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KingZhouofShang­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

KingZhouofShang

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

KingZhou(Chinese:紂王;pinyin:ZhòuWáng)wasthe

pejorativeposthumousnamegiventoDiXin(Chinese:

帝辛;pinyin:DìXīn),thelastkingoftheShangdynasty ofancientChina. [1] HeisalsocalledZhouXin(紂辛; ZhòuXīn).Hemayalsobereferredtobyadding"Shang" (Shāng)infrontofanyofhisnames.InChinese,alsoreferstoahorsecrupper, [2] thepartofasaddleor harnessthatismostlikelytobesoiledbythehorse.

KingZhou

商紂王

KingZhou 商紂王 Left: WenZhong and BiGan ;right:Zhouand Daji KingofShangdynasty Reign Predecessor DiYi

Left:WenZhongandBiGan;right:ZhouandDaji

KingofShangdynasty

Reign

Predecessor DiYi

1075–1046BC(29years)

Spouse

ConsortDaji

Issue

Fullname

Familyname:Zi()

Givenname:Shou()orShoude(受德)

DiXin(帝辛)

Father

Born

1105BC

Died

1046BC(aged59)

Contents

1EarlyreignContents 2Latereign 3Fall 4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend 5AsGodofSodomy 6Notes 7References

2LatereignContents 1Earlyreign 3Fall 4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend 5AsGodofSodomy 6Notes 7References

3FallContents 1Earlyreign 2Latereign 4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend 5AsGodofSodomy 6Notes 7References

4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend

5AsGodofSodomyContents 1Earlyreign 2Latereign 3Fall 4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend 6Notes 7References

6NotesContents 1Earlyreign 2Latereign 3Fall 4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend 5AsGodofSodomy 7References

7ReferencesContents 1Earlyreign 2Latereign 3Fall 4Mentionsinliteratureandlegend 5AsGodofSodomy 6Notes

Earlyreign

thatDiXin,intheearlypartofhisreign,hadabilities

whichsurpassedthoseoftheordinaryman,andwas

quick­wittedandquick­tempered.Accordingtolegend, hewasintelligentenoughtowinallofhisarguments, andhewasstrongenoughtohuntwildbeastswithhisbarehands. [3] HewastheyoungerbrotherofWeiZi andWeiZhong [4] andfatherofWuGeng.HisfatherDiYihadtwobrothers,JiZiandBiGan.DiXin addedtotheterritoryofShangbybattlingthetribessurroundingit,includingtheDongyitotheeast.

Latereign

Inhislateryears,DiXingavehimselfovertodrinking,women,sexandabandonedmorals,preferringthese

tothepropergovernanceofthecountry,andignoredalmostallaffairsofstate.AccordingtoSimaQian,he

evenhostedfestiveorgieswheremanypeopleengagedinsexatthesametimewithhisconcubinesand

createdsongswithcrude(erotic)lyricsandpoorrhythm.Inlegends,heisdepictedashavingcomeunder

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theinfluenceofhiswickedwifeDaji,andcommittingallmannerofevilandcrueldeedswithher.In

OneofthemostfamousformsofentertainmentZhouenjoyedwasthe"WinePoolandMeatForest"(酒池

肉林).Alargepool,bigenoughforseveralcanoes,wasconstructedonthePalacegrounds,withinner

liningsofpolishedovalshapedstonesfromtheseashores.Thisallowedfortheentirepooltobefilledwith

alcohol.Asmallislandwasconstructedinthemiddleofthepool,wheretreeswereplanted,whichhad

branchesmadeofroastedmeatskewershangingoverthepool.ThisallowedZhouandhisfriendsand

concubinestodriftoncanoesinthepool.Whentheythirsted,theyreacheddownintothepoolwiththeir

handsanddrankthewine.Whentheyhungered,theyreachedupwiththeirhandstoeattheroastedmeat.

ThiswasconsideredoneofthemostfamousexamplesofdecadenceandcorruptionofarulerinChinese

history.

InordertopleaseDaji,hecreatedthe"CannonBurningPunishment"(炮烙之刑).Onelargehollowbronze

cylinderwasstuffedwithburningcharcoalandallowedtoburnuntilred­hot,thenprisonersweremadeto

literallyhugthecylinder,whichresultedinapainfulandunsightlydeath.

ZhouandDajiwereknowntogethighlyarousedafterwatchingsuchtorture.Victimsrangedfromordinary peopleandprisonerstohighgovernmentofficials,suchasMeiBo. [5]

InordertofundZhou'sheavydailyexpenses,extremelyheavytaxeswereimplemented.Thepeople

sufferedgreatly,andlostallhopefortheShangdynasty.Zhou'sbrotherWeiZitriedtopersuadehimto

change,butwasrebuked.HisuncleBiGansimilarlyremonstratedwithhim,butDiXinhadhisheart

rippedoutsohecouldseewhattheheartofasagelookedlike.WhenhisotheruncleJiZiheardthis,he

wenttoremonstratewiththekinglynephewand,feigningmadness,wasimprisoned.

Fall

WhenZhoudynasty'sarmy,ledbythefamousJiangZiya,defeatedtheShangdynastyattheBattleofMuye

in1046BC,DiXingatheredallhistreasuresaroundhimselfinthePalace,andthensetfiretohispalace

andcommittedsuicide.

Thename"Zhou"actuallyappearedafterthedeathofKingZhou,aposthumousname(althoughperhaps

usedfurtivelybyhiscontemporaries).Thisnamewasarepresentationofhisactions,bothdishonorableand

cold­hearted.KingZhouwouldgodowninhistoryasoneoftheworstexamplesofacorruptedkingin

China.

Mentionsinliteratureandlegend

ZhouismentionedintheConfucianAnalects(19"子張"); [6] andalsointheThreeCharacterClassic. [7] ZhouisalsooneofthemainsubjectsofFengshenYanyianditsvariousderivationsinpopularmedia.Thus, DiXin,alsoknownasZhou,hasservedasa(negative)exemplarofConfucianprinciples(presentedasthe wickedrulerwhojustifiesregimechangeaccordingtotheMandateofHeaven),aswellasbecomingan iconofpopularculture.Thismakesforabiographicallyinterestingfigure,butonechallengingaclear distinctionbetweenhistory,legend,andphilosophicalpoint­making.

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InFengshenYanyi,ZhouvisitedtheGoddessNüwa'stempleandoffendedtheGoddesswithhislustful

commentstowardsherbeauty.Inresponse,NüwadecidedthattheShangdynastyshouldendandsenther

threesubordinatestobecomethreebeautifulwomen(includingDaji)tobewitchZhou.Undertheinfluence

ofthesewomen,Zhoubecomesaruthlessking,losingthesupportofpeopleandtriggeringhisdownfall.

AsGodofSodomy

Accordingtofolklore,afterhisdeath,KingZhoubeggedthegodsandgoddessesformercy.Thegods decidetodeifyhim,butsincetherewasnothingsuitable,theycreatedapostspeciallyforhim:Godof Sodomy. [8] AtemplewasbuiltforhiminWeihui,Henan. [9]

Notes

1. ^Wu,220.

3. ^Wu,220­221,referencingSimaQian'sYinBenjichapter(史记·辛本纪).

4. ^LüshiChunqiu(吕氏春秋·仲冬纪第十一)

5. ^See,forexample,QuYuan,TianWen(天问)."梅伯受醢".

References

Wu,K.C.(1982).TheChineseHeritage.NewYork:CrownPublishers.ISBN0­517­54475­X.

.NewYork:CrownPublishers. ISBN0­517­54475­X . KingZhouofShang Shangdynasty Regnaltitles Precededby DiYi

KingZhouofShang

ISBN0­517­54475­X . KingZhouofShang Shangdynasty Regnaltitles Precededby DiYi KingofChina 1075BC–1046 BC

Regnaltitles

Precededby

1075BC–1046

BC

Succeededby

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