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AMALGAM

History of Amalgam : 1833 CRAWCOUR brothers


- introduced amalgam to U.S.

- Powder silver coins mixed with mercury

- Expanded on setting

1895 - G.V. BLACK


- develops formula for modern amalgam alloy

- 67%Ag, 27%Sn , 5% Cu , 1% zn

- Overcome expansion problems

ADA Specification No.1

DEFINATION:
AMALGAM - An alloy containing mercury.

DENTAL AMALGAM - An alloy of mercury, silver, copper and tin, which


may also contain palladium, zinc and other elements to improve handling
characteristics and clinical performance.

DENTAL AMALGUM ALLOY - An alloy of silver ,copper, tin and other


element, that is formulated and processed in the form of powder particles or
as compressed pellet.
USES
• in individuals of all ages,
• in stress-bearing areas and in small-to-moderate sized cavities
in the posterior teeth,
• when there is severe destruction of tooth structure and cost is
an overriding consideration,
• as a foundation for cast-metal, metal-ceramic, and ceramic
restorations,
• when patient commitment to personal oral hygiene is poor,
• when moisture control is problematic with patients, and

COMPOSITION –

Figure 1-1.
Approximate
composition of an
acceptable
amalgam alloy

Alloy Particle Element (wt%)


Shape Ag Sn Cu Zn In Pd
Low Copper Irregular 63-70 26-28 2-5 0-2 0 0
or
Spherical
High Copper
Admixed Irregular 40-70 26-30 2-30 0-2 0 0
Regular Spherical 40-65 0-30 20-40 0-1 0 0-1
Admixed Irregular 52-53 17-18 29-30 0 0 0.3
Unicomposition Spherical 52-53 17-18 29-30 0 0 0.3
Unicompositional Spherical 40-60 22-30 13-30 0 0-5 0-1

FUCTIONS OF EACH INGREDIENTS


PROPERTY INGREDIENT

Silver Tin Copper Zinc

Strength Increases

Durability Increases

Hardness Increases

Expansion Increases Decreases Increases

Flow Decreases Increases Decreases

Color Imparts

Setting time Decreases Increases Decreases

Workability Increases Increases

Cleanliness Increases

Table 1-1. Effects on properties of an amalgam restoration imparted by ingredients.