet bulb temperature of 97°F, determine the air outlet humidity

c. To check if assumption is correct, solve for humidity considering 100% RH, wherein

=

=

( )

d. If humidity from (b) is approximately the same as that from (c), then assumption is correct; if otherwise, make new assumptions.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

25

Trial

Assume T 3

H (from b)

p

A3

H (from c)

01

97°F

0.040

0.8698

psi

0.0392

02

97.5°F

0.040

0.8832

psi

0.0399

7. Temperature of outlet air

= . ° = . °

8. Amount of dry air needed

= ( )

=

34.9974

(0.0399 0.0209)

= 1,841.9684

9. Specific volume of ambient air at 29.4°C From figure 19.2 Unit Operations of Chemical Engineers, 7 th edition, McCabe, et.al.

1

.

= 13.70 .

. .

.

16.0185

.

=

0.8553

. .

10. Humid volume of ambient air

= 0.8553 . .

= 0.8841

.

+ 0.0209

0.08205 (302.4 )

(1 ) 18

11. Volume of ambient air

= 1,841.9684

1,000 1

24

= , .

0.8841

PROBLEM # 06.

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26

10 short tons/h of crushed coal with 15.1% moisture (wet basis) is to be dried to 5% moisture (wet basis) in a counter-current continuous rotary dryer using hot air entering the dryer at 180°F, 10% relative humidity and leaves at 40% RH. How much hot air, in ft 3 /min will be needed for the operation? Assume adiabatic operation.

Source: CHE Board Exam Problem

SOLUTION:

40% RH

Hot Air T 1 = 180 F 10% RH

DRYER

SOLUTION: 40% RH Hot Air T 1 = 180 F 10% RH DRYER F = 10

F = 10 short ton/h x i = 0.151

1 = 180 F 10% RH DRYER F = 10 short ton/h x i = 0.151

x f = 0.05

1. Weight of dried crushed coal

(1 ) = 1

= (1 0.151) 10

(1 0.05)

= 9.8368

2. Moisture removed

= +

= 10 9.8368 = 1.0632

3. Humidity of inlet air From appendix 7 (McCabe, et.al) at 180°F

= 7.515

=

= (7.515 )(10)

100

100

=

(

) =

= 0.7515

(18)(0.7515)

(28.84)(14.7 0.7515) = 0.0336

4. Wet bulb temperature of inlet air From figure 19.2 (McCabe, et al)

= 106°

5. Wet bulb temperature of outlet air For adiabatic process,

= = 106°

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING SERIES DRYING

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6. Humidity of outlet air From figure 12-1 (CHE HB, 8 th edition), at T wet bulb of 106°F and 40% RH

= 0.045