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Aerodynamic

Objectives
Understanding :
- the origin of the propulsive force
- the characteristics of the sails
- the difference of beating/reaching in a
propulsive point of view
- the interest of the different sails

Origin of the forces


A fluid flow on a surface
will create a force

OK. The wind can push the boat.


But how can it pull it ?

Origin of the forces (2)


Let's take a tube with a narrow section
V1
V2

P1

P2

Conservation of the amount of fluid, so V1<V2


Bernouilli showed us the relation
between speed and pressure
P2<P1

Origin of the forces (3)

P1

P2

If we remove the upper part of the tube,


we have a lifting force

Origin of the forces (4)


Lift

Aerodynamic force

Our half-tube is
the same as
the a wing...
Drag

The aerodynamic force can be broken into 2 components :


- the lift : perpendicular to the flow
- the drag: in the flow direction
The airplane flies thanks to the first one.
The second one is consuming fuel.

Boundary layer
Laminar

The force is created


by a very thin layer,
called boundary layer.

Turbulent

Speed = Sf

It could be laminar or
trubulent.
Speed = 0

Boundary layer is the layer in which there is a variation of speed.


The thickness of the boundary layer depends on the rugosity.

Boundary layer (2)


Laminar

Turbulent

Separation point

Whirling

If the curvature is too big, the boundary layer can be detached.


The fluid flow is whirling.
The lift is created by the laminar boundary layer.
The goal is to avoid vortices.
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The wing

If the incidence angle is too high, the separation appears earlier, and the
lifting force decreases dramatically, so the airplane stalls.

We know how a airplane can fly... But what about the sailing boat ?

Wings in a sailing boat?


The sails
The keel

- Symmetrical profile (except


on catamaran)
- Fixed shape
And the rudder

- Asymmetrical profile
- flexible shape

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The keel

Lift

Drag

To have a lift, need to have an incidence angle, so drag is always present.


A low speed, if big incidence angle, stall. So the ship will drift.

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The keel (2)


The keel (or the dagger-board) can be unsymmetrical, for example in a catamaran.

The dagger-board
is lifted

It means that with null incidence angle, there is a lift.


But it also means that you have more drag.

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The rudder
The rudder has also a symmetrical wing profile.
When the helm is on the axis, because of
symmetry, no lifting force.

Drag

With a small angle, lift


If the angle is too high or the speed to slow, it
can stall, so the helm is no more efficient.

To have an efficient rudder, need of a flow.


So when the boat starts, wait a bit to have
enough speed.
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The sails
Force

Drift

The force can be broken


down into 2 different
systems :

Lift

Propulsive

Drag

Lift (perpendicular to
apparent wind) and drag
(apparent wind direction)

Propulsive force (in the


axis of the boat) and drift
(perpendicular to the axis
of the boat)

The goal is to maximise the propulsive


force and to minimise the drift (the drift
force causes heel, with a keel).

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The sails (2)


The shape is fexible, so if
the wind blows in the sail
direction, the sail will luff
No lift, but drag (can be used as a brake)
Damage the sails !

If the sail is perpendicular


to the wind, no lift, only
drag.

Good if you are running, but very bad if you


are beating (only inclining moment)
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The sails (3)


The good setting...
The sail in red is too much tighten, so the
force is badly oriented. So big list and
small propulsive
The sail in green is not enough
tighten, so the incidence angle is null
and the sail flutter. So small force
The sail in blue is well
oriented. So bigger
propulsive force.

The sails, when beating,


should be a the limit of luffing

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The sails (4)


As a wing, there are differents
parameters in a profile.

Max deflection
Leading edge

Trailing edge

Chord

Leading edge : interference with the mast


Trailing edge : free

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Composition of a sail
Material
Stress

Diplacement
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Composition of a sail (2)


3 edges :
The luff, fixed to the mast or the
forestay
The foot, fixed to the boom or
not fixed
The leech, not fixed

3 fixation points :
The head : the upper
point, fixed
The tack : fore and lower
point, fixed
The clew, aft and lower,
mobile.
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Composition of a sail (3)


The sail is composed of different
parts, called (sail)cloth, to give
the curvature.
Shape : not a triangle

Batten (to give shape)


or to rigidify the leech

Pennant : wool piece to


have an idea of the flow

Slides (in the


rail of the mast)
Reef bande

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Composition of a sail (4)


Molded sails : the sail is directly
molded to give the good profile
It's a sort of composite

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Characteristic : the trough

Trough dimension

Trough position

The trough can be characterized by its position and its dimensions.


It can be given by the sailmaker and by the sail settings
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Characteristic : the trough (2)


You change the trough in function of the sailing conditions :
- in a calm condition, to make the best beating, a small trough to be as
fine as possible
- in waves, to have power (and speed), bigger trough.

We choose
the course

We choose
the power

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Characteristic : twisting
Incidence angles are different in function of the profile height.
The sail is more opened in the top.
Why ? To reduce induced drag

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Characteristic : twisting (2)


Induced drag is caused by the vortices in the extremity of the sails.
Because of the difference of pressure in the extrados and intrados, air
tries to fill the hole.
To avoid it, we can twist the sail to decrease the difference of pressure.

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Characteristic : twisting (3)


On planes, we install winglet.
On a sail, the boom or the deck can
limit it in the bottom.

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Characteristic : aspect ratio


Aspect ratio of the sail : length/height

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Characteristic : aspect ratio (2)


Big difference when
beating, smaller after
Depends on the
sailing program.
A bigger ratio will give
a finer ship

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2 sails
2 sails, working together...
But 2 sails 2 x 1 sails

Influence of the jib on the


mainsail and vice-versa

1st comment : no Venturi effect


between the jib and the mainsail !
No strangling
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2 sails (2)
2nd comment : the fluid flow is influenced around both sails

With the jib

Without the jib

For the jib, the flow comes a bit more from side : good influence
For the mainsail, it comes a bit more from front : bad influence

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2 sails (3)

It means that the mainsail should be


more tighten than the jib.

When we remove the jib, the


mainsail has to be opened.

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The rigging
Masthead or fractional rig

More surfaces, but different


settings

We speak about rig of 7/8,


9/10: proportional height of
the forestay

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The rigging (2)

Need of a pillar.

Problem of watertightness

What about dismasting?

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The rigging (3)


Longitudinaly

Runners and checkstay :


for racing boat.
Demanding attention,
because in the trajectory
of the boom...
Babystay : not so
common
Cutter stay : good to
put a forestaysail
More common rigs
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The rigging (3)


Longitudinaly

Runners and checkstay :


for racing boat.
Demanding attention,
because in the trajectory
of the boom...
Babystay : not so
common
Cutter stay : good to
put a forestaysail
More common rigs
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The rigging (3)


Transversally : the shrouds
and the spreader

Swept spreaders maintain


also the mast longitudinally

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The rigging (3)


Halyard : to lift the sails
(main, spinaker or genoa
halyards)
Outhaul : to tight longitudinally
the mainsail (into the boom)

Cunningham : to tight
vertically the luff of the sail

Vang : to avoid that the boom


goes up when running

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Stress in the
rigging
How to calculate the stress in
the rigging?

Very complex...

We will see

Efforts can be :
- pressure from the wind
- inertia force when waves
- force from water in case of
capsizing

Difficult to calculate

Not taken into account,


except for dinghy
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Stress in the rigging (2)


How to calculate the force
from the wind?

When the wind blows, it give


a list, so the sail is unloaded.
The maximum force is given
when the maximum righting
moment is reached...

The biggest righting moment we


have, the strongest rigging we need
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Stress in the rigging (3)


The effort of compression in the mast :
F/tan(a)
The effort of compression in the cable :
F / sin(a)

It increases very fast when the angle


decreases.
The angle is bigger with the stay than the
shrouder.
That's why we need spreader.

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Stress in the rigging (4)

Geometrically, it is possible to calculate all the effort in


different directions, but it is very complicated (function
of the angles taken by the sails).
Always estimations.

With such analysis, only the force of the


wind is taken into account. So security
coefficient are taken, from 2 to 5

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Number of spreaders ?
Why having 1,
2 or even 3
spreaders?
By having
smaller
spreaders, the
genoa can be
more taken in,
so better close
hauled.

But if the angle of the shrouders is


smaller, the compression in the mast is
bigger...
So to avoid buckling, multiple
spreaders...
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The mast
The compression in a mast is very
important.
In function of the height, the
compression is +/- high.

Medium compression

Buckling load : F= pi E i / (a l)
High compression

The spreaders divide the length (very


interesting while length).

Very high compression

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The mast (2)

Why is there no longitudinal spreader?


Not possible with the sail.
The inertia can be bigger (less drag).
So the shape has a bigger inertia.

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Swept spreaders

Compression

With swept spreader, the mast is


maintained longitudinally.

Tension

The shrouder are fixed behind the mast.


No backstay is needed (very useful for
dinghies).
For cruising boat, the backstay is kept to
set the rigging (and to decrease the
effort).

Behind the mast

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Details

Jumper : to stiffen the


higher part of the mast.

Catamarans often have a pivoting mast.


They have separated spreaders and
shrouders.
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In-mast furling or in-boom furling

2 types of mainsail
furlers :
- in the boom : battens
have to be horizontal
- in the mast : battens
have to be vertical

The position of the centre of effort is different for


both types.

And if mechanical problem???

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Light sails

Asymmetric (spinnaker)

Spinnaker

Gennaker
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Spinnaker
The spinnaker is
symmetric.
It can be used when the
wind is from 100 to
180.

The shape can be


changed, in function of
the settings.

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Spinnaker (2)
3 fixation point :
- in the mast
- the tack (with the pole)
- the clew
(inversible)

It's a demanding sail,


not complicated to
used, but can be
frightening...

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Spinnaker (3)
2 ways of working :

In dead run, the wind


pushes the boat

In broad reach, there is a


lifting force.

+ an upper force
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Asymmetric spinnaker
Asymmetric...
From 80 to 150 from the wind
2 fixed points (mast and stem).
Easier
Sometime, with a bowsprit

Spinnaker

Gennaker
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Asymmetric spinnaker (2)

Differents shapes in function of the


point of sail
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Gennaker

A bigger and more hollow genoa.


Easy to use up to 80 from the wind

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Bibliography

Le vagnon de la voile, Marcel Oliver, Les ditions du plaisancier

Architecture du voilier, tome 1,2 et 3, Pierre Gutelle, ditions loisirs


nautiques

Principles of yacht design, Lars Larsson and Rolf Eliasson, Adlard


Coles Nautical

The elements of boat strength, Dave Gerr, McGraw Hill

How to design a boat, John Teale, Adlard Coles Nautical

Le cours des Glnans, Seuil

Les voiles, comprendre, rgler, optimiser, Bertrand Chret

Loisirs Nautiques magazine

Internet, for the picture

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