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CISSP Essentials: Mastering the Common Body of Knowledge Class 5: Telecommunications and networking Lecturer Shon Harris,
CISSP Essentials:
Mastering the Common Body of Knowledge
Class 5:
Telecommunications and
networking
Lecturer Shon Harris, CISSP, MCSE
President, Logical Security
CISSP Essentials: Mastering the Common Body of Knowledge CISSP Essentials Library: www.searchsecurity.com/CISSPessentials Class 5 Quiz: www.searchsecurity.com/Class5quiz
CISSP Essentials:
Mastering the Common Body of Knowledge
CISSP Essentials Library:
www.searchsecurity.com/CISSPessentials
Class 5 Quiz:
www.searchsecurity.com/Class5quiz
Class 5 Domain Spotlight:
www.searchsecurity.com/Class5spotlight
Telecommunications and network objectives TCP/IP Suite Cabling and data transmission types LAN and WAN technologies Network
Telecommunications and network
objectives
TCP/IP Suite
Cabling and data transmission
types
LAN and WAN technologies
Network devices and services
Telecommunication protocols
and devices
Remote access methods and
technologies
Fault tolerance mechanisms
OSI Model
Types of networks Local Area Network (LAN) • Covering a limited geographical area • Etherne t
Types of networks
Local Area Network (LAN)
• Covering a limited geographical
area
• Etherne t an d Token Rin g
Metropolitan Area Network
(MAN)
• Network th at extends over a city
or town
• SONET rings, FDDI
Wide Area Network (WAN)
• Covering a wide geogr aphical
area
• ATM, Frame Relay, X.25
Network topologies – P hysical layer Network topology • Physical connections of systems and de vices
Network topologies – P hysical layer
Network topology
• Physical connections of systems and de vices
• Arch ite ctur al layout of network
• Choice of topology shou ld be determined by higher
level techn ologies that will run on it
Topology types
• Bus
• Ring
• Star
• Mesh
LAN media access technologies Data link layer technologies • Media access techn ologies dictate how systems
LAN media access technologies
Data link layer technologies
• Media access techn ologies dictate
how systems will access the shared
media and how systems will
communicate
• Frames packets with specific headers and
trailers
• Differen t media access technologie s
• Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) –
used by Ethernet and wireless technologies
• Token passing – used by Token Ring, FDDI
and ARCNet
• Polling – used by mainframe
communication protocols
Wireless technologies - Access point Access point • IEEE standards • Spread spectr um techn ologies
Wireless technologies - Access point
Access point
• IEEE standards
• Spread spectr um techn ologies
• Access poin ts and wireless
devices
• Device au th entication,
authorization and association
• Wireless protocol stack
• Security issues
• Common attacks
• Countermeasures
Alphabet soup of standards 802.11 • 2.4 GHz ran ge • 1-2 Mbps 802.11b • 2.4
Alphabet soup of standards
802.11
• 2.4 GHz ran ge
• 1-2 Mbps
802.11b
• 2.4 GHz ran ge
• Up to 11 Mbps
802.11a
• 5 GHz range
• Up to 54 Mbps
802.15
802.11g
2.4 GHz ran ge
Up to 54 Mbps
• Wireless personal area
networks
802.16
802.11i
New security protocols
to replace WEP
• Wireless Met ropolitan Area
Network
Wireless technologies - WEP Wired Equivalent Privacy • Protocol used to encrypt traffic for all IEEE
Wireless technologies - WEP
Wired Equivalent Privacy
• Protocol used to encrypt traffic for all IEEE wireless standards
• Protects device-to-device or device-to-AP traffic
• The standard is riddled with security flaws
• Most insecurities come from improper implementation of the security
mechanisms
Same symmetric key implementation
• No ran domness added
• Similar to using the same password
• Increases window of opportunity to be cracked
No automated dynamic key refresh method
• Today, we h ave many key agreement and exchan ge protocols an d
algorithms
• Reason for asymmetric algorithm invention
• Diffie-Hellman, RSA, etc.
• IKE
• Requ ires manual key refresh
Wireless technologies – Common attacks Attacks on WLANs • Eavesdropping on traffic and spoofing • Erecting
Wireless technologies – Common attacks
Attacks on WLANs
• Eavesdropping on traffic and spoofing
• Erecting a r ogue AP
• Wireless devices will then authenticate to a bogus AP
• Attacker obtains access credentials
• Man-in-the-middle
• All traffic going through the attacker’s system without users
knowing it
• Unauth orized modification of data
• Gaining access to the wired network
• War driving
• Cracking WEP
• Collision attacks – Birthday attacks
• Weak key attacks – Key discovery and brute-forcing 40-bit key
• AirSnort, WEPCrack
Protocols TCP and UDP ICMP ARP SNMP SMTP LPD NFS TFTP FTP Telnet BootP
Protocols
TCP and UDP
ICMP
ARP
SNMP
SMTP
LPD
NFS
TFTP
FTP
Telnet
BootP
Protocols - ARP Address Resolution Protocol • Maps the IP address to the media access con
Protocols - ARP
Address Resolution
Protocol
• Maps the IP address to
the media access con tr ol
(MAC) address
• IP address = 32-bit software
assigned
• Network layer
• MAC address = 48-bit hard-
wired into NIC
• Data link Layer
• Data link layer protocols
understan d MAC
addresses, not IP
addresses
Protocols – ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol • Status and error messagin g protocol • Not
Protocols – ICMP
Internet Control
Message Protocol
• Status and error messagin g
protocol
• Not used to move user data
• Ping utility uses this
protocol
• ICMP ECHO Request and Reply
ICMP us es by hackers
• Allowed thr ough most firewalls
• Used for host enumeration
• Redirect traffic by sending bogus ICMP messages to
router
• Router “thinks” that another router is telling it that a link is
down or congested
Networking devices LAN, MAN and WAN devices • Repeater • Hub • Bridge • Switch •
Networking devices
LAN, MAN and WAN
devices
• Repeater
• Hub
• Bridge
• Switch
• Router
Network devices - Switch Switch characteristics • Transfer a connection from one circuit to an other
Network devices - Switch
Switch characteristics
• Transfer a connection from
one circuit to an other circuit
• Faster than most bridges an d
routers because instructions
are working at the silicon
level
• Makes forwarding decision s
based on MAC addresses
• Newer switches can perform some
routing
• Major functionality takes
place at the data link layer
• Many switches today work
between the data link and
transport layer
Network devices – Firewalls Firewall characteristics • Many types on the market today • Different functionalities
Network devices – Firewalls
Firewall characteristics
• Many types on the market
today
• Different functionalities and
protection levels
• Provides tr ansparent
prote ction to inter nal u sers
Firewall Types
• Generation 1 = Packet filtering
• Generation 2 = Proxy
• Generation 3 = Stateful
• Generation 4 = Dynamic packe t filtering
• Generation 5 = Kernel proxies
Types of firewalls – Dynamic packet-filtering Dynamic packet-filtering characteristics • Combination of application proxies and state
Types of firewalls – Dynamic packet-filtering
Dynamic packet-filtering
characteristics
• Combination of application
proxies and state ful inspection
firewalls
• Dynamically changes filtering
rules based on several
differe nt factors
• Reactive to pre-designed changes
and situations
• Fourth-ge n eration fire wall
Firewall architecture types – Multi- or dual-homed Description • Two or more inter faces, one for
Firewall architecture types –
Multi- or dual-homed
Description
• Two or more inter faces, one for each ne twork
• Allows for one firewall to create more than
one DMZ
• Forwarding and rou ting need to be turned off
• Otherwise, packets would not be inspected by firewall
software
Dial-up protocols and authentication protocols Dial-up protocols • PPP • SLIP Authentication Protocols • Password Authe
Dial-up protocols and authentication protocols
Dial-up protocols
• PPP
• SLIP
Authentication
Protocols
• Password Authe ntication
Protocol (PAP)
• Challenge Handshake
Au then tication Protocol
(CHAP)
• Extensible Au then tication
Protocol (EAP)
Authentication protocol – EAP Extensible Authe ntication Protocol • Allows for modular authen tication protocols to
Authentication protocol – EAP
Extensible Authe ntication Protocol
• Allows for modular authen tication protocols to be
“plugged in ” to give companies more flexibility
• Provides a framework for several differen t
authe ntication methods to be used
• Passwords, challenge-response, PKI, Kerberos and more
• Developed for PPP con n ections, bu t is now used in
LAN and wireless authentication technologies
• In LAN authentication, it is usually used with 802.1x (port
authentication technology)
Virtual P rivate Network technologies Tunneling protocols • Poin t-to-Point Tu nnelin g Protocol (PPTP) •
Virtual P rivate Network technologies
Tunneling protocols
• Poin t-to-Point Tu nnelin g Protocol
(PPTP)
• Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol
(L2TP)
• IPSec
MAN tec hnologies - SONET Synchronous Optical Network • Physical layer standard used by telecommunication companies
MAN tec hnologies - SONET
Synchronous Optical
Network
• Physical layer standard used by
telecommunication companies
• Defines transmission rates, signal formats
and optical inter faces
• Dual-ringed and self-healing if a
line shou ld go down
• Opt ical carrier rin gs are used to
connect T1s and T3s and other
communication ch annels together
• Think of it as the highway that
cars can run over
• The cars can be frame relay, ATM, X.25
and many other types of frames
• Voice, data and video can be moved over
SONET rings
Wide Area Network technologies WAN technologies • Dedicated lines • ISDN • DSL • Frame relay
Wide Area Network technologies
WAN technologies
• Dedicated lines
• ISDN
• DSL
• Frame relay
• X.25
• SMDS
• ATM
• VoIP
WAN technologies are circuit or packet switched Circuit s witching • A virtual con nection is
WAN technologies are circuit or packet switched
Circuit s witching
• A virtual con nection is set up and used through out the wh ole
communication session
• Traffic travels in a predictable an d con stant manner
• Fixed delays
• Usually carries voice-oriented data
• Teleph one calls
Packet switching
• Packets can be sent throu gh different paths to reach the same
dest ination
• No virtual connection is set up
• Supports traffic that is bursty
• Variable delays
• Usually carries data-orien ted information
• X.25, frame relay, SMDS
Voice Over IP VoIP characteristics Moving voice data in packets Companies are combining thei r data
Voice Over IP
VoIP characteristics
Moving voice data in packets
Companies are combining thei r
data networks and voice networks
into one network
Popular because of the cost savings
in maintenance
Long distance calls can be done
cheaply
Voice data is not traveling ov er the
telephone company’s lines
Currently this is not FCC-regulated
Regular telephone calls use a
ci rcuit-switched technology, but
VoIP uses a packet-switched
technology
Can exper ience jittering and latency
CISSP Essentials: Mastering the Common Body of Knowledge Lecturer Shon Harris, CISSP, MCSE President, Logical Security
CISSP Essentials:
Mastering the Common Body of Knowledge
Lecturer Shon Harris, CISSP, MCSE
President, Logical Security
www.LogicalSecurity.com
ShonHarris@LogicalSecurity.com
Coming next: Class 6: Applications a nd
system development
Register at the CISSP Essentials Library:
www.searchsecurity.com/CISSPessentials