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Dec 06, 2014

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18 просмотров31 страницаSean Selba scribd

© All Rights Reserved

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I. The Setting

My unit, entitled 3-D shapes and applications, is intended for a 10th grade

geometry class. My class is a heterogeneous mix of 26 students, 16 of which that are

males and 10 that are females. Even though this is a standard level geometry class,

most of the students are already showing honors level potential. The unit will take

approximately 9 days; 7 for lessons, 1 for review and 1 for the exam. Each

instructional lesson is 50 minutes.

II. Overview and Rationale for the Unit Overall, this unit should not only provide students the knowledge to work with three

dimensional shapes, but also be able to apply some of their properties to real life

applications. Being able to work in three dimensions is the main goal of this unit.

Often, as most are one dimensional in life, its hard to progress through and enjoy

the true beauty of all three dimensions. This unit will also be helpful throughout the

remainder of the course because we will be making references to 3-D figures I

regards to proofs. With the visualization out of the way, we can focus our attention

solely on the proofs.

Common Core standards:

G.MG.1. Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their properties to

describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).

G.MG. 2. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling

situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot).

NCTM standards:

Analyze characteristics and properties of two- and

three-dimensional geometric shapes and develop

mathematical arguments about geometric relationships

analyze properties and determine attributes of two- and three-dimensional

objects;

explore relationships (including congruence and similarity) among classes of

two- and three- dimensional geometric objects, make and test conjectures

about them, and solve problems involving them;

While in mathematics, the common rational for teaching is to prepare them for the next

level of mathematics. In my unit however, I aim to make connections between mathematical

concepts and real life. This unit is especially good for my target audience because it takes a new

look into the world of three dimensions and the perceptions, or lack thereof, a person can have.

Since we all live in a three dimensional world, it is hard not to find a relationship between the

mathematics I present and what they will experience in everyday life. Therefore, my rational for

this unit is to open their eyes to new perspectives of the world they live in.

IV. Content Outline

1. Graphing in three dimensions

2. Properties of 3-D shapes

a. Cubes

b. Prisms

c. Pyramids

d. Cylinders

e. Cones

f. Spheres

3. Finding surface area

4. Finding Volume

5. Cavalieris Principle & Cross sections

(Attatched)

For each objective that I present, I always give multiple means of assessment to

ensure the objectives are met. Some of the common assessments I used in my lesson

plan are as follows:

a) Graphic organizers: Used throughout the unit to make comparisons among

the different 3-D shapes

b) Exploration worksheet: With Common Core taking over the mathematics

curriculum, it is essential to implement more hands-on learning. With these

exploration worksheets, I can assess to see if the students are understanding the

material.

c) Exit tickets: For all of my exit tickets, I not only assess some of the formulas

and applications that I teacher, but I also want to make important references to

activities that led them to the knowledge they obtained that day

d) Homework: Homework is presented every day except the day before the

review in the hopes that students will get to practice the new material they learned

Day 1

Introduction: 2-D shapes in a 3-D world

Day 1 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to utilize their knowledge of 2-D shapes in order to graph

solids in three dimensions

2. Students will be able to explain the third dimension in order to discuss

perceptions of everyday life

Assessments:

1. During the course of the lesson, students will be required to graph 3-D objects in

both two and three dimensions.

2. During the exploration activity, students will be required to practice plotting

coordinates in three dimensions on a worksheet. The plots will resemble 3-D solids

that we will cover in the next couple days.

3. At the end of class, I will provide an exit ticket that will assess the students

knowledge of graphing in three dimensions as well as graphing everyday 3-D

items in two dimensions.

4. For homework, the students will create a question sheet for one of their

classmates to do next class. While it will once again cover graphing in three

dimensions, it will be up to each student to play teacher and also provide an answer

key to their problem set.

Activities

1. 3-D shapes in two dimensions: In the first activity, I will have brought in

random household items for the students to observe. Students will be put into

groups of four and each given a single item. While they will not be taking any

measurements in this class period, they will be required to draw a perspective of

one angle of the item. In other words, students will be making a sketch (on graph

paper), from looking at either the back, front, left side or right side of the item.

After each student has chosen an object and drawn a side, we will discuss the

perceptions of items. More specifically, I may question how only 1 angle and one

viewpoint can alter ones perception of a solid. You look up in the sky and see a

four sided 2-D figure. What shape is it? While most may answer rectangle or

square, the reality is that it is most likely a cube or prism. Unfortunately, with our

perception on reality, even though we live in a 3 dimensional world, we tend to see

things in one dimension. Hopefully this activity will open their eyes to a new world

of mathematics.

2. Creating the third dimension: In the second activity, not long after the first,

students will take their graphs of one perception and try and manipulate the graphs

drawn by the other group members to re-create the original 3-D figure. While this

activity will initially seem easy, it is extremely difficult to create a 3-D drawing

from only seeing a few images of the original figure. However, once the students

can visualize this image and re-create it, (the best they can) they will start to notice

something they hadnt before when graphing in two dimensions; depth. In order to

re-create these 3-D objects, there needs to be a third dimension present. I will ask

the students the type of orientation needed to create such an abstract image. This

will lead us into the next activity in regards to plotting points in three dimensions.

3. Graphing in three dimensions: For the final activity, I will be guiding the

students in exploring the nature of three dimensions. To do so, I will be showing

the students how to plot points on a 3-D graph, and then sending them on their own

to find points for the 3-D objects we plotted the activity before. Then using a

regular sheet of graph paper, they will plot the coordinates of the objects and create

an outline for them. This activity will precede the classwork in the hopes that they

build a deeper understanding of graphing in three dimensions.

Key Content Outline:

I. 2-D shapes in a 3-D world

II. The third dimension

III. Graphing in three dimensions

This lesson was intended to open the eyes of my students to the true world of three

dimensions. Even though they have lived in this 3-D world for about 15 years

already, they still have a lot to understand in regards to perception. Hopefully,

especially for future mathematics, my students understand that it isnt always

what it seems.

Resources:

No technology resources

Will need handouts and graph paper

Day 2

Cubes, Prisms and Pyramids

Day 2 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to implement their knowledge of 2-D shapes in order to

graph cubes, prisms and pyramids

2. Students will be able to compare/contrast cubes, prism and solids

3. Students will be able to construct 3-D mobiles for a cube, prism and pyramid in

order to further analyze their properties

Assessments:

1. During the lesson, students will be filling out graphic organizers to compare the

three different types of 3-D solids

2. Classwork practice will be given for graphing cubes, prisms and pyramids in

three dimensions

3. Students will construct mobiles of cubes, prisms and pyramids

4. At the end of class, students will be given an exit ticket that will assess their

knowledge, not only of the continuation of graphing in three dimensions, but more

importantly ,the properties of each that make them distinct from each other.

5. The final assessment will be a homework assignment in which students will

graph particular cubes, prism and pyramids. Once again, major comparison

questions will also be given to ensure maximum understanding of the different 3-D

shapes. Students will also be required to start bringing in models of cubes, prisms

and pyramids from home.

Activities:

1. Graphing cubes, prisms and pyramids: The class session will be split up into 6

sections, each of which covering a 3-D object and either its properties or graphing

strategies. For this particular lesson, the graphic organizer will help to drive the

properties section of this lesson. The graphing portions will be done by an activity

in which student will explore, using properties of 2-D figures, graphing cubes,

prisms and pyramids in three dimensions. A common question I could ask in the

classwork is why the coordinates are what they are. More specifically, a cube for

example, why are the distances between any two points, when graphing in one

dimension, the same. If the students were focused during the lecture, the answer is

simple. Each measurement is the same because one face of a cube is a square. The

same sort of questions could be asked when graphing the prism and pyramid as

well.

construction of 3-D mobiles. In order to do so, my students will need an

understanding of the properties of cubes, prisms and pyramids. With this

knowledge, the students will use paper, scissors and pencils to draw two

dimensional outlines for each three dimensional shape. Then, the students will fold

each side according to the directions and tape them together to create their figure.

This solid will not only be a great tool to remember the properties I future class

periods, but I also intend to you use them in the next lesson when we discover

surface area.

Key Content Outline:

I. Properties of a cube

II. Graphing a cube

III. Properties of a prism

IV. Graphing a prism

V. Properties of a pyramid

VI. Graphing a Pyramid

This lesson is intended to introduce the properties of cubes, prisms, and pyramids

in the hopes of once again having them make connections to the real world. This

lesson is especially crucial because of the applications we will be covering in the

next couple days. It will be extremely hard to find surface area and volume of

solids that students have no understanding of.

Resources:

No technology resources

We will need scissors, tape, paper and handouts

Class Description

10th grade Geometry Class

Unit Title

Lesson

Topic

3-D shapes

Surface

and

Area

applications

Type of

Lesson

Developmental

lesson

MD State Curriculum

Standard/ MD Common Core

State Standard

Apply geometric concepts in modeling

situations

1. Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their

properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree

trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).

2. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume

in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile,

BTUs per cubic foot).

3. Apply geometric methods to solve design problems

(e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy physical

constraints or minimize cost; working with typographic

grid systems based on ratios).

Judges Prior Knowledge (How do you know students are ready to learn the

content in this lesson?)

I will be discussing two major ideas in this lesson; manipulation of 3-D

shapes and surface area. To understand the manipulation of 3-D shapes, the

students will need a vast knowledge of the creation of 3-D shapes using 2-D

shapes. This requirement is fulfilled in my introduction lesson to this unit

on day 1 (This lesson is about day 4 or 5). I will also be including a

segment in the drill. To teach the second idea, surface area, students will

need to have had previous instruction on the area of 2-D shapes. This type of

material is usually covered all throughout elementary and middle school. Just

in case though, I have included a review in my drill as well.

Lesson Objective(s):

Objective 1 SWBAT utilize their knowledge of area to discover

surface area of three different 3-D shapes

Objective 2 SWBAT participate in a hands on activity to find

the surface area of common household items

Assessment(s):

Assessment for Objective 1 Drill and Opening worksheet

Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or

performance assessment? Traditional

Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student

learning? It is a review of things they should be confident

about.

Assessment for Objective 2 Activity completion/ worksheet

Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative

Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or

performance assessment? Performance

Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student

learning? The activity allows for student discovery of

mathematical relationships.

Materials Needed for Lesson

Object from home ( previously instructed)

Models of 3-D shapes (previously constructed)

Calculator

Ruler

*If you are using a website, type in the website citation.

Calculator: To assist the student in calculations

Lesson Development

Teacher

Students

Time

Drill/Motivational

Activity

Worksheet

8 minutes

Transition

Activity 1

Key Questions

What assumption

can we make about

the area of a two

dimensional figure

that is made up of

more than one two

dimensional shape?

What seems to be

the main

difference between

a cube and prism?

How does this

affect the way we

find the surface

area of each?

So everyone seemed

to notice that the

last figure on the

drill was actually a

cube. Correct? So

even though I was

asking for the area

of a 2-D figure, you

were actually

finding the area of

a cube. We call the

area of a 3-D shape,

surface area

Lecture: Comparing

the area of 2-D

constructions with

3-D shapes

(Worksheet)

Anticipated

Responses?

It is the sum of

each two dimensional

figure

so the surface area

is bigger. Since all

the sides of the

cube are the same

the surface area is

6bh. For a prism,

the equation would

be

lw+lw+wh+wh+lh+lh.

Correction: The

prism may appear to

be bigger in most

cases but not

always. Coincidently

10 minutes

What is unique

about finding the

surface area of a

pyramid

Transition

area of a prism will

be bigger than that

of a cube most of

the time. But, do

not confuse visual

representation with

mathematical

concepts. In

addition, I want the

students to see and

be able to recognize

the equation for the

surface area of a

prism: 2(lw+lh+hw)

It requires finding

the area of

triangles and

squares.

Make note: the sides

of the squares will

be the same as the

bases of each

triangle in the

pyramid.

Activity 2

how to find the

surface area of

cubes, pyramids and

prisms, lets go

Key Questions

ahead and grab our

materials from home

Did the formulas for

surface area differ for and get into the

groups I have

each object? (i.e was

assigned on the

the way you found

board. Hopefully

surface area for a

everyone in the

shoebox the same way

group has a

you found the surface

different example of

area of a soda box?)

each of the 3-D

figures we worked

Did you find any areas

which were close to the with today. While

you are doing that,

area of maybe a

I will pass around

different 3-D figure?

25 minutes

means?

rulers

Transition

area of household

items

Anticipated

Responses?

No, the answers we

found were

different, but the

way in which we

found them was the

same.

Summary/Closure/Revisit

Objective

No, none of the

values were even

close. I dont know

what that would mean

Safety Valve

though.

Answer: it would

mean that if you

opened up the 3-D

shapes, you would

find that the sum of

the areas would be

the same.

Alright ladies and

gentlemen that wraps

up our lesson on the

surface area of

Pyramids, cubes and

prisms. Can anyone

tell me what 3-D

shapes I missed?

Cones, Cylinders and

Spheres What two

dimensional shapes

do they utilize?

5-7 minutes

Circles. So next

time, we will look

at those shapes in

particular and do a

similar activity

with more objects

from home.

Exit ticket

discover cylinders

and cones

Reflection on assessment Assume that after you have taught

this lesson and assessed student learning you find that students

did not meet the objective(s). How would you plan future

instruction on this lessons content and skills to ensure

student mastery and application?

Unfortunately, in regards to Common core standards, the 3-D

shapes unit is very limited for time and in some cases gets

thrown all into one week. If I find that students arent meeting

my objectives, over the course of two weeks, I would probably

make less time for discovery learning and more time for lecture

based work. I do not like lecture at all, and in most cases it

is ineffective, but with the vast number of activities I have

planned, the only way students shouldnt be accomplishing my

objectives is if they stray too far away from the main objective

when exploring or by the time they finish the activity, the

objective is unclear. Regardless though, more lecture seems to

be the best solution here.

Day 4

Volume

Day 4 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to interpret the theoretical volume in order to calculate the

volume of cubes, pyramids and prisms.

2. Students will be able to participate in a hands on activity in order to calculate

the volume of household items that represent cubes, prisms and pyramids

Assessments:

1. Fill in the blank lecture notes will handed out at the beginning of class

2. Before the exploration, students will also be given a worksheet to practice

finding the volume of cubes, prisms and pyramids.

3. During the exploration, students will need to fill out a chart that will showcase

their knowledge of volume by application.

4. For an exit ticket, students will be required to calculate the volume of cubes,

prisms and pyramids. However, the questions will be based on real world

applications. For example, a question might read you want to fill your shoebox up

with water to act as a fishbowl. Unfortunately though, your fish requires living in a

bowl with volume 24inches3. Too much water is ok, but too little will kill him. If

the dimensions of the shoebox are 2inches x 5 inches x 4inches, what can we

conclude about the lifespan of the fish? Should he die anytime soon?

5. For homework, students will be finding more household items and finding the

volume of them as well.

Activities:

1. Volume of household items: For this lesson, due to the length of it, there will

only be one exploration activity. In this activity, students will be splitting up into

groups and measuring the dimensions of common household items that represent

cubes, prisms and pyramids. With these dimensions, students will calculate the

volume of each item and discuss their findings with a partner. Two of each kind of

solid should be measured to compare the results. Even though this activity seems

to be very short and simple, many questions arise when discussing the volume of

any three dimensional object. The first of which is based similarity and

proportionality within solids. For example, a good question might ask that prism

can clearly hold more volume than the others. What dimensions make this

possible? Why do you think this is? Also, I may ask the relationship in volumes if

the sides were all proportional. In other words, if one prism had dimensions

4x10x8 and the other had 2x5x4, how would one volume compare to the other?

Finally, in my explanation section, I want to make sure that I express the great deal

of ease for finding the volume of these shapes in particular. Similar to the way

surface area can be hard, volume can easily be just as hard when dealing with more

complex solids.

Key Content Outline:

I. What is volume? (Units included)

II. What is the volume of cube?

III. What is the volume of a rectangular prism?

IV. What is the volume of a pyramid?

This lesson is intended to once again give a deeper meaning to an easy concept in

three dimensions. Even though volume has most likely been seen in a more applied

nature to real world applications, I doubt they had the same understanding of

volume going into todays lesson. This lesson will also prove to be helpful when

we discuss the volume of cones, cylinders and spheres as well. With less time

having to cover the idea of volume, we can take more time for exploration and

application

Resources:

We will need handouts, household items, rulers and charts

Day 5

Cones and Cylinders

Day 5 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to relate the applications of circles in order to construct

cylinders and cones

2. Students will be able to interpret the height of a cone and cylinder as a

quadrilateral in order to further understand their surface area

3. Students will participate in a hands on activity in order to calculate the surface

area and volume of common household items that represent cones and cylinders

Assessments:

1. Students will first be provided a graphic organizer that will be used to

distinguish between cones and cylinders

2. Students will also be given a classwork assignment in which they will graph

cones and cylinders in three dimensions as well as calculate their volume and

surface area

3. Students will also be given a chart, similar to the ones used for cubes, prisms

and pyramids. This will be used as a guide for finding the surface area and volume

of common household items that represent cones and cylinders

4. An exit ticket will also be given that will assess students knowledge of graphing

cones and cylinders in three dimensions. In addition, it will look to apply the

formulas discovered in the exploration.

5. Finally, a homework assignment will be given that will include application

problems of finding both the surface area and volume of cubes, prisms, pyramids,

cones and cylinders.

Activities:

1. Constructing a Cylinder: For my first activity, I will have students analyze the

properties of a cylinder by manipulating a roll of paper towels. This will be a very

innovative activity because it represents the true height of a cylinder. One of the

biggest discrepancies in geometry classes is the idea that no one seems to know

where the formula for surface area of a cylinder comes from. With the paper

towels, I can literally unravel a single towel and show it to my class. I will ask

them first what new shape I have created by opening up the cylinder. Next, I will

ask them what the base and the height are for the new quadrilateral I created.

While the height is simply h, the base can be represented by a variation of a circle.

base. This will help lead us into the surface area exploration. Unfortunately, the

same type of manipulation cannot occur for the cone.

2. Surface area/ volume: The surface area and volume activity will be the exact

same activity we had done 2 days earlier, except now the students are measuring

cylinders and cones. Some of the items we will have are ice cream cones, cone

cups, funnels, tops of soda bottles, soup cans, soda cans, cylindrical boxes, coffee

cans and cups. Since the formulas have already been given, the actual process of

finding all the surface areas and volumes wont be difficult, but it will provide the

students with practice and more real life application.

Key Content Outline:

I. Properties of a circle in relation to three dimensions

II. Properties of a Cylinder

III. Properties of a Cone

IV. Surface area of a Cylinder

V. Surface area of a Cone

VI. Volume of a Cylinder

VII. Volume of a Cone

This lesson is intended to provide another dimension to our students knowledge of

three dimensional shapes. While cubes and pyramids were harder to find in real

life applications, cylinders and cones are found almost anywhere. Now with this

knowledge, we can cover the last three dimensional shape that utilizes a circle; a

sphere. This lesson provided some excellent strategies that will be taken over

when we talk about spheres as well.

Resources:

No technology resources

We will need handouts, a paper towel roll, household items, rulers and charts

Class Description

This is a 10th grade Geometry class. It is simulated by 8

students, 4 of which are male and the other four, female. Though

the classroom is quite large and the number of students is quite

small in comparison, I will have them sitting in groups of four

in the front of the classroom. Each table will have 2 males and

2 females. Since Jessie and Lydia are my higher level students

(in mathematics), I will put them at separate tables.

Unit Title

Lesson

Topic

3-D shapes

Spheres

and

applications

Type of

Lesson

Developmental

Lesson

MD State Curriculum

Standard/ MD Common Core

State Standard

Apply geometric concepts in modeling

situations

1. Use geometric shapes, their measures, and their

properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree

trunk or a human torso as a cylinder).

2. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume

in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile,

BTUs per cubic foot).

learn the content in this lesson?)

In order to understand the significance of finding the surface

area and volume of a sphere, students must have a vast

understanding of how to find the volume and surface area of

cubes, pyramids and rectangular prisms. With time constraints, I

have elected to only review cubes and rectangular prisms.

Pyramids take a little longer to compute. Also, even though this

will be reviewed in lessons before this one, a mastery of

working with 2-D shapes and finding their area is crucial to

understanding the shift into 3- dimensions.

Lesson Objective(s):

Objective 1 Students will be able to analyze the major

characteristics of a sphere in order calculate its volume in

real world applications.

Objective 2 Students will manipulate an orange in order to

Assessment(s):

Assessment for Objective 1 PowerPoint Question

The distance from the center of Spalding NBA basketball to any

point on the ball itself is 3inches. How much air should go

into the basketball to fill it up?

Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative

Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or

performance assessment? Performance Assessment

Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student

learning? It is a direct way to test the knowledge the students

were just given with a real world application.

Assessment for Objective 2 Orange discovery worksheet

Is this a formative or summative assessment? Formative

Would you characterize this assessment as a traditional or

performance assessment? Performance Assessment

Why did you select this assessment strategy to measure student

learning? This hands on activity requires a step by step process

of discovering the surface area of a sphere. The worksheet

chronologically takes the students through the thought process

they should have when completing this activity. It will be a

great way to make sure they are on track.

Oranges

PowerPoint slides

Additional pieces of paper

Napkins

No IEP students in this particular lesson

Incorporation of Technology (if appropriate)

*If you are using a website, type in the website citation.

PowerPoint slides as a guide

Teacher

Key Questions

So a football is a

sphere right? Can

anyone give me some

examples of spheres?

Drill/Motivational

Activity

Key Questions

What makes a cube

different from a

rectangular prism? Why

is its surface area and

volume so easy to find?

the surface area is

squared and the volume

is cubed? Shouldnt

they both be cubed

since we are in 3dimennsions?

Transition

Lesson Development

Students

Anticipated

Responses?

No!! Balls:

basketball,

soccerball,

tennisball,

baseball etc.

Time

5 minutes

Anticipated

Responses?

Since a cube is

made up of squares,

the volume and

surface area are

calculated from

only one

measurement. A

rectangular prism

can have up to

three different

sets of dimensions

to work with.

No, surface area is

squared because

only two things are

multiplied at a

time. Volume is

cubed because it is

based on

multiplication of

10 minutes

three dimensions.

Activity 1

Key Questions

So now that

everyone seems to

feel comfortable

working with the

easier 3-D shapes,

lets move into a

more complex figure

in spheres.

distance from the

center of the sphere to Lecture:

any point on the

Information on

sphere?

spheres

How many faces does a

sphere have?

Anticipated

Responses?

radius on this sphere?

Are there any others?

The radius

None!!

Does anyone know or

remember the volume of

a sphere?

any line from the

center of the

sphere to any point

Why do you think we use on the sphere

pi and r in our

itself. Therefore

equation for volume?

there are infinite

lines that students

can give me.

No.

Teacher response:

Assessment 1: The

The volume of a

distance from the

sphere, while

center of Spalding NBA

difficult and very

basketball to any point arbitrary is 4/3

on the ball itself is

r3.

3inches. How much air

should go into the

Because its based

basketball to fill it

on a circle.

up?

Teacher response:

Thats good to

Surface area is measure note. The volume

in squares. Why again?

has a lot to do

with the

accumulation of

circles. When we

get to surface

area, we will talk

Transition

a little more about

that.

36. There should

be no difficulty

seeing as though it

is simply a direct

implementation of

the equation.

Activity 2

Key Questions

What is the area of

each great circle you

created?

Because we are

multiplying two

things at a time.

Even though it is

in 3-dimmensions,

it is based on the

number of items

being multiplies.

of a sphere is not

only difficult

How many great circles

because it does not

did you fill with your

follow the same

orange peel?

patterns as the

other shapes, but

What is the surface

in most cases,

area of a sphere being

students will

represented by in this

forget the equation

activity?

for surface area

more often than

So, if you were able to that of volume.

fill four great

Hopefully this next

circles, each of which

activity will spark

having area r2, then

you interest and

what can we say about

give you a

the surface area of a

memorable

10 minutes

sphere?

experience.

Transition

Discovering the

surface area of a

sphere

Anticipated

Responses?

Key Questions

r2

did you have any idea

what the surface area

of a sphere is?

though, would you be

able to explain to

someone what the

surface area of a

sphere means to you?

a sphere is being

represented by the

number of filled

circles.

4r2

Summary/Closure/Revisit So to wrap up

Objective

todays lesson lets

think about then

importance of

visualization and

why it helps to

understand topics

Anticipated

Responses?

Safety Valve

No, in fact, I

dont even remember

learning about it.

The volume has

always been

embedded in my

brain. However,

with todays

activity, I not

only feel confident

using the equation,

I feel equally as

comfortable

explaining it to

someone else.

See Exit Ticket w/

answers

In todays lesson,

we completed both

objectives relating

to the surface area

and volume of a

sphere. The

important

information to take

away is the usage

of the formulas and

some basic

information about

spheres. These will

come back to haunt

you later, so do

not forget the

formulas!

With a 25 minute

lesson, yet alone a

math lesson, it is

really hard to plan

for a safety valve.

However, with a bit

of extra time, I

could provide more

real world examples

to drive the

concept home for

the students.

Reflection on assessment Assume that after you have taught

this lesson and assessed student learning you find that students

did not meet the objective(s). How would you plan future

instruction on this lessons content and skills to ensure

student mastery and application?

If I were to be informed, through assessment, that my lesson did

not coincide with the objectives, regardless of my time frame, I

need to find more time to discuss it. Seeing as though my unit

is 8 days with the initial assumption of 7, I may have that

extra day to go a little deeper in class. I would however need

to address this idea ASAP because once this unit is over, it

will be very hard to come back to it. We absolutely cannot skip

it because of its importance. Also, if I wanted to keep the

orange activity, because it worked so well, I can possibly cut

down on some lecture and give the students more hands on

opportunity. That is essentially what Common Core wants in the

long run anyway. To ensure students have mastered this concept,

I will make sure that surface area and volume are hit the

hardest.

Day 7

Cavalieris Principle

Day 7 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to manipulate 3-D figures in order to interpret the cross

sections that they create.

2. Students will be able to interpret cross sections in order to calculate the volume

of 3-D shapes using Cavalieris principle

Assessments:

1. To introduce the idea of cross sections, I will be leading the students in an

activity. A worksheet will be provided to guide the students in their findings.

2. A practice classwork will also be given for cross sections to ensure students can

find cross sections of all 3-D shapes we have discussed thus far (cubes, prisms,

pyramids, cylinders, cones, ad spheres.

3. Another exploration worksheet will be given in their discovery of Cavalieris

principle. Even though the activity will cover only spheres, the students will use

these worksheets to make predictions of the effects on other 3-D solids.

4. After the lesson, I will provide an exit ticket that will assess students

knowledge of cross sections and ensure they are able to apply Cavalieris principle

to any 3-D solid.

5. For homework, the students will begin studying for their review the next class.

In their studying, they will look over the material taught today and hopefully

practice it.

Activities:

1. Cross sections: Before the activity starts, students already have a basic idea of

what cross sections are. Unfortunately though, it is very hard to visualize a cross

section of a 3-D solid without actually cutting that solid open yourself. My activity

aims to fill this gap in my students understanding. Using Play-Doh, I will have my

students mold a cone and a cylinder (to the best of their abilities). Using a piece of

floss, they will cut their Play-Doh as directed. Their first attempt will be to cut

each solid horizontally, thus creating similar solids. What the students should

notice is that not only are you creating a smaller version of the original solid, but

you are also creating 2-D faces from where you cut. These should be circles. This

idea should also take students back to one of our original lessons where we

manipulated three dimensional shapes to graph in two dimensions. Afterwards, I

will have the students put their 3-D solids back together ( easy with Play-Doh) and

try cutting from a different angle. It will be essential to note that this cut will not be

parallel to the base. With this cut, students will also note that the 2-D shape they

have now created is an ellipse, not a circle. The students will continue this process

for cubes, prisms and pyramids as well. Then we will look at spheres. For spheres,

which differ from all other 3-D solids, its cross sections are always a circle. This

will also be an important idea for the lesson.

2. Cavalieris principle: The sphere will prove to be a great last example for cross

sections. As most classes do, I will be introducing Cavalieris principle through the

manipulation of spheres. One of the greatest proofs in 3-D geometry involves the

discovery of the volume of a sphere. In this activity, that will be very similar to the

last, students will again be finding cross sections, but comparing it to cross sections

of other 3-D shapes. Cavalieris principle is as follows: If two solids of equal

height are cut by a horizontal parallel equidistant from each of the bases, those

objects will have the same volume. With that said students can simply make two

solids with Ply-Doh, cut both of them equidistant from the bases using floss and

then measure the volume of each new solid. They will be the same.

I. Cross sections

- Horizontal

- Diagonal

II. Cavalieris principle

This lesson is intended to relate the students to something they have most likely

played with before; Play-Doh. In one instance, they are doing something fun and

exciting, but they are also doing mathematics. This material is necessary for the

study session and exam.

Resources:

No technology resources

We will need Play-Do, handouts and floss

Day 8

Review

Day 8 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to utilize their knowledge of 3-D shapes and applications

in order to compete in a game of Jeopardy.

Assessments:

1. A game of Jeopardy will be given to assess students knowledge of cubes,

prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres and their respective applications

(I.e surface area, volume, dimension in graphing, Cavalieris principle, etc.)

Activities

1. Students will compete in a game of Jeopardy in class. As in the common known

game show Jeopardy, questions will be given for different point values. The five

categories that will be questioned are 2-D shapes in a 3-D world, Cylinders,

cones and spheres, Cubes, prism and pyramids, Surface Area, and Volume.

In regards to the point system, each category will be broken up into point values of

200,400,600,800 and 1000 respectively. The question topics will be as follows

2-D shapes Cylinders,

Cubes,

Surface area Volume

in a 3-D

cones and

prisms and

world

spheres

pyramids

200

Cube in 2-D Properties

Properties

Surface area Def. of

of a cone

of a

of a sphere

Cavalieris

pyramid

principle

400

Looking at

Represents A jack in

Shortcut to

Volume of a

2-D images funnel

the box is

finding the

rectangle

and deciding

an example surface area and cube

which 3-D

of this

of a pyramid

images they

represent

600

Explain the Properties

Properties

Application Cavalieris

third

of a cylinder of a prism

to prisms

principle

dimension

was

originally

proven for a

800

1000

Graph a

rectangular

prism with

1x2x3 as the

dimensions

Graph a

sphere with

radius 2

Cross

Cross

section is an section of

oval

cubes and

rectangles

Application

to cylinders

Cross

section is a

circle

regardless

of how you

cut it

Application

to cones

Cross

section of a

pyramid

sphere

Application

for cones

If the height

of a cone is

4 inches and

the height of

a cylinder is

4 inches, if I

create a

parallel, 3

inches from

the base, and

I know the

volume of

the cylinder

is 12, what

is the

volume of

the cone?

1. Cubes, Cylinders, Cones, Pyramids, Prisms and Spheres

2. Surface area

3. Volume

4. 2-D and 3-D graphing

5. Cavaliers principle

The intent of this lesson was to prepare my students for the exam next class. In

addition though, it served as a fun and innovative way to help them remember all

the material.

Resources:

Day 9

Exam

Day 8 Objectives:

1. Students will be able to apply their knowledge of 3-D shapes and their

applications in order to complete an exam

Assessments:

1. Students will be given their unit exam today. A few sample questions from each

topic are as follows. There are also many forms of questions on todays exam.

They include multiple choice, fill in the blank, calculation, matching, graphing and

short responses

2-D objects in a 3-D world

-(Fill in the blank)If I were to look at a cube from any angle, what two

dimensional shape should I see?

-(Graphing)Graph a rectangular prism on the grid provided. Its dimensions are

2x3x4.

- (Multiple choice) Which 3-D solids can you manipulate so that at least one side

is a circle?

a. Sphere

b. Cone

c. Cylinder

d. a and b

e. a,b and c

Cubes, Pyramids, Prisms, Cones, Spheres and Cylinders

-(Multiple choice) Which 3-D solid could also be another?

a. Rectangular prism

b. Cube

c. Cone

d. Sphere

e. None of the above

- (Short response)What makes pyramids different than both cubes and prisms,

even though we put them all in the same category?

- (Matching)Match the following to its appropriate 2-D shape( there can be more

than one for each)

1.Prism

2.Cube

3.Sphere

4. Cylinder

5.Cone

6. Pyramid

a. Square

b. Rectange

c. Circle

d. Triangle

Surface area

-(Short response)Surface area for cones, cylinders and sphere include a pi. Why?

- (Fill in the blank)Based on the orange activity, we discovered that our orange

peel filled _______ circles. The area of each circle was ______.This meant that our

surface area was going to be ___________

- (calculation)Find the surface area of a rectangular prism with dimensions 4x8x3

Volume

- (Calculation) The volume of a standard MLB baseball is about 32/ 3 inches3.

Using the formula for the volume of a sphere, what is the radius of a standard MLB

baseball?

- (Multiple choice) Whos theorem says that if we have two three dimensional

solids that have the same height, and we draw two parallels equidistant from the

bases, they will have the same volume?

a. Pythagoras

b. Euclid

c. Cavalieri

d. Einstein

- (Fill in the blank) How much water can I put in a box if my boxes dimensions

are 5x8x10_______

Activities

1. Students will take an exam that will cover 3-D shapes, surface area, volume,

graphing and Cavalieris principle.

Key Content Outline:

1. Cubes, Cylinders, Cones, Pyramids, Prisms and Spheres

2. Surface area

3. Volume

4. 2-D and 3-D graphing

5. Cavaliers principle

The intent of this lesson is to test the knowledge of my students in their ability to

apply formulas of 3-D solids to real world applications

Resources:

No technology resources

We only need the test itself