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Political and economic articles (Internet)

Refrences: http://assenna.com/
http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/
Created: 6/15/2014
Seyed Morteza Abdollahian

The Realist Prism: Can Spheres of Influence Solve


Afghanistan?
While Afghanistan has often been touted as the crucible for the regeneration of
the Western alliance, it also offers another opportunity for the United States: a
means to promote a stabilizing modus vivendi between India and China.
In his recent WPR Briefing on China's stake in containing Pakistani militants,
Michael Kugelman observed, "Pakistan's instability threatens the security of
China's citizens, its government and its energy imports," particularly when it
comes to the "combustible province of Baluchistan." He notes, "Whenever China
has demanded something of Islamabad, the latter has often complied."
And in surveying the Indian strategic view of Afghanistan, Dan Twining, the senior
fellow for Asia at the German Marshall Fund, cited K. Subrahmanyam, the dean of
India's strategic community. Subrahmanyam believes that the only way the
United States can meet the deadline President Barack Obama set in his West
Point speech for putting Afghan security forces in the lead is to turn to New Delhi
"to help train and equip Afghan security forces, just as India has been training
Afghan civil servants, building roads, schools, hospitals, and other infrastructure
as the country's fourth-largest bilateral donor."
There's just one problem. Right now, Afghanistan is set as a zero-sum game
between India and Pakistan, with the success of one viewed as a strategic setback
for the other. While China has worked to improve its ties with India, its
longstanding strategic and economic interests in Pakistan bind Beijing closely to
Islamabad.
Some U.S. strategic thinkers look to the emergence of an Indo-Chinese rivalry in
South and Central Asia as a way to use New Delhi to "balance" China, forcing
Beijing to keep an eye on its western flank in order to prevent encirclement. But
the risk of a proxy conflict in Afghanistan between New Delhi on the one hand and

Islamabad and Beijing on the other does not serve U.S. interests, which are to
stabilize this war-torn country, thereby permitting a rapid exit of American forces.
Vice President Joe Biden expressed his dislike of spheres of influence during his
Munich speech earlier this year. But his vision of a 21st-century globalized world
of partner countries cooperating to promote peace and prosperity might not be
possible under current conditions. Looking back to another era, and how the
fabled "Great Game" between Britain and Russia in Central Asia was settled at the
beginning of the 20th century, might be more fruitful.
Do we need an updated version of the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907,
negotiated under the good offices of the United States, this time between India
and China -- and involving Iran, Pakistan and some of the CIS states? As history
notes, the original convention was meant to end decades of rivalries by spelling
out very specific spheres of influence.
In the language of the agreement, both Britain and Russia recognized that "each
of them has, for geographical and economic reasons, a special interest in the
maintenance of peace and order in certain provinces of Persia adjoining, or in the
neighborhood of, the Russian frontier on the one hand, and the frontiers of
Afghanistan and Baluchistan on the other hand; and being desirous of avoiding all
cause of conflict between their respective interests in the above-mentioned
provinces of Persia." Russian economic and security interests were confined to
the northern part of the country, while the British accepted limits on their
influence to the south and east. A "neutral zone" in the middle was created to
balance the two powers.
Such naked realism seems to have no place in U.S. foreign policy today. Most
Americans would argue that the Afghan people deserve the right to fully
determine their foreign relations with other states, choosing freely whether to
ally with India or Pakistan, China or Iran. But one can find a potential "back door"
in Secretary of State Hillary Clinton's speech calling for a multipartner world back
in July. In it, Clinton acknowledged, "Negotiations can provide insight into
regimes' calculations and the possibility -- even if it seems remote -- that a regime
will eventually alter its behavior in exchange for the benefits of acceptance into
the international community."

What's on the table in Afghanistan right now is a vague promise of reaping the
benefits of globalization. But if success in Afghanistan requires acknowledging the
interests of the various players, while getting them to harmonize their behavior
with U.S. objectives, could Washington come around to support a Great Gamelike approach to reaching a final settlement?
To begin with, a de facto division of the country into these spheres of influence is
already taking place. China is making investments in mining all around the
country, but its flagship project -- the massive copper mine at Aynak -- is,
significantly, in the Pashtun belt. Beijing seems to be counting on Pakistan's
support in the event the central Afghan government loses control of this region.
But would Pakistani guarantees be sufficient to keep the mine in operation?
Meanwhile, India's influence is strongest in the north and west, the heartlands of
the old Northern Alliance.
Unlike the situation in Persia, where spheres were imposed on the country, the
outside players in Afghanistan do find genuine support among specific ethnic
groups and regions of the country.
And unlike the treaty of a century ago, there need be no formal document drawn
up this time around. An informal agreement whereby the major players
voluntarily placed limits on where they will situate their investments and security
services would suffice. Kabul could return to its traditional function as the
country's marketplace, where all sides are represented. A settlement in
Afghanistan could work to guarantee China's vital Baluchistan lifeline, while
leaving intact the Indian-Iranian transport routes that provide New Delhi with a
direct route to Central Asia.
More importantly, there is no real alternative to such an approach. Both Pakistan
and India will pursue policies of seeking "strategic depth" in Afghanistan, since
neither side plans to give up its ambitions there to curry favor with the United
States. Nor is it likely that the Obama administration could justify a major
expansion of the fight across the border into the Pakistani tribal areas and
Baluchistan -- despite the harsh warning reportedly delivered by Gen. Jim Jones to
Pakistani leaders, that if Pakistan won't fight, the U.S. will. Instead, we already
have U.S. strategic planners discussing the awkwardness of India's presence in the

country and speculating whether Washington should pressure New Delhi to


abandon its foothold as a way to reassure Pakistan and win their support for the
U.S. plan.
At the same time, we need to realize the sad reality that some of our enemies in
Afghanistan are Pakistan's friends. But if Pakistan was assured of retaining a
defined "zone of privileged interests," to use the term sometimes bandied about
by Russian officials, there is a chance that Islamabad's behavior might become far
more constructive. Pakistan needs to crack down on a Pakistani Taliban that poses
a real threat to the survival of the state. So guaranteeing a defined Pakistani space
in Afghanistan could convince Islamabad to focus its engagement on those groups
and factions among the Afghan Taliban that would be amenable to a settlement.
In contrast to the 1990s, when the Taliban, backed by Pakistan, gambled on their
ability to seize all of Afghanistan, most Taliban activity today seems much more
limited to Pashtun areas of the country.
Plenty of objections could be raised to this proposal, but the same can be said for
all the others suggested as a way of resolving Afghanistan's seemingly intractable
conflict. Whether by formal agreement or otherwise, Afghanistan's fate will be in
large part determined by outside actors. So do we really have all that much to
lose by sounding out the key players?

Agreement on the Sphere of Influence between Russia


and Great Britain, 1895
On March 11, 1895, the following Agreement between the Governments of Great
Britain and Russia, with regard to the spheres of influence of the two countries in
the region of the Pamirs and concerning the position of Afghanistan in that
region, was drawn up :
The spheres of influence of Great Britain and Russia to the east of Lake Victoria
(Zor Koul) shall be divided by a line which, starting from a point on that lake near
to its eastern extremity, shall follow the crests of the mountain range running
somewhat to the south of the latitude of the lake as far as the Bendersky and Orta
Bel Passes.

From thence the line shall run along the same range while it remains to the south
of the latitude of the said lake. On reaching that latitude, it shall descend a spur of
the range towards Kizil Rabat on the Aksu river, if that locality is found not to be
north of the latitude of Lake Victoria, and from thence it shall be prolodged, in an
easterly direction, so as to meet the Chinese frontier.
If it should be found that Kizil Kabat is situated to the north of the latitude of Lake
Victoria, the line of demarcation shall be drawn to the nearest convenient point
on the Aksu river, south of that latitude, and from thence prolonged as aforesaid.
The line shall be marked out, and its precise configuration shall be settled, by a
Joint Commission of a purely technical charactor, with a military escort not
exceeding that which is strictly necessary for its proper protection.
The Cominission shall be composed of British and Russian delegates, with the
necessary technical assistance.
Her Britannic Majesty's Government will arrange with the Amir of Afghanistan as
to the manner in which His Highness shall be represented on the Commission.
The Commission shall also be charged to report any facts which can be
ascertained on the spot bearing on the situation of the Chinese frontier, with a
view to enable the two Governments to come to an agreement with the Chinese
Government as to the limits of Chinese territory in the vicinity of the line, in such
manner as may be found most convenient.
Her Britannic Majesty's Government and the Government of his Majesty the
Emperor of Russia engage to abstain from exercising any political influence or
control, the former to the north, the latter to the south, of the above line of
demarcation.
Her Britannic Majesty's Government engage that the territory lying within the
British sphere of influence between the Hindu Kush, and the line running from the
east end of Lake Victoria to the Chinese frontier, shall form part of the territory of
the Amir of Afghanistan, that it shall not be annexed to Great Britain, and that no
military posts or forts shall be established in it.
The execution of this agreement is contingent upon the evacuation by the Amir of
Afghanistan of all the territories now occupied by His Highness on the right bank
of the Panja, and on the evacuation by the Amir of Bokhara of the portion of

Darwaz which lies to the south of the Oxus, in regard to which her Britannic
Majesty's Government and the Government of His Majesty the Emperor of Russia,
have agreed to use their influence respectively with the two Amirs.

Not Only Does He Despise Us, But Also Hates Us A Regionder to


Mr.
Dear Semere,
I came across your superbly written discourse about the Eritrean Termidor at
Awate.com under the title, He Doesnt Hate you; He despises You. What
prompted me to pen down a bit of my take is, your portrayal of him [Isaias] as the
one who despises but doesnt hate Eritreans; and as the one who loved Eritrea.
Had it not been for this blemish, I tell you, I wouldnt eavesdrop on your article.
But I beg to disagree. Not only does he despise us; but also hates us. Neither
does he love Eritrea nor Eritreaness.
If only we could listen to one another, we would have had a consensus as to how
to confront the dictator, as his story, from alpha to omega [approaching], ran a
gamut of misdeeds. Sadly, we are devoid of any consensus and consequently
unable to fight him.
What has made this possible is our understanding of him: his zombies and foot
soldiers portray him as a hero, who, with his divine powers, singlehandedly
saved us from annihilation by the Ethiopians; therefore, equating him with God.
There was a story once heralded by his devotees that Isaias, the Gladiator, fired
the whole magazine of his AK 47 on a wall with the intended purpose of showing
his creative powers; and what was the poked marks on the wall reveal? His name.
Do these people have innate abilities of reason an sanity? These people believed
in this kind of absurd narrative that It is impossible to reason with them.
Some still rationalize his misdeeds as unfortunate episode but doesnt erase the
fact that he was a hero; therefore, an attempt to offset his misdeeds with his
pseudo heroism and absolve him of any responsibility.
Whats more, there are those commoners or tegadeltys alike, though giants, to
use your own adjectives, were nonetheless dwarfed by the dictator, who are
eagerly awaiting for the genuine Eritrean history to be told.

Such is the enigma surrounding him that we couldnt even agree about his legacy
when in fact he has been implementing his decades old hidden agenda of
destroying Eritrea and its people; if only we could open our eyes and listen to one
another.
Mr. Semere,
I am a bit surprised at your description of him and you should have known more
than anybody else that the dictator was neither a hero nor he loved Eritrea.
Despite what his herd would like to describe him, he never fired a single shot and
according to Mesfin Hagos, he never commanded an army. He is a coward bully
who relied, like a street boy, on violence and settled scores through the barrel of
a gun. He is the destroyer of the Eritrean nation and the hater of Eritreans. He is
in our midst to annihilate us unless we wake up; and wake up soon. Since his
early days, he was bent on destroying the Eritrean national interest when he, for
example, had made an unholy alliance with the woyanes in his odyssey to
annihilate the ELF in the early 80s. This could hardly been described as a love for
Eritrea.
Even now, look at how the well planned work-in-progress of slowly de-populating
Eritrea. According to the UNHCR, Eritrea is hemorrhaging of its youth at alarming
rate of 1500 per month. At this rate, what is going to happen in two or three
years time? Who is the dictator preparing an empty Eritrea for? This is what an
enemy does. It is so appalling that we dont even have a plan to reverse this
dangerous trend.
What was, for example, the reaction to the Lampedusa victims? It is incredible
but true that while the whole world united in grief, their own government
described them as, African migrants with complete apathy to their suffering.
A true Eritrean, for example would have invested in human resources. What poor
Eritrea is subjected to is the brain drain of the work force and the educated. This
is the deadly enemy we are facing, not the person who loved Eritrea. Achievers
and true leaders dont do this to their people; enemies and invaders do.
I could have described more and more of what, every decent Eritrean, know
about this dictator. Despite your portrayal of him, I dont hesitate for a moment
you fail to understand the misery and predicament of our people.

Dear Semere,
More than forty years since the dictator towered above us, we still couldnt solve
the enigma surrounding him: we still debate whether he loved Eritrea or not, we
still wrangle about his importance or lack thereof, in the Eritrean Independence
struggle. Worse yet, to the consternation of many Eritreans, he is portrayed as the
embodiment of Eritrea and its independence; so much so that to some loud
mouthed loyalists, Eritrean Independence wouldnt have materialized without
him. Remember that this person, as the proverbial connotation implies success
has a thousand fathers, while failure is an orphan - has spent his entire life in
aggrandizing himself in every achievement our compatriots had and belittling
others for every setbacks they suffered. Once, we were told, women were
hysterically ululating the tunes of, wedi afom birye nska anbesa asakirka
nebriye. What better way of creating a herd mentality than this? Not only does
he despise us, but also hate us. It is time to wake up!

University of Asmara: Victims of 1993 Academic Staff Dismissal


In 1993, two years after the liberation of Eritrea, 35 Academics of the University
of Asmara (a third of the total academic staff at the time) were dismissed from
their academic positions by the Government of Eritrea. This occurred at a time
when the honeymoon of Eritreas liberation was at its peak, a stark difference
than what we are exposed to now. This is brief and focused account by first-hand
victims of this tragic action to set the record straight to that given by Dr.
Mohamed Kheir Omer at his publicly visible facebook page.
Firstly, we understand that this is not the right time to argue one another over an
issue of less a priority in light of the national emergency right now. At the same
time we didnt want to ignore Dr Mohammed Kheirs misleading message that
strives to distort the facts while attempting to minimise his culpability.
Nevertheless we would like to stress that we bear no ill will to him or others
involved in this case, especially those who have since acknowledged the blunder
and its costs to the new country and victims.
We categorically stress (1) the staff dismissal wasnt based on academic appraisal,
as he tried to present it, but it actually relates to previous conflict with universitys

appointed President (2) the precursor of the conflict between most of the
dismissed staff and the former president i.e. Ato Andeberhan Woldegiorghis was
a simple case for democratic academic administration (3) the issue was latterly
manipulated viciously and politicized to act as a pretext for dismissal of the staff,
with character assassination in the public media and rumour mills.
In his article, Dr Mohamed Kheir openly testifies that he collaborated with the
regime in the process and had made decisions that seriously affected the
university and at large the country (and not least the lives of 35 academic staff).
However it is not clear at all, why he has decided to raise this issue of injustice at
this particular time. This is especially surprising as it appears he has been vocally
opposing the same government in many other issues for over a decade.
Brief Background:
Immediately after the liberation of Eritrea the few available instructors of the
University of Asmara had to cope with the massive challenges of rebuilding the
university with its meager resources. The rehabilitation task required courage and
determination of its staff which all were happy to shoulder. All staff showed
extraordinary willingness to carry heavy workloads, long hours of extraordinary
committee engagements including sacrificing weekends and public holidays
without a single complaint. They served the public, government and its newly
appointed appointed President (Ato Andebrhan Woldeghiorghis) with genuine
feeling of nationalism and full cooperation.
Taking into account the Presidents lack of prior knowledge and experience in
managing higher education institution, the Deans, Department Heads and other
senior academics expressed their willingness to help and support in executing his
responsibilities. Especially the deans of the various faculties, through the Deans
Council continuously were working to remedy mistakes he was making, while
extending their advisory support unreservedly.
Unfortunately, the President was unwilling to work together and instead, pushed
on establishing a one man authoritarian rule in the university. He wanted to
control all major and minor activities from top to bottom abandoning the long
time serving legislations of the University [all this is documented officially]. At the
same time, the president saw the newly elected University of Asmara Teachers

Association, as a dangerous competitor that would challenge his authority and


thus started attacking directly and indirectly. Some of the evident methods
encouraged by the President to weaken the Association and its supporters were:
dividing the staff along regional and faith lines; favoring and disfavoring of new
and old academic staff differently *to which Dr. Mohamed drifts into again+.
Executers of this discord were recruited from among the academic staff and
administration staff. He would subsequently, depose the democratically
[according to the legislation] elected Deans and Department Heads and replaced
them by hand-picked supporters, one of which was Dr. Mohammed Kheir Omar.
After this point direct staff involvement and contribution in the election of their
deans and department heads was abandoned, a practice not remedied ever since.
Escalation and Academic staff Dismissal
It was at this stage, Dr Mohammed Kheir played his major role. He stood behind
the destructive mission of the President and worked hard to discredit the efforts
of the Teachers Association of the university and blackmail its executive
committee as well as those who support the ideals of the Association by
spreading false accusations and information. In so doing he was involved in
circulating a petition condemning the Association and insisting on general staff to
sign.
It eventually appears the university wasnt going to be a silent subservient to the
government (and its appointees) interference and a decision was to be made to
remove its key staff. It is with this intention, the cover up committee of Academic
Review was established, which was admittedly not as experienced as the staff it
was appraising.
In his article, Dr Mohamed Kheir, admits his involvement in this committees
decisions and admits the process was not transparent, and the staffs didnt know
the ground for their dismissal and didnt get the chance to defend themselves.
Nevertheless, it is with this guise, the removal of the vocal opponents of the
existing administration was accomplished in September 1993. The University
Teachers Association was also disbanded with 7 out of its 8 committee members
dismissed.

Concluding Remark
We were compelled to write this response to correct misrepresentations which
appear to seed confusion and could have ramifications to a future just and
peaceful Eritrea. However we dont want to dwell on the past and intend not to
say more, lest it distracts our society from more immediate and more important
issues.
Note: The full details of this unhappy predicament and the two years struggle for
academic rule of law within the university are well documented [with records of
official correspondence available to an appropriate time in the future].
In the end, truth will always triumph.
The above article was contributed by: Dr. Negusse Araya
I was just walking in DC when I met a lady from Massawa (A strong supporter of
the regime in the past) at the entrance of her little convenience store. I stopped
to greet her outside the store and she was in a bad mood. She had just lost a
BROTHER in Massawa for jail minus any explanation from the authorities and has
been calling to find out his whereabouts without any clue so far. She was bitter
and I was trying to cool her down when she said something that took my
attention for a while after I left the scene. She told me that the people of
Massawa have been restricted from feeding their families fishing in the sea and
she could not understand why. She then said the Orthodox Papas in prison once
said; dont pray for the death of Isaias but rather pray for him to face his sin
alive: to taste the pains of our incarcerated people and their loved ones after he
falls apart She continued telling me that he was done and cannot reverse his
legacy around no matter what he does from now on and concluded her grievance
saying that .
Comment: The Eritrean regime always points a finger at external forces specially
the US for accusing it of not running the society without a Constitution when the
reality is that we Eritreans are saying this without hesitation. It is not about
whether the US says this or that but about a dictatorship running a society
without Constitution. We are saying it and the world is saying it as well. Accusing
the US here is in order to divert attention from the real issue but does not work

any longer. We dont depend on the US or others to understand that we dont


have a Constitutional government in our country for we are directly experiencing
it ourselves. The 10,000 Eritreans in prison without due trial are first our problem
because they are our family members for us to directly feel the pressure of
dictatorship more than any other people in the world would agitate us for. Leave
the external forces and deal with your problem directly because we Eritreans are
telling you that you need to go because you have been running our society
without the rule of law!
Comment: Desperation, desperation and yet, desperation my dear people. The
weight of dictatorship is now hurting the dictators themselves. It has become too
heavy a burden to ignore for the most adamant symbols of oppression that once
openly declared of not understanding what election had meant to be. They totally
denied the existence of democracy in history and now this. It is contradictory
indeed to do this for a president who openly declared that the Eritreans would
never experience democratic elections within the next 40 years (Aljazeera) and
that said in 2013 that there was a Constitutional governance in Eritrea through
the mouth piece of the Monkey.
Lack of documentation is what makes them terrible liars because they cannot
revise what they said without it. They say something just for immediate survival
and they forget it because lies dont stay in the mind of a liar as intact as when
they were told because that is not how human beings were wired to work. In any
case, as T Emanuel Kant puts it in Doctrine of virtue, By a lie a man throws away
and, as it were, annihilates his dignity as a man.
Now they want to draft a new constitution in clear conflict with their former
position. We have a constitution for heaven sake waiting to be used in the
country had this been honest, but it is not. Obviously, this is as another scum that
makes no sense at all! It takes years to make a new constitution and this guy
wants us to optimistically wait for that long until he writes his version of
constitution which most probably will not be on paper until he dies. A country
that does not believe in documentation and written substance wants to write a
new constitution on paper for the first time in its history. How much boozing was
going on when the idea came across in the party? Were Askalu Markorious and

Justice Sofia Hashim there when this amazing idea suddenly came for discussion
23 years after the worst dictatorship in the world reduced Eritrea to being the 5th
poorest nation on Earth? Was the model looking visionary, super slim Sofia
whatever Mariam taking notes for her next BS to the poor HIGDEFites?
The Eritrean constitution was finalized by direct involvement of local and
international Lawyers, Professors, etc. to only stay shelved by the president for
this long. Who is going to write one now after chasing the best Eritrean
intellectuals out of the country: Osman the dancer, Wedi Erfem the slick; the
Charlie, the Monkey, the kisha, the opportunist Girma Asmerom, Girmai Santim,
the big headed Semere and Wedi Gerahtu or the college dropout master
philosopher himself? As usual no time schedule in this one, only promise, a
mischievous pattern that we notoriously know by now. In his mind,
procrastination without time limit still works to deceive the people and therefore
it is worth doing it again; what pain in the butt!
Giziu misbetshe kinnegrekum inna zeaynetu nay wedishuk shitara! They could not
get out of that Abashawl mentality. In his imagination people will chill down
waiting for the starting day of the BS (2-3 years), lying one more time making
excuses to delay it further (2 years here), putting something on paper for
evidence that work has started on it (about 2 years for a page), taking a break for
fornication and boozing a little bit to energize the confused mind (1 year),
finishing it off (about 3 years) and sharing it with the people for amendment (5
years), blablablabla! You are talking about at least 15 years from now when this so
said constitution will be written down by the slowest tortoise in the world. He
thinks this will give him enough time rusting in power for nothing with full right to
complicate it further ahead: He should be about 85 by then. This dude can only
approve his constitution from within his graveyard talking about reality based on
experience and on the law of nature considering he was 70 by now.
In conclusion, for an extraordinary person like Isaias that was born to deceive,
contradict and destroy society to the extent of disallowing the people of Massawa
from surviving out of fishing and that deliberately blackens the cities denying the
people electricity and water for devils advocacy, human suffering is not only a
hobby but a concept of existence. Nothing can reverse the damage this guy did to

himself and to the people no matter what he does from now on and no amount of
promise can convince the Eritrean people in favor of this good for nothing system.
We will continue pushing until we get rid of it but he has the right to put his
constitution in his rear end!

Conversation with the son of Kunama Brother Marbati


Amren
Conversation with the son of Kunama Brother Marbati Amren
I dedicate this article to the most psychedelic Eritreans: the beautiful people of
Kunama
Information: The vibrant revolutionary Dr. Teulde Vaccaro is doing excellent in
Europe better organizing the movement everywhere in the continent. Things are
slowly changing for the better and this reconfiguration process will affect all of us
internationally. Work will start soon in the US with capable Eritreans managing
the movement in all areas of its infrastructure. Bright days are ahead, and God
bless our unification movement to success.
Yohannes Zemichael: Hey Illuminati: You happen to be one of the duped
intellectual prostitute. I hope you have the guts to wake up and have this strong
delusion rooted out of your mind and sprit once and for all. The Kebessa people
brought the independence. Kebessa is the soul, heart and strength of Eritrea.
Dont try to open the Pandora box and you need to zip your mouth.
Response: I think slick Yonny came home from school feeling macho with his
friends about a little misadventure that may have something to do with a girl and
showing it off here with maximum confidence. I felt the input imagining Yonnys
sexy looks and gait (walking style) with attitude. Now to you Kiddo: Do you dress
your pants half way down the butt to attract your babe?
Oromay: My group, my books,theory, philosophy,agenda,vision,formula,
strategy,scenario,
consensus,
mission
statement,
road
map,forum,guidelines,symposium,conference,workshop,meeting,conflict
resolution,dialogue, assembly, civic society movement bottom up
approach,caucuses,resistance group, vacaroian movement,focal point,Accra
Peace Accord, low land league,kabessian Byzantine etc etc.Sometimes,the

philosopher sounds frustrated with the general situation and grumbles about his
personal affairs. Strange classification of change forces into Vacaroian movement,
resistance group, parties doesnot make sense if someone is talking about unity.
Another newly invented categorization is Kebessian/Christian Byzantine. there
was no a such regime domination and power control over other by religion or
topography !!
Comment: I read you brother; may be ten times enjoying myself and laughing out
loud beyond control. That is what I did listening to the lost presidents interview
where he said he failed in everything. There was a point in the video about
HALEKA BERHES MEDICAL LICENSE PROVOCATION ISSUE that I re-winded and
saw may be 20 times laughing out like a lunatic. What an entertainment you had
been, God bless you Mon! I needed this kind of stuff to excite me a bit. There is
no doubt that you teared up my eyes with laughter but let me ask you a question:
Did you do this anarchic articulation in one breath? Did you observe emotional
spikes in the process or you made it with unnoticeable emotional amplitude
variation? Were you tranquilized walking around like Socrates shouting this stuff
in solitude?
The real essence of our society: The guarantee that assures our Kunama family
about the bright future ahead.
Tes: Kunama issue is national issue and fair request. It needs to be handled with
great care. Otherwise it might [get] out of control and they really have a point to
feel intimidate by the Christine majority. As christian highlander I dont have any
problem my government or the so called opposition to listen to graveness of the
minority. Whether we like it or not they are equal stakeholders of the country and
it is our obligation to make them feel they are included in all the affair of the
country. I am completely in agreement with you brother with all specially if they
have graveness with Idris awate well there is a say in Amharic Yemeta biresa
Yetemeta Iyresam. If they feel not comfortable about Idris then so be it, it is
definitely their right.
selamawit2: I just started reading your article and I am very curious to read
about our kunama brothers and sisters as I dont know by far enough about them.
THANK YOU!!!!

GidstiEritrawit: You nailed it on the head. I dont understand why we have been
circling rounds for almost half a century to address our fundamental weakness.
We should be able to call a spade is a spade.. for Eritreans to examine ourselves
and help come together to root out the current Eritrean regime.
rezen: the true color of Eritrean outlook came out to surface and most of it
ugly. Unlike our ancestors, we dont learn from each other, we dont respect each
other, we do not tolerate each other, we dont accommodate each, we dont
reconcile to each other we became certified to insult each other, to disrespect
each other, to put down to each other, to disunite each other to label each other,
to judge each other And no wonder why we are failing to repair our damage, it
is SAD!
Folks! There is so much we have to learn about our Kunama family in the future
because there may be many untold stories similar to each ethnic groups
respective experience in the society, but I declare that the Kunamas are the
dignity of Eritreans as a whole that best represent us in the universal podium of
mankind in terms of at least three specific premises: Authenticity, Art and
Psychedelics needless to say they earned us the Eritrean independence together
with the rest of the society through direct participation and sacrifice in the
struggle that consumed us all equally.
Authenticity: I am not a historian or a sociologist to confidently claim that our
Kunama people were the most indigenous Eritreans compared to the rest of us:
My commonsense and subjective instinct, however, tell me that they were! If the
authenticity of an African or Blackmans image was to be measured by a persons
physical framework, our beautiful dark-chocolate Kunama family should be on top
of the list in the diversified Eritrean society to most represent us in the universal
Black Peoples Encyclopedia
I assume no Eritrean has a problem defined as non-caucassian , which ultimately
boils down to COLORISM that racially connects us with all black people in the
world; like it or not!
Talking about East Africa as a place of mixed ethnicities due to colonialism,
invasions and slavery (Arab, the Egyptian, the Turkish, and Italian) etc.; I feel
comfortable entertaining the notion that most Eritreans could have acquired their

current physical complexion as a result of at least the above factors, of course


among few others. We could have been modified within the Black Race due to
genetic contamination to end up acquiring our brown-chocolate skin color while
we all started from our original African roots like the Kunamas with our genuine
Dark-Chocolate complexion. My argument states that our Brown-Chocolate
complexion may be a genetically contaminated derivative of our original DarkChocolate complexion. The Kunamas may then be the most genetically pure
Eritreans. Events seem to have made some of us look a little different in
complexion within the generic Black Race, our roots being the same. We could
have been a compound of our original roots (the kunama family) and whatever
the external effects brought through the years of our existence to slightly modify
our indigenous pigmentation (implying to brown skinned Eritreans), but we
basically belong to the same family. You therefore may not be an Eritrean without
your original Kunama roots, no matter how controversial! This contemplation may
wait for Genetic Scientists to figure out in future Eritrea but it cannot be ignored
without a conclusive academic explanation! Unfortunately we dont have that
luxury today although unnecessary going that far beyond curiosity so to say.
Art: Eritrea is blessed with different cultures and artistic composures. The vibrant
Guaila makes us feel good going in circles on the stage with a little more shaking
during Kuda. I love it in a tipsy mood and dance with it till I sweat it out, although I
have never tried to play it in my limited musical career. It does not attract me for
that. As great as it is, the Guaila can hardly represent us internationally because it
is too unique to be classified under Reggae, R&B, Blues, African, etc. With very
confined drum bits and rhythm-less monotonous melody that does not
accommodate different styles of music; there is a good reason for it having a
limited audience; us and few Ethiopians. One has to be born from that area to
relate to Guaila with isolated exceptions, of course! No standard international
musician can play it without a serious problem, if ever one does.
I regret that I cannot talk a lot about our different musical styles because of lack
of adequate contact but I believe music from the Tigre region might be the
original Reggae music considering the link between the Ras Tafarian movement
and our society (habesha) through the relativity theory vis a vis emperor Haile

Selassie. I think the Reggae music is directly connected to the music in our region
as strong as the Ras Tafarian Movement had been to us via the emperor. This
connection could have allowed the Tigre music influencing the Rarsta Tafarians
along other factors to take that direction and develop their resultant music to the
current full-fledged musical exception. In other words, music from Tigre couldve
been the original Reggae music that influenced the Rastafarians to adopt and
internationalize it. The reason is direct: It was there before the standard Reggae
music came to existence (from Jimmy Cliff to Bob Marley), is the closest music to
Reggae in the region and it is indeed Reggae music by artistic classification.
Therefore, Tigre music represents us internationally because Reggae is today
enjoyed by people all over the place. One does not have to be born from our area
to relate to and enjoy Tigre Reggae and any standard international musician
should comfortably play it without a problem.
In so saying, Eritrea looks incomplete without the artistic legacy of the Kunamas.
They are our connection to the universe as good as our Tigre family had been. The
Kunama music uses different types of beautiful sounding drum bits that can move
any human being the way a typical African music should. Their vibrant dancing
styles, stage appearance and musical bits certainly match all inclusive African
standards for me to say that they well represent us internationally. One does not
have to be born from our area to relate to and enjoy the Kunama music; and any
standard international musician should comfortably play it with a little difficulty.
Finally of course in Psychedelics or Colorfulness that our Kunama family brings to
the society! I love the way they traditionally dress and shake on the stage and
enjoy it with maximum self-respect and confidence. I believe this was the reason I
was strongly infatuated with the talented Artist Dahab Fatinga at a point in the
go. You know what? I saw her probably a year ago at an Eritrean Restaurant in DC
(open mic jamming) and expressed my love on the stage (guitar/singing) Raggaing
it out with the following lyricks:
Downtown Asmara is where I want to stay
With Dehab Ftinga is whom I want to sway
Music in Metahit is what I want to do
Before chilling in Barentu with my Voodoo

It went fine and she enjoyed it very much so. I backed her up in Guitar while
singing on the stage too. She did not know me at all and that was kool: I left the
scene without any further motion because she was here making money for the
regime in Asmara.
Narrative: I was very happy to see Brother Marbati Amren attending my forum on
the Kunama Democratic Party and feel dignified to have this little conversation
with him for the bliss of the Eritrean unity. I was also surprised by our peoples
reaction to my article in strong support of this family; God bless them! I love you
brother; let us go!
Marbati: Dearest Fetsum; First of all I would like to express my gratitude for your
good gesture toward, genuine reconciliation aspiration [] based on equality and
liberty. Yes, from history we can learn so many things, either negative or positive.
Like other communities in this world, we the Eritrean community also have our
own constructive and gloomy memories. Admitting historical mistakes from the
oppressors side, in return showing clemency from the oppressed are two
inseparable pillars to resolve long-lasting dispute.
Comment: Brother, I am dignified to have had a response from a person of your
caliber and want to clearly tell you that you are modestly teaching us a very
important lesson here; about the significance of repentance and forgiveness: that
everything was a duality where one side alone cannot exist without its opposite
pair. If apology is missing from a party in a community, forgiveness from the
opposite side can rectify the situation as well. The fact that Apology and
Forgiveness were mutually inclusive and that either one can resolve human
contradictions. This of course requires the courage to dominate ego by
spirituality. Thank you sir and well taken!
The reason the EDA excluded the Kunama Party was because of trying to solve the
difference through APOLOGY without willingness to unconditionally FORGIVE
otherwise. It did not try the other means of solution and therefore failed to rectify
the situation. An equally valid solution was rejected to resolve the familial
problem because of fixation and EGO. What you taught us here is not only correct
but also the only way to change a broken society for the better.This mistake
should nevertheless be taken as a foundation to harmonize our differences by

learning from instead of using it to separate us further. Therefore, I hope our


Kunama family forgives the EDA and works harder to make it stronger.
Secondly, as a Kunama son, your article overwhelmingly touched my heart and l
recalled all regrettable histories which l was learning from my grandparents. I did
not disregard the magnitude of compassion and genuine leniency. In the
meantime, I am deeply convinced that the broken heart can be healed with a
sincere[] apology and firm stand for rule of law only. To my little knowledge,
expression of regret and forgiveness must start from our deep hearts. As that is
only viable way, that we could ensure solidarity and peaceful co-existence of our
Eritrean Nations and Nationalities.
Comment: Wow! Brother, you hit me with another valuable lesson again and
thank you. History is contagious: Parents tell kids their history to make sure it
stays constant forever and I respect your grandparents for teaching you the
regrettable history of the Kunama nation vis--vis the rest of us. I am sorry for this
and beg you to accept my sincere apology, brother in the name of any Eritrean
that misdeed your community without mandate to do this from the people.
We Eritreans will have to genuinely feel their pain in order to relate to the
Kunama community effectively. I found your statement deep in spirituality: a
victim teaching the values of compassion, apology and rule of law instead of
showing anger on and vengeance for the ill-deeds of few member of the society
against our Kunama family. Through this height of spirituality, you are basically
offering us love out of your broken heart as a son of the Kunama family! We were
supposed to apologize for what happened to you but you chose to surpass this
conventional approach becoming the extraordinary example of spirituality to your
people; accommodating forgiveness as well. You are blessed to use your highly
enlightened consciousness for the benefit of the Eritrean people.
I agree that one has to make peace with the inner-self to create peace in the
environment. One has to forgive the self and reconcile with it first before
positively affecting the external. This is the reason the liberators failed to
positively influence our society: they were not liberated themselves. Radiating
peace to the society is impossible without internal peace through repentance and
down-to-earth retrospective meditation on the Self.

I always astonish by what we call the politicians and elites of our beloved
country, Eritrea for their unfounded excuses in the cover of national interest.
Despite to the fact that they are few in number, yet they have a significant role in
keeping our Eritrean people in unnecessary hatred and meaningless abhorrence.
So far I have never seen a single Eritrean politician or elite, who committed
himself to be a good messenger of peace among Eritrean Nations and
Nationalities. I am also deeply regretted not to find someone who have an
inclusive political platform that can embrace all Eritrean people. My main concern
here is, if our politicians and elites could not stand for such holy and compressive
move, how can we achieve the justice and peace that we all meticulously looking
for?
Comment: Brother, we have been struggling to correctly address the issues that
you brought here for consideration. Yes we have yet to see a leader fully
addressing our issues and concerns but I think we are getting there slowly. I for
instance believe that Vaccaro is a down to earth unifier who can do it behind our
support. He directly contacts people that help our unconditional unity to discuss
matters that concern us all as Eritreans. That is called transparency and it will
work with Gods help! The few spoilers of our love will continue infusing hatred in
the community but can hardly succeed if we fight them back. They cannot help
dividing us because they have splintered inner souls! Remember that we are a
new nation with a society mentally experimenting different things in the midst of
this savage dictatorship that threatened our survival. We are in the journey to the
final destination: democracy. Every stage will have its own challenges to
overcome until we reach the destination. As you said, it is regrettable that we
dont have an inclusive political platform that can embrace all Eritrean people
and it is obvious we cannot march forward with this void in the journey. We are
trying to resolve this issue with great difficulty in the way and I hope we will
produce something to this effect within this year either with the resistance as a
unit or as individuals in isolation. I can directly share with you what we have been
doing to this effect if you may contact me at202-702-3977. This may be an
opportunity to reach our Kunama family and please do contact me. I agree that
there will never be peace and justice in Eritrea without keen interest of the

politicians achieving them. What we need is a formula that collects us all together
through equal participation and representation in the country. There is no
alternative here except doing it and I hope we will.
Mr. Fetsum, I therefore boldly appreciated your good gesture to invite all
Eritrean Nations and Nationalities into inclusive reconciliation, hoping other elites
to follow your footsteps. You also need to be vigilant more than any time else
because Bismarks of this era are reacting with their odd concept of a friend of
my enemy is my main enemy.
Comment: Please accept my appreciation for this outstanding contribution. I want
to tell you frankly that quite a few people contacted me on my article and they all
were very happy that I stood for the cause of the Kunamas. They were
uncomfortable on EDAs action against the Kunama party and even more on the
recklessness of the elites that supported the action for unjustified reasons. We
will work together with them because they are Eritreans and we cannot do it
without. We should then move on loving them unconditionally without expecting
anything in return hoping they will join us in the current PEACE and LOVE
movement of the society. But we will never allow the history to repeat against our
Kunama family and the peoples progressive reaction on my last article tells me
that we have a brighter future together. We have no difference at mass level of
our relationship no matter how very few individuals may distort this reality. No
Eritrean should get away at the expense of any Eritrean from now on and let us all
participate to this end. Yet, we need to practice what we say; we will embrace
every Eritrean citizen irrespective of mistakes done in the past including the EDA
family and Brother Saleh Gadi still thanking both for their relentless struggle
against the dictatorship.
I will try to put your advice in practice staying vigilant as much as I can but it is not
easy to do and I leave this for time to tell! I have my moments; brother! I
sometimes feel discouraged and consider myself a person that tried hard to make
a difference in the society but that failed. I feel like people may remember me for
being overly optimistic about our sociopolitical issues without clear understanding
of the society. What most matters, though is the fact that I love all of you from
the heart and I am trying my best to help with very limited resources. I dont have

to visualize my dream in practice as long as I succeed planting the seeds of


unification now for the society to harvest the fruit in terms of democracy
tomorrow with or without me.
Last but not least, using this convenient moment, l strongly remind to all
Eritrean politicians that, the imposed politics could not workout in the Eritrean
Nations and Nationalities contemporary life. The only political program which can
serve the Eritrean people is an inclusive political platform.
Comment: I agree and I hope they will read us to understand how important your
words were for our decent coexistence. We certainly need one political program
to unite our people for transitional government to democracy. I guarantee you
that there is a collective activity going on in our community and you are welcome
to be part of, if you may accept my invitation!
I also would like to convoy my little recommendation to our elites, please stop
your long fabricated stories, which are causing unquenchable resentment and
animosity among our peace lover Eritrean people. We are fed up of your ill
mentality of belligerency, antagonism, segregation and well rooted meaningless
concept of superiority and inferiority. What we need is justice, peace and
equality.
Comment: Thank for the reminder but there is no egoistic and inferior human
being that does not exhibit the problem by superiority complex excluding the
spiritual. Superiority complex is the outer jacket or the syndrome of the opposite
complex for us never to worry about but rather focus on justice and equality in
Eritrea. What is apparent is that whether the Kunama nation breaks away from
Eritrea to stand independent or to unite with Ethiopia, the end situation of the
Kunama people would not change for the better. I cannot see peaceful and safe
Kunama nation sandwiched between two chauvinistic societies (Ethiopia and
Eritrea). I believe our Kunamas will be better off, staying within democratic Eritrea
to enjoy everything that it offers with the rest of their people. God bless the
Eritrean Unity and the Kunama Eritreans forever!
In the World Economic Outlook October 2009, the International Monetary Fund
projected the GDP annual percentage growth for most African countries. In 2010,

the fastest growing African economies are projected to be Republic of Congo


(12.2%), Angola (9.3%), and Ethiopia (7%). In 2011, the fastest growing African
economies are projected to be Ghana (22.5%), Liberia (9.2%), and Botswana
(8.5%). Angola (8.4%) follows closely behind Botswana in 2011. In 2012, there
are several double-digit growth projections Botswana (13.8%), Liberia (12.8%),
Mauritania (13.1%), Niger (12.9%).
To get further information and explanation for growth patterns, check with the
appropriate government department for each country. Typically, the department
of trade or an embassy can provide assistance.
The following table lists the projections for each African country covered by the
World Economic Outlook.
Oh! i forgot one point to tell you! Like the say goes Birds with the same father
flock together Tsehaye stimulated to read his bible, after you named all your
devil and servants name by name. Could you inform him please in which your
bible verse he could find it all your Devels name please? About my once somehow
I pointed where you can find Gods servants, like Mosses, Paulos ,if you will I can
add all real prophets and Apostles name, including those Eritreans truthfully they
fighting for justice and rules of low.
I tell you hundred times,you can blabber as much as you can, but every sensible
man knows you that you have not a single truth.
Your attempt to run away could have been the best decision for your troubled
soul, albeit inadvertently. You say that Isayas the devil and his cult worshipers
like you, or the whole population under repression? Specially about those 300,000
youngsters under slavery, about they dieng in Mediterranean sea about those
unjust-fully imprisoned ?
Since that you need a good mirror to bring you down from your ivory tower,
please study the following words of our heavenly father. Exodus 23:1 You shall
not spread a false report. You shall not join hands with a wicked man to be a
malicious witness Obviously, your soul is sold and you need to find a way to find
it back. James 1:26-27 26-Those who consider themselves religious and yet do
not keep a tight rein on their tongues deceive themselves, and their religion is
worthless. 27- Religion that God our Father accepts as pure and faultless is this: to

look after orphans and widows in their distress and to keep oneself from being
polluted by the world
Kosami like I told you, just to disguise yourself like Satan, you can continue to
quote bible verses corruptively . I know not mine, but yours and your evil boss
soul is how troubled and restless, because a lot of innocent people blood is in
your hands. Your thoused deceiving words it doest makes you legal, or set free
from being guilty when the day of judgement begins like we have seen it in Libya,
Irak etc..just wait! I know you are here writing restless for money to deceive
people day and night, because your evil boss employed you. As about me
ofcourse like you said it my soul is also restless, because I seen my nation
bleeding, my people scattering, humiliating their kidney purchasing like
commodity and dieing everywhere. So despite I know myself that I am not a
qualified person with weakness, I trust my Lord with his grace and mercy with his
spirit and power fills me , and gives me a sense of justice and the courage to tell
the the people like you and your boss what your sins are. So poor man, i know
your soul is driven by your master LUCIFER; and I know like your computer and
boss Lucifer your mark number 666 is. So i refuse to listen devil like you three
times No, No No, or if you like three times 999.
I am not trying to absolve the PFDJ regime from any blame. What I am trying to
say is the youth of Eritrea are not leaving their country because of political
persecution. They are leaving the country mainly for economic reasons. Sadly, we
lack a common factor to effect any change. Those who oppose the regime and
have become the barbaric woyanes tools have done their best to create a gaping
wound to our unity. I personally blame most of Eritreas endless misery is due to
the oppositions. If we had a common vision of how we see Eritrea, the PFDJ
regime and unreservedly condemn the barbaric woyane regime in unison, Eritrea
would not have been the trophy of one man. People like you have to have the
courage and come closer to the center (to the common denominator) to attract
and garner the support of most Eritreans.
Unfortunately, I see a serious problem in your discourse with Kozami. I have no
doubt that you are deeply hurt by the gruesome cruelty of the Bedouins and the
harrowing images of Eritrean victims. So does every Eritrean who is watching this

Arabian barbarity. But putting all the blames on the PFDJ regime for the organized
crimes in the Sinai Desert is very dishonest to say the least. I believe that the
exodus of the youth from Eritrea will not stop even if the PFDJ regime terminates
the so-called national service tomorrow. Most of the youth are risking their lives
because they see people like you and me having a better life in Europe and North
America. They see you and me helping our families back home. They see you and
me enjoying a luxurious vacation in Eritrea once in a while. I believe these are the
main factors that are acting as enticement for the youth to leave the country.
If what you propose had been the case, Eritrea would truly have become a power
to reckon with and an oasis of hope in the dark continent. Some people say that
when the pressure is on, people often revert to their true form. For the sold out
opposition PIA and PFDJ is all that there is to Eritrea and about Eritrea. And this
comes as a standard issue dispensary from the Woyanes stock room. Hence
they have lost miserably to, even remotely, make their existence known to the
Eritrean populace. As you are doing, when one acknowledges Eritrean challenges
credibly and holistically, you do not need to recruit people, it is the people who
would follow you in dazzling numbers. The reason being that facts are not easy to
ignore and alternatives are a hot selling merchandises in such context. Facts and
credibility work like gloves in a hand, one without the other is like the boy who
cried Wolfe. True to their form, the sell out opposition have no guts to to stand up
to principle. Hence the indulge in a self defeating associations in the hope that the
sadistic woyane would one day bring home the head in the platter for them to
feast on. Little do they know it would be their head at the end of the day that will
be served.
Dear Tsehaye somehow I thank you for your moderate understanding. Actually I
am not personally specially
affected because of the situation. But ofcourse like many of other Eritreans part
close, part a little bit far of my relatives members this or that way are somehow
affected also. I couldnt imagine if you, kosami or Abdi, which I some how respect
and have some understanding about your views are also real Eritreans, that you
could be also free from being affected by the situation. Even in this way if you not
affect, a single citizen death should to oblige you like me and others. But what I

totally disagree is, not like you and your boss said Eritreans are living because of
the economic reason,or for picnic, or there is no persecution, but because the
hardship of the endless military service, they have no perspective to get the job
they like to do, to learn they like to study, to worship in a way their mind accept,
because they not get freedom of speech, publicly elect president,functional luck
of constitution, rule of lowthese are amongst the least,reasons for escaping. If
you mean economy why not the,Sudanese, Ethiopians, Kenyans , Ugandans,
etc,,like much the number of Eritreans fleeing then? How could someone believe
a nation national football team all the time escaping because of economy reason
unless their there is a serious hardship inside nation?
I also thank you for expressing your opinion with humility and at the same time
respecting the opinions of Kozami, Abdi and mine. With the exception of religious
and ethnic persecution that amount to genocide and other crimes against
humanity, political persecution has never been the reasons for a mass exodus of a
society. Nevertheless, economic stress has been the main culprit of mass
migration. Devastated by war and erratic rainfalls, Eritrea has become one of the
poorest countries in the world. The huge number of Diaspora Eritreans has also
given hope to the youth what is possible once they leave the country. The PFDJ
regime could have done better to reduce the exodus by limiting national service
to one or two years, by allowing private businesses to flourish and by encouraging
new graduates to lead their own lives and become entrepreneurs of their own
destiny. As to your question of why not the Ethiopians, Sudanese, Ugandans and
Kenyans, I say there are as many Ethiopians leaving Ethiopia for economic reasons
as there are Eritreans. The other countries are more stable economically, but it
does not mean that there is no migration from these countries. Eritreans are
automatically accepted as refugees once they leave their country, and this
incentive has also exasperated the situation. However, if Eritreans were not to be
recognized as refugees once they leave the country, the exodus would not have
been as dramatic as we see it nowadays.
Ok Tshaye, i somehow agreed economy as main reason for escape. But why
Eritrean football, bicycle national team members all the time escaping? Even why
the nation elite doctors,diplomats, engineers, businessmen, journalists etc.. are

you going to tell me these all too escaping because of economical reasons? How
your mind accepted to be lead by one not publicly un elected but by self
appointed dictator? What about the freedom right of speech? Do you think like
we conversation now in Eritrea would it be possible with out the government
tracking or crackdown us? Why imprisonment without transparency and normal
judicial process? Why mercy for foreigners like Britten but why not for Eritrean
heroes? Why not the ratified constitution still now not functioning? Specially why
not limitation for national service? why not leave them our youths to join their
family and be allowing to study and to work what ever they like inorder to help
their poor family by own selves, atleast to those they can only?even to marry ?But
in the right time if the nation face a serious threat why not they try to proclaim or
to call them back everyone to defend its motherland? These are points which
always strikes me, and enforced me not to trust Isayass Mafia regime. At last you
have to know Ertrean is producing much more refugee than Ethiopians, despite
Ethiopia has 84 million populations. These serious points were i expected from
you to give me answer.
Lived community Eritrean nearly a month a state of anticipation and anxiety
because of the events of one and twenty from January last and that made the
country at a crossroads, either slide into chaos, or freedom from dictatorship, or
continue Hger tyranny, in contrast, the system might be surprised defiantly from
PHG his barn and could not be addressed by frivolously as always, to the
knowledge that it will go Brihh, what was in front of him but gloss over and
Hannah even keeping quiet, and as this secret unnamed Mastourah views Isaias of
the Vdaath The truth is still vague and failed this panoramic in Tglatha if not
more in her thumb, so we will try the following analysis brief encounter
conducted by satellite system Eritrean with head of the regime machetes analysis
in the letter that exercise system delivery to an audience Eritrean people at home
and abroad with a bit of psychological analysis of the psychological state it was in
Isaias during the dialogue with him to fathom what is happening in Eritrea.
Scientists say the sign language that the movement of the body during the speech
involuntarily have implications rights can not be controlled, as scholars divide the
total impact of the message to ratios as follows:

1 7% of the impact of the message expressed by words.


2 and 38% of the impact of the message the audio tone Touselh.
3 55% of the impact of the non-verbal message body language.
It notes
First: that the signs concerned were visible on Isaias clearly Speaking to TV
Eritrean, and the most important manifestations of this concern that it was a lot
of swallow saliva during the event and this case explain the severity of anxiety and
lack of confidence, Kmalk the length of time it took to broadcast episode was in
the range of quarter The time is a period of time are not commensurate with the
size of the event and this is where a signal of unwillingness spokesman and
preparers program in length in the modern response to the psychological state
controls everyone a desire to conceal the topic raised, and they talk about it
except to confirm one thing is denied.
Second: it was a lot of tilting his head left and right and this is also in the body
language explains not believe what he was talking about rights, involuntary
movement, which means that the reality was totally against what he was talking
about, and here can realize that Vacas extend it more streamlined has stated that
They event does not exceed the number of fingers on one hand, but the reality is
that the problem was bigger than that where it took solved for nearly a month,
then that they did not arrest or trial, not even accountability, which indicates the
strength position this group, which he described Isaias Bakulh . Also notable in
this context to talk very slowly Unusually, demonstrating that the talk on the
subject is not in conformity with the reality in response to an internal desire
where the speaker tries to control lest it slip that the word may appear truth.
Third observation: Escape from the truth and is therefore not to be charged
directly to the concerned but accusation was generalized, although that has
already are a group of individuals IDF Eritrean This means that the majority of the
IDF Eritrean support and blessing of what happened and understand this
document security circulated to embassies Eritrean which has hinted that the
group have his support, whether on the level of leadership in the Department of
Defense or the soldiers and this shows that the Isaias and his face case of
rejection surpassed the grassroots level to the military establishment and

therefore avoid in his download the military results of what happened, and in
contrast, if The situation was otherwise that the insurgency was limited as stated
in the hadeeth was accelerated in guiding senior army commanders Baltbra who
have this coup attempt and then throwing sweeping stream of false accusations,
which is full of Dictionary of the Popular Front through its propaganda organs to
be followed by their abuse.
Note IV: that the Isaias in the meeting were rigid and this situation often occurs
from the speaker to work him to meet internal desire for it to appear appearance
is strikingly which internal factors can not speaker control, and accompanied also
desire to disappear and appear in the case of deflation and this situation was
evident in Isaias as seemed within his seat.
Fifth note: fake smile, a condition was more pronounced on Isaias, in his van were
few and smile artificial, unlike real smile that lead to move the muscles around
the eye The counterfeit show only in the lower part of the face.
Sixth note: Isaias appeared at the meeting of the Council of Ministers meeting is
interested Behndamh Vozrar hands to his shirt buttoning court, which proves that
great concern and confusion and lack of time and time is mired in the issues it
deems are most important.
Note G: seemed Isaias in meeting more eager to hear the next question, and
answer all the questions were without logical conclusion to answer forcing to stop
to receive the following question, while Broadcaster be in a state of alert because
he felt no complete answer was not able to request for clarification is forced
reluctantly asked the following question .
Eritrean media failure deservedly
Meeting revealed the size of the isolation experienced by the system had not
been invited to meet with any of the foreign media and news agencies and
correspondents of foreign newspapers, and this explains the state of the Iron
Curtain that the system imposes on himself and on the Eritrean people, which
means he does not trust the policy pursued by. Have shown the events of 21
January that Eritrea today is closer to the state of Albania under Enver Hoxha,
which was the world does not know anything about it except its name and the
name of its chairman thanks to broadcast, which was broadcast in all languages of

the world, but glorifying the sole leader and his departure was not the only ruin,
and Eritrea today no better off them and inform them of the day no one knows
what is going on only when its head out of the silence to deny the truth in the
fourth day. The Eritrean television has failed deservedly did not mention what
happened even to meet Isaias, and ended up quietly without analyzing what
happened, and the sites Strategic Studies Center of the Eritrean government, the
information which has not been updated in four months.
What this means no translation of the meeting:
Of the biggest flaws in the media-oriented policy screening among audiences for
his Valvdaah Eritrean did not translate the meeting into Arabic language or
report has also not addressed to the event after the fact Kbr and then analyze
what happened hosting specialists, or broadcast a statement on the official but
was broadcast Brameh registered to contribute to the uncertainty minor glitches
all those concerned with the Eritrean, also did not do so radio Eritrean and
Almnauth voice masses even in newscasts and this means that the government
Eritrean do not care much of the components, also promotes this act accusations
against it of sectarianism and racism, dictatorship, and its approach this be have
promoted the charges so as to not worried about the feelings of the majority of
its people, and give the message a negative thrust it does not care to know the
majority of the people what is happening in their country and this shows that the
citizens of others speaking keratinocytes are second-class citizens when this
system, also gave this ambiguity negative image of the state of the country and as
a den of crime violate where all vices and issued him a fuss and noise loathed
them all around and knocking on doors and voices are raised to clarify what is
happening Fatal them one who income through a window a small tells them
nothing which Ttohmon then closes the window that overlooked them in the face
crowd, and in this way can Nassour Popular Front in all media organs where it
seemed miserable and lackluster colorless and not taste or flavor. Proved
earthquake January 21, beyond a reasonable doubt that inform the Popular Front
Media propaganda under the control of President remains after two decades of
Omar state Eritrean box stage revolution did not bypass the stage media router
that addresses public Eritrean various sects and political components of social.

What a read of what happened:


Highlighted message attempted delivery of have events January 21 is that the
shoulders are equally divided and there is no leader sole can Batsh how willing
and whenever he wants, and the Security Service, who was the force with which
he strikes the President and provide him with information may become paralyzed
and ineffective, and that power now, however, the army, which His ascendancy
became him may be soon . In the President events have shown the level of
weakness and weakness that reached for the first time in its history, did not resort
to force and not wise to prevail but because the tool that was used in the
oppression has become nibbled soon has become corrupted.
What happened could consider fumes from the crater before the Big Bang and
this is the state defense forces Eritrean that are closer to state of collapse because
of what ails the state of great escape in the inside and outside a condition which
may lead them to fade and decay can therefore be considered what happened a
state of restlessness and dissatisfaction that pervades all ranks without exception.
Chalice Gold Mines is poised to test the appetite of money markets, with the Tim
Goyder-headed explorer cleared to start raising funds for its $131 million highgrade gold project after getting the final nod from the Eritrean Government.
Chalice hopes to start construction of the Koka mine early next year, which will
mean having to secure finance within the next couple of months against a
backdrop of global volatility. In its favour is the positive investor sentiment
towards gold projects in Africa and a near record price for the precious metal,
which closed at $US1724.85 an ounce in Sydney last night, up $US7.32/oz.
Chalice, which owns 60 per cent of the project, is expected to fund its share with a
combination of debt and equity. It has about $9 million in the bank and is
scheduled to receive $32 million from the Eritrean Government by January 27,
which it agreed to pay for a 30 per cent stake.
News yesterday that Chalice had signed a mining agreement with Eritreas
Government was enough to keep its shares in the black in a falling market. They
closed 0.5 higher at 27.5, while the markets key S&P-ASX 200 index lost 48.3
points to 4184.6.

Chalice wants to establish a 104,000- ounce-a-year gold operation at Koka, which


is on the regions Arabian-Nubian shield. At current prices, the operation would
be highly profitable, with forecast cash costs of $US338/oz.
With Kokas indicated mineral resource of 840,000oz grading 5.3 grams a tonne, it
is one of the highest-grade African deposits being developed by a WA company
and will be Eritreas only second major mine.
With dreams for a better future all but shattered, Eritreans have been fleeing
their country in droves giving Eritrea the unenviable distinction of becoming one
of the worlds biggest prisons and exporters of refugees .The regimes terrorism
against its own people spares no one. Peacefully demonstrating disabled veterans
were brutally mowed down in the early 1990s. The cold and calculated message
conveyed by Eritreas dictator, Isaias Afworki, at the time was if he can be that
barbaric to disabled veterans who made Eritreas independence possible, then
anyone who dares to ask for freedom and justice will fare no better.
Thousands of courageous Eritreans who dared have disappeared since. And those
under 50 are condemned to a life of slave labor under an endless national service
program supposedly designed to safeguard Eritreas security. To get it out of
the way so they can get on with the rest of their lives, young people willingly
signed up for the program when it was first announced with an 18-month limit in
1994. Sixteen years later, denied of all forms of personal freedom to lead normal
lives, they find themselves trapped and betrayed.
Not surprisingly, those who can are leaving to anywhere but here facing harsh
deserts and high seas in the process. And that is after surviving the regimes
shoot-to-kill policy. 335 Eritreans who braved the Sahara desert drowned in the
Mediterranean Sea while attempting to cross to Italy on March 22, 2011
.Hundreds more perished in Egypts Sinai desert trying to reach Israel. Incapable
of feeling the pain of his own people, Isaias and his blind followers routinely mock
these victims as people going on a picnic.
Western Companies Lifeline to Tyranny
Western mining companies, mainly Canadian (Nevsun) and Australian (Chalice
Gold), now prop up Eritreas tyranny further extending the misfortune of the

people. Given the current situation in the Arab world, a Western firm would be
widely ridiculed if it openly praised Gaddafi or Assad. Sadly, praising Eritreas
dictatorship brings no such shame.
Mr. Clifton Davis, The CEO of Canadas Nevsun Resources Ltd (NSU-TSX), says
there
is
no
government
corruption
in
Eritrea
(http://www.capitaleritrea.com/business/nevsuns-ceo-makes-the-cover-ofresource-world/). This is morally and factually wrong. To give Mr. Davis the
benefit of the doubt, maybe he does not realize Isaias already owns all the
resources of the country and doesnt have to ask him for bribes directly. But
contrary to Mr. Daviss assertion, government corruption is so pervasive the
regime has ruled the country opaquely without a budget for the last 20 years.
Courageous Eritreans who demanded accountability and transparency about their
countrys affairs and its finances have all disappeared many presumed dead
after years of no news of their whereabouts (http://www.amnesty.org/en/formedia/press-releases/eritrea-prisoners-conscience-held-decade-must-bereleased-2011-09-19). Corruption at the top is flagrant running the gamut of
embezzlements, contraband trade, human trafficking and rampant sexual abuses
of young women.
It can be said with almost 100% certainty that Nevsun is using slave labor in
Eritrea today. And how does this happen? The regime, through the many
companies it owns, assigns itself to be a subcontractor for foreign firms like
Nevsun and collects full worker salaries that appear reasonable by ILO standards
from them. It then pays the poor Eritreans it has subjugated to slavery under the
guise of national service, 400 Nacfa per month the equivalent of less than $10
USD at current real market rates.
What can $10 per month buy you? A young family of four, if it has the luxury of
three meals a day, and bread is all the family had every single day, the 400 Nacfa
will not even last 10 days. That is with nothing left for vegetables, eggs, milk,
shelter or other basic necessities. And how do people survive in this severely
mismanaged country? The lucky ones have relatives outside who can support
them. Those who dont, suffer all the indignities of poverty including begging.

As hopeful as Eritreas gold rush may sound at first glance, very little if any, is
expected to trickle down to the people. As it has been doing with Eritreas meager
resources during the last 20 years, the regime will squander the gold revenues too
to fund internal and external terrorism. Luckily, some now understand the true
nature of the regime and the UN has sanctioned it as a sponsor of (external)
terrorism. To Eritreans under its direct control, however especially those under
50 infliction of fear and terror have always been its ever present trademarks.
What Eritreans hope Canada and Australia would do
Although Eritreans bear the primary responsibility of deposing the oppressive
regime, they also need moral and material support from the world at large. The
UN is doing its part to tame the rogue regime partially. Similarly, the Canadian and
Australian governments can play a decisive role to support the Eritrean people in
their struggle for freedom and justice. A couple of months ago, England was able
to free four of its citizens the Eritrean regime imprisoned for six months. The UKs
threat to declare the 2% embezzlement tax the regime imposes on Eritreans
abroad illegal was all it took for the regimes bombastic posturing to fizzle out. If
Canada and Australia use the same threat and make it stick, Eritreans victimized
by this criminal regime will be forever grateful. The press of the free world can
also help by keeping officers of Western companies and their PR departments to
be truthful by challenging them when they make outrageous statements that are
offensive to the people victimized by unelected regimes they happen to be
partnering with. Dictators are horrible creatures. Glorifying them with positive
attributes they dont possess, as Mr. Davis did, only adds insult to injury.
Eritreans do understand Nevsun and the other mining companies are in the
business of making money and should be rewarded for the risks they take in their
endeavors. The shady character it is partnering with in Eritrea increases the risk
even more. In fact, Nevsun itself was a victim of the regimes erratic leader when
it
was
kicked
out
from
Eritrea
in
2004
(http://www.resourceinvestor.com/News/2007/10/Pages/Nevsun-Flies-on-BishaGo-Ahead.aspx) that shareholders need to be keenly aware of. Second, it is
possible but unlikely Nevsun can accelerate recovery of all expected profits before
the regime falls to minimize the risk. If not, it would not be unreasonable to

imagine a future Eritrea that feels no obligation to fully honor contracts that
enabled this regime to inflict so much misery. That day of reckoning could arrive
suddenly as it did in Tunisia, Egypt and Libya. Syria and Yemen should be next and
Eritrea, hopefully, not far behind.
To accelerate the arrival of that day, the Eritrean opposition and civic
organizations must create much stronger alliances than before. Activists have
started puncturing the regimes bombastic balloon as Eritreans in London did
recently in a meeting organized by the regimes ambassador there. Isaias is now in
New York for UNs 66th session and to rally his worshipers who have, so far, failed
to feel the pain and the crushing poverty of their own people pain and poverty
perpetuated by their hero. It is time Isaias and his puppets faced the music of
their peers in the Arab World. And little by little, the regime will be no more
brightening Eritreas future.
The drought and famine that is devastating the Horn of Africa is affecting more
than 12 million people.Yet one country in the region, Eritrea, says it has escaped
the crisis, reaping a bumper harvest earlier this year.
But evidence is now mounting that the real situation in the secretive country may
be rather different, with up to two in three Eritreans going hungry.
In the last decade Eritrea has become one of the worlds most closed nations with
no free press and no opposition.
So its been difficult to verify the Eritrean governments claims that the population
has the food it needs.
But it has now been possible to piece together an alternative picture from a
variety of sources.
There is an increasing trend of acute malnutrition in children under five in many
areas.
Satellite imagery from weather monitoring group the Famine Early Warning
System shows below average rainfall from June to September.
This is the main rainy season for Eritrea and comes after years of severe drought
in consecutive years.
The human impact is to be found in northern Ethiopia.

Emaciated Eritreans are crossing the heavily militarised border at the rate of 900 a
month, according to journalists in the region.
They tell tales of crops that have failed and homes without food.
The American ambassador to the United Nations, Susan Rice, recently described
Eritrea as a black hole in terms of independent information.
The Eritrean people most likely are suffering the very same food shortages that
were seeing throughout the region (and) are being left to starve because there is
not access, theres a clear-cut denial of access by the government of Eritrea of
food and other humanitarian support for its people, Ms Rice said.
Most UN agencies have been refused access to Eritrea and most aid agencies have
been expelled.
Even accredited ambassadors have the greatest difficulty in moving freely about
the country, to assess the seriousness of the situation
There is widespread fear that there may be hidden famine in Eritrea caused by
drought.
The question is whether the Eritrean government is hiding information on hunger
and starvation because it is embarrassed by its failed agricultural policies?
Eritrean intellectuals, professionals and political leaders who met in Addis Ababa
earlier this month (Sept. 5 to Sept.10/2011) agreed that saving the lives of
drought victims was more important than engagement in hunger politics on the
part of the Eritrean government.
In a petition to world leaders, they call for an immediate access to drought
affected areas and allow independent verification of the magnitude of the food
crisis.
Petitions have been sent to the UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon; AU current
Chair Equatorial Guinea President Mbasogo; AU Chief Commissioner Jean Ping; EU
Commission/Foreign Affairs Chief,Catherine Ashton; US President Barak Obama
and the Heads of Government of the other four UN Security Council Members,
IGAD Executive Secretary Eng. Mahboub M. Maalim; His Highness Qatars Emir
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa; US State Dept. Secretary Hillary Clinton; US
Ambassador to the UN, Susan Rice; and US Chief Envoy for African Affairs Johnnie
Carson.

The following is the full text of the petition:


WE, THE UNDERSIGNED, THANK YOU FOR YOUR CONCERN ABOUT THE PLIGHT OF
THE ERITREAN PEOPLE SUFFERING UNDER AFRICAS MOST SECRETIVE AND
REPRESSIVE REGIME.
After relentless international pressures, Eritrea has reluctantly admitted there is
drought in the country while at the same time denying there is famine. It
continues to ignore calls from UNICEF and other NGOs to independently assess
the impact of the drought on Eritreans.
The UN says impoverished Eritrea is one of the four Horn of African countries
affected by the regions worst drought in sixty years making over 12 million
people dependent on emergency food aid. Satellite images confirm crop failures
in many parts of Eritrea.
International reports suggest there is hidden famine in Eritrea as more refugees
continue to stream in increasing numbers across militarized border areas into
Ethiopia in search of food. The refugees speak of acute shortages forcing many to
leave their homes defying shoot-to-kill orders on those victims trying to enter
Ethiopia or the Sudan.
We urge you to put pressure on the Eritrean government to immediately allow
humanitarian access to drought affected areas in the country to independently
verify whether there is famine or not.
Sincerely,
Alem, a farmers wife, made it to the Mai-Aini refugee camp in Ethiopia. She was
more fortunate than some of her friends who were raped. Like many people
fleeing famine that has hit parts of the Horn of Africa, Alem has overcome the
odds to escape hunger, but as the world focuses on famine in Somalia, Eritrea
suffers in silence.
Eritrea, a nation of 5 million people that borders Sudan, Ethiopia and Djibouti, has
also seen failed rains and widespread food shortages. But its autocratic
government, which faces international sanctions, refuses to acknowledge a
drought has swept its territory. Satellite images show that the Red Sea nation has
been hit by drought conditions similar to those in Somalia, Ethiopia and Djibouti.

Nearly 1,000 Eritreans arrived at a refugee camp in northern Ethiopia in July


alone, officials said.
Alem has also taken a dangerous political stand by fleeing to Eritreas archenemy,
Ethiopia. The two nations severed ties in 2000 after a brutal border war that killed
more than 80,000 people.
To return to Eritrea would mean certain punishment. Alem said government
officials took away the lions share of last years harvest. She said they promised
to pay but didnt and she couldnt feed her five children anymore.
It was a matter of life and death, said the 40-year-old. The government bleeds
us farmers dry to feed the army. My husband is enlisted and I havent heard from
him in years. I couldnt wait any longer, not while my children were starving.
U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs, Johnnie Carson, said last week
that many of the Eritrean refugees crossing borders into Sudan and Ethiopia suffer
from malnutrition. He urged the reclusive Eritrean regime, led by longtime
President Isaias Afwerki, to address the hunger and work with humanitarian
organizations to prevent catastrophe.
Over the last few years, more than 48,000 Eritreans most of them young,
educated men or soldiers who have deserted the army have fled to Ethiopia.
Some 1,000 Eritreans risk death each month by crossing the border. Among the
refugees are large numbers of children sent by their parents to escape future
military service.
Simon Girmaw, a protection officer for the U.N. refugee agency, said the influx of
refugees usually slows dramatically during the rainy season, from mid-June to
mid-September, because flowing rivers deny access and farmers are busy
preparing for the harvest.
But this year, he said, refugees are able to cross the ankle-deep or dry rivers by
foot at most places. And many farmers arent waiting for rains to come this year.
Berhane Hailu, who screens refugees for Ethiopias refugee agency, said an
increasing number of Eritreans mention lack of food as their reason for fleeing.
One of the refugees, who said he was a statistician at the countrys agriculture
ministry, said the nations food supplies are exhausted. He asked to remain
anonymous for fear his family would face reprisals other refugees have cited

examples of their families being fined or jailed after their flight as he painted a
picture of spiraling problems in the pariah nation.
The statistician said the government has now rationed each family to only 22
pounds (10 kilograms) of grain each month. He said authorities have run out of
stock and are trying to import wheat from Sudan, paying with mining revenues,
Eritreas only source of income besides remittances from Eritreans living abroad.
Refugees from southern Eritrea said their families havent been able to buy food
from the government for the last three months and that food prices have
spiraled.
Refugees said a goat is now selling for more than $200 and a cow nearly costs
$1,000. Soldiers are paid about $30 a month.
And, the statistician said, rains have failed.
If the rains continue to fail, large parts of the country could be hungry in
October, when farmers are supposed to harvest most of the staple crops, the
statistician said.
On top of those problems, the country doesnt receive foreign aid and is
sanctioned by the U.N. because of human rights violations. It is also believed to
support extremist groups, including Somalias top militant group, the al-Qaidalinked al-Shabab.
The U.N. World Food Program says it hasnt distributed any food in Eritrea since
2005, nor has it received requests for food assistance.
Farmer Bereket Zere braved landmines to walk for days across the border to
Ethiopia.
If he returns, he faces certain punishment for skirting the military service that is
required of all men and women.
I realized theres no use in staying, said the 21-year-old. I was waiting to be
enlisted in the army, there was no work, and, even if rains come, there will be
hardly any harvest this year.
Another refugee, teacher Gebrehiwot Zere, said the food problems were the last
straw for him. He said he was already exhausted by economic hardship and the
countrys authoritarianism before he decided to take the journey that requires

traveling by night, hiding in bushes during daytime, and creeping through hostile
areas where soldiers have been instructed to shoot at anything that runs.
Some refugees have described crossing one of the minefields near the border,
where the soldiers dont patrol, as the safest option.
Thats why most who make it are young and strong, Gebrehiwot said. If the
drought continues, young children and elderly will be in trouble: There is no
escape for them.

Be Informed: Ease of Doing Business in: Eritrea


This basic information is taken from Doing Business 2011. We encourage you to
read the entire 74 page report to get the real picture. 20 years after
independence these is the real profile of the Eritrean economic development.
The regimes leadership can believe the outrageous fiction they have created and
drawn in their illusion. They have no sense of honor to either face or tell the truth.
TV ERI is allergic to the truth in line with its bosses. It would not know truth from
fiction since it has been busy, full time, manufacturing of so much trash to
appease its deranged bosses. The world does not go according TV-ERI.
A government that does not publish yearly GNP and budget, does not report its
export and import, does not have a functioning legitimate institutions cannot be
talking about We have the fastest growing economy in the world. This hot air
cannot even fill the smallest birthday balloon leave alone launch the most
dysfunctional and micromanaged command economy in the world to the top of
the world economy.
The ruling clique has destroyed Eritrean entrepreneurship and intellectual capital.
It has been practicing long disproved and discredited Maoist path to development
by monopolizing all aspects of Eritrean politics, economy and enslaving Eritrean
youth for perpetuity and building thousands of jails.
Beat all the drum you want shout to the top of your lung: but you cannot frighten
the facts away and bury the truth forever.
NGEx Resources Inc.CA:NGQ +15.02% (NGEx or the Company) is pleased to
announce the start of the initial drill program on its wholly owned Bada Potash
project located in the Danakil Depression of Eritrea. This large license,

encompassing over 431 square kilometres, is located 30 kilometres inland from


the Red Sea port of Mersa Fatma and 150 kilometres southeast of the capital city
of Asmara.
The Bada license is situated within the Eritrean portion of the Danakil Depression,
an evaporite basin extending southward into Ethiopia, where exploration in the
1960s resulted in the discovery of the large Crescent and Musley potash and
sylvite deposits. The Company plans to drill an initial 6-8 shallow holes that will
test the potash potential of its license.
This initial drill program will investigate the margins of the basin for shallow (less
than 100m) potash mineralization on both sides of the basin. To help target the
drilling the Company has completed geological mapping and ground magnetic
surveying over the entire license, and has also completed 4 lines of gravity.
Modeling of the geophysical data suggests that the basin contains up 1 kilometre
of sediments which are thought to include thick evaporite sequences that host
potash mineralization elsewhere in the basin. All drilling and sampling will be
under the supervision of ERCOSPLAN Ingenieurgesellschaft, a potash consulting
company with extensive experience in both the Eritrean and Ethiopian parts of
the Danakil. Drill results are expected be available in October.
The Danakil Basin was first explored for potash, in the early 1900s and there was
active exploration and trial mining in the Ethiopian part of the basin in the 1960s.
There was no further exploration from the late 1960s until recently. Today the
Danakil Basin hosts several potash projects in Ethiopia where Sainik Coal and
Allana Resources are actively exploring historic potash deposits immediately
south of the Eritrean border and BHP holds a large license to the south of the
Sainik and Allana projects. The Musley deposit was discovered and explored from
surface and underground in the 1960s and is now held by Sainik Coal, an Indian
company who have announced plans to build a pilot plant at the project. Allana
Resources recently reported measured and indicated resources of 673 Mt @
18.65 KCl and inferred resources of 19.96% KCl. In Eritrea, South Boulder Mines is
exploring the Colluli potash project located about 20km south of the Bada license.
South Boulder has reported potash intercepts at less than 100 metre depths at
both their A zone, with JORC/43-101 compliant measured, indicated and inferred

resource estimate of 547Mt grading 18.58% KCl. South Boulder have also
announced intercepts of shallow potash mineralization in their B Zone located
approximately 10 kilometres south of the Bada License boundary. Information
about third party projects is taken from their published information and the
reader is referred to those companies websites for details.
Commenting on the commencement of the drill program, Wojtek Wodzicki,
President and CEO of NGEx said, We are very pleased to be drilling our first holes
on this exciting new exploration play. Potash has excellent supply/demand
fundamentals and is in very high demand. Any discovery on our license has the
potential to have a very significant positive impact on the Company. The Danakil
Basin is emerging as potentially the most significant new potash play in the world.
Elsewhere in the basin, potash has been intersected at depths of less than 100
metres which compares favorably with other well known potash basins such as
Saskatchewan where the potash beds lie at depths of approximately 1 kilometre.
The potential for shallow mineralization will dramatically reduce exploration and
development costs. The location of the license so close to the Red Sea coast
would give any discovery significant logistical and cost advantages over any
deposits on the Ethiopian side of the border.

Christian Aid launches appeal as East Africa faces starvation


(AP)Christian Aid has launched an emergency appeal as 10 million people face
starvation in the east and Horn of Africa.
The food crisis has been brought on by two failed rainy seasons and rising global
food prices.
Kenya and Ethiopia are facing particularly severe food shortages.
The food security crisis is so grave that the UN Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (UNOCHA) has described it as the worst in the world today.
Some places experiencing their driest conditions in 60 years.
Christian Aid emergency teams are in the region and assessing their response.
The crisis has been building for some time, especially in Kenya and Ethiopia, and
is fast escalating across the region, said Nick Guttmann, Christian Aids
humanitarian director.

People are desperate and if we dont act now we could be looking at one of the
worst humanitarian situations the world has seen in a long time.
Other countries affected by the drought are Djibouti, Somalia and Uganda.
Christian Aid is appealing for funds to implement a raft of life-saving measures
across the region.
It plans to provide water to villages experiencing the worst of the drought
conditions, and food for families, malnourished children, and pregnant women.
Funds will also go towards animal feed to preserve livestock, as reports describe
mortality rates of up to 60 per cent among cattle and sheep in some areas.
UNOCHA warned that thousands of people were being displaced as a result of the
food crisis.
Some 15,000 Somalis have poured into Kenya and Ethiopia in search of food.
Elisabeth Byrs, spokeswoman for UNOCHA, said: While conflict has been a fact of
life for them for years, it is the drought that has taken them to breaking point.
In spite of the need, the UNs appeal for funds for Djibouti has only reached 30
per cent of the target amount, while appeals for Somalia and Kenya have received
around half of the necessary funding.
Byrs said: If we do not tackle the situation as soon as possible, it could become
worse.

HUNGER RATES IN ERITREA ARE EXTREMELY ALARMING


Hunger rates in Eritrea have been ranked as extremely alarming in a new report.
Compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI),
Welthungerhilfe and Concern Worldwide, the 2010 Global Hunger Index names
Eritrea as one of the few countries with very high levels of hunger.
However, nations such as Ethiopia, Ghana, Mozambique and Vietnam have made
significant improvements since 1990.
The index was created based on three factors: the proportion of people in a
country who are undernourished, the proportion of under-fives who are
underweight and the child mortality rate.

Under-nutrition among children represents nearly half of the global hunger score.
One billion people worldwide could be classified as being undernourished last
year compared to 925 million in 2010.
Marie Ruel of the IFPRI and co-author of the report said that this shows countries
need to focus on reducing child malnutrition if they are to improve their scores.
Considerable research shows that the window of opportunity for improving
nutrition spans from conception to age two, she explained.
After age two, the negative effects of under-nutrition are largely irreversible.
The first of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals is to eradicate
extreme poverty and hunger by 2015, with a specific aim of halving hunger rates
during this period.

Command Economy as Failed Model of Development: Lessons


Not Yet Learned
Abstract: The main aim of this article is to identify (find out) which economic
model is applied in Eritrea. The paper first recapitulates the various models of
managing an economy as discussed in the literature. The centrally planned
(command) economy model was applied in Eastern and Central Europe (ECE),
considered to be an appropriate economic crises management model. However,
the economic growth of ECE was much slower relative to Western economies.
Western countries applied the market economy and the mixed economy models,
which enabled them to manage and solve effectively their economic crises better
than the ECE countries. ECE countries abandoned the centrally planned economy
model and are making shifts towards the market and mixed economy models.
Even the Chinese are making adjustments of their model and are developing the
socialist market economy which really suits their level of development and the
economic reality in the country. The Eritrean government promised and claimed
to follow the Western economic model(s), however if one closely watches the
governments intervention in the market and in the economic life of the country,
the actual practice seems to be different and casts doubts on the governments
commitment to market economy. Against this background, i.e. to find out what
Eritrea has learned from the application of the above mentioned and other
models of development and the thereby achieved results, the author has

examined Eritreas economic development model. Confirming his doubts, the


author has found out that the Eritrean government is following a similar
dysfunctional model, i.e. a militarist command economy model, however, in an
improperly planned, poorly coordinated and extremely mismanaged approach,
with its serious negative impacts on the economic development in general and
the private sector in particular, in the social, cultural as well as political conditions
in the country.
The applied model helped the Eritrean government to build up a command
economy network of relationships. The party/state-owned enterprises utilize and
get the support of this network to dominate and monopolize the various sectors
of the market. Consequently, the Eritrean economy has been observed to
deteriorate continuously up till now. Instead of rectifying its mistakes and taking
corrective measures, the state continued the mismanagement of the mismanaged
Eritrean economy by opening state-owned staple food shops and issuing a
proclamation that prohibits keeping and transacting in hard currencies.
Introduction
Eritrea gained independence on May 28, 1993 after thirty years liberation war
with Ethiopia. The Mining Magazine (March, 1994, p.128) characterizes Eritreas
location as part of the very turbulent part of Africa. This turbulence is related to
the political situation in the three neighboring countries, i.e. Sudan, Djibouti and
Ethiopia. Despite Eritreas location in such an environment, the Mining Magazine
argues that its resources could make the country unique in Africa in terms of
sustainable development.
Achieving a sustainable development has to be accompanied by adopting realistic
approaches and openness to the local and international environment rather than
isolation. However, one of the prominent Eritrea lawyers and a legal adviser of
the president is quoted by the Multinational Monitor (01974637, July/August,
1996, P.2) to have said We stood alone for 30 years against the mighty. =//= Selfreliance has taught us a lot and we strongly believe in it. However, such an
attitude and stand do not seem to contribute positively to the aim of achieving
sustainable development. Despite various promising government policies in
various fields, rigidity and reluctance to changes are also implied by a certain

government official (1996) who indicated that We cannot just do away with
attitudes. Moreover, the governments approach to foreign aid is also different
from that of the donor organizations and that of the other African countries as
the below quotation clearly illustrates.
The governments rules covering foreign non-governmental organizations
(NGOs) are strict, limiting the NGOs to a single foreign staff person, and requiring
the NGOs to work on projects only in collaboration with government agencies.
These restrictions, according to Eden Fassil, are, motivated by concerns about
inappropriate NGOs use of resources and especially by the governments desire to
promote self-reliance.
It is doubtful whether such an approach towards NGOs can contribute positively
to the development of a sustainable economic development.
In Africa Business (May, 1997, p.33) it is clearly stated that Eritrea has introduced
private enterprise as the main dynamic means to achieve sustainable economic
development. This view seems to contradict the picture that the various
government officials portrayed in the above discussion. Africa Business further
claims that the country was geared towards command economy during the
liberation struggle. Accordingly, the policies of the government stress self-reliance
and private enterprise, two seemingly irreconcilable approaches. Further, the
same source indicates that both the public and private sectors have to be
encouraged to confirm the principles of the market economy. However, this mode
of development requires appropriate economic model adoption and
implementation. Considering this position, the main aim of this paper is to
discover or find out if an appropriate economic development model is being
applied in the Eritrean context.
In 1994 the party, i.e. the Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) claims
to have demarcated clearly the border line among the party and the government
(Economist, 1995, p.1). Accordingly, the ministry of defense took weapons and
military vehicles, and the PFDJ took the companies that were established during
the armed struggle and all the financial resources and establishing new firms with
left-over boats and vehicles. The main goal of this economic policy is to heal the
economy destroyed during the war for independence and to regulate market

prices. In line with these developments, the partys director of finance has this to
say:
The mentality of traders here is to make a tremendous profit at one time. If the
traders try to rip off the public and get rich at the expense of everyone else, we
make sure commodities are on the market at a reasonable price.
In contrast to the picture painted in the Economist above, the government claims
to be committed to the private sector growth and development. In Business
America (August, 1997), it is said that the government in collaboration with the
World Bank, has developed a liberal macro economic policy to help the growth of
its economic development by investing in the private sector rather than
depending on aid. However, the Eritrean economy has deteriorated due to the
costs of Eritrean war with Ethiopia (Africa Business, 2001). On top of other several
factors, mismanagement of the government has also contributed to the shrinking
of the economy. According to the afrol News (2003), macro economic situation
declined in 2002. Accordingly, gross international reserves shrunk, actual GDP fell
down and inflation was heightened. These developments are said to be the
consequences of the war, governance and political difficulties and serious
drought. According to the same source, the main causes for the deterioration of
the economy are the mismanagement of the government and several other
external shocks.
From the above, it is difficult to clearly see the Eritrean governments model of
economic development. This is because in the various sources indicated so far,
contradictory and irreconcilable views have been presented about the
governments commitment and application of any clear and specific path (model)
of economic development. Against this vague picture or background information,
this paper endeavors with the help of the authors own knowledge and
experience and both secondary and primary data to make an assessment of the
Eritrean governments model of economic development. Before presenting the
data, it discusses five models of economic development which will be used as
basis for the analysis of the empirical data and to make the final judgment of the
model of economic development applied.
The Various Economic Models for the Management of an Economy

All societies, irrespective of level of economic development at which they find


themselves, have faced, and are still facing fundamental economic problems of
deciding how to manage their economies in a world of limited resources. The
purpose of adopting and implementing a certain economic system is the same.
This is the well-being of their societies through economic development and
prosperity. With this purpose in view, different governments or societies have
followed different paths and applied different economic models relevant to their
environment. The main differences in the economic models adopted can be
classified into two main categories, i.e. (1) ownership of resources and (2)
supremacy in the market. In other words, the two categories relate to who should
own resources, i.e., how resources should be allocated among the various forces
operating in the market and who should have decision making power about how
the market should operate. One of the two possible actors is the state and the
second is the various firms operating in the market, i.e. the business community.
According to Sorrensen (1993), the business community and the government are
considered as social actors within the private and the public sectors respectively.
Differentiating among the different economic models is mainly an issue about the
allocation of resources and the division of labor among these two actors.
According to Biersteker (1990), the relationships between the government and
the market have been described in various varying forms in different periods of
time. Five economic models have been developed and applied in different
economic systems during different periods of time. In discussing each of these
five models, the pattern of increased government intervention and decreased
market authority or business community (role) in economic systems will be
critically analyzed.
These models are:
1. The Laissez-Faire Economy Model (The Market Economy Model)
2. The Mixed Economy Model
3. The Partnership Model
4. The Public Policy Supremacy Model
5. The Central Planning Model
1. The Laissez-Faire Economy Model (The Market Economy Model)

The laissez-faire economy is equivalent to the market economy model, where


there is no active government intervention in the market. In other words, this
model is based on private enterprises interaction without significant government
intervention . The structure of the market economy is dynamic, applicable,
adaptable and decentralized.
Eklund (1993, pp. 101-109) defines a market economy as one that is decentralized
and coordinated through the interaction among the various actors operating in
the market, i.e. it is the various actors in the business community through
interaction that determine as to how resources should be allocated, owned and
managed. There is no superior government authority that can decide as to how
resources should be utilized and the market should be coordinated. Likewise in his
work about government business relationships Sorenssen (1993) recommended
the least government intervention in the market operating mechanisms. Such an
approach is believed to achieve the best results in the market. Smith (1776) &
Hayek (1944) also stress that if the coordination mechanism of resources
allocation is left to the market forces to take care of or to handle, prosperity and
development can be achieved.
In some sectors of the economy, the laissez-faire model might not function
properly and can lead to market failures. These are the cases where the price
mechanism can be misleading, simply because it does not function for certain
goods (Eklund, 1993). Another related problem according to the same source is
that sometimes the price mechanism does not reflect all production costs.
There are two market economies. One is the typical market economy discussed so
far in this section and the second is the socialist market economy. In both cases
the market is considered as a mechanism of resources allocation . According to
the same source, in a market economy firms make their own decisions in a
competitive market and shoulder the responsibility of the results of their policies
and actions. It is through the interaction among the various market actors that
prices are established and the state applies its macro-economic regulatory role in
a way that facilitates the effective functioning of the market instead of creating
bottlenecks that block its operations. Whereas in the socialist market economy,
the major portion of the market is owned by the public sector, and the rest is

owned by the private and individual sectors. However, both the public and the
private sectors operate on equal footing, i.e. pure competition is the rule of the
game. Production and market coordination are brought into action for the
purpose of meeting the need of the entire population. Whereas in the capitalist
market economy, ownership is private and the owners of capital are looking after
surplus value. Pure competition is also another typical feature of the market
economy.
2. The Mixed Economy Model
Considering market failures that can occur in a pure market economy (laissez-faire
economy model), some economists such as Keynes (1936) claimed that
government intervention in some sectors of the market is necessary. Such an
economic system, where some sectors of the market will be left to operate freely
and some other sectors will be regulated by the state, is usually called the mixed
economy model. According to this model, a border should be drawn or defined in
order to determine the division of labor between the state and the business
community, regarding the issues of resources allocation and coordination of the
various activities in the market. Who should do what or should be responsible for
is determined by the efficiency and effectiveness with which each of the two
sectors can perform. The main tenet of the mixed economy model is that certain
sectors of the economy can be managed better by the state and certain other
sectors can be managed better by the business community. Therefore, each
sector should be assigned to shoulder the responsibility of the sector it can
perform better, for the well-being of the society and the development of the
economy. One of the main criteria to be applied in the allocation of resources and
responsibilities is therefore the efficiency factor. Relative to the laissez faireeconomy, in this model the state gets an increased role and the business
community a decreased role.
Sorenssen (1993) introduces the MARKET/MANAGEMENT ratio to show the
relative power between the state and business community autonomy in the
market regulation. Accordingly, if the ratio in one country is large, the business
community will be responsible for more functions. However, if the ratio is

relatively small, the opposite is the case, i.e., the state performs more functions
relative to the business community.
Eklund (1993) indicating the failures in the market economy model, posits that a
pure economy model is difficult to apply and some degree of market autonomy
respective government regulation is necessary. With this view he recommends
that a mixed economy model would do more service and can lead to better
performance of an economy. Accordingly, in the cases where market failures are
typical in the market economy model, government intervention and responsibility
is required to manage those sectors of the economy.
3. The Partnership Model
In the partnership model, a set of institutions through interaction and
negotiations find solutions together which can bridge different interests, replace
the sharply defined division of labor between the state and the business
community which is recommended in the mixed economy model. One of the main
tenets of this model is that dialogue and negotiation as distinct from division of
labor can lead to a better and higher total efficiency. In the mixed economy,
division of labor is stressed, whereas in the partnership model, synergy is believed
to yield better results. Cooperation between the state and the business
community is highly stressed in this model, to find a mutually satisfactory mode of
operations and results in the market. Joint planning, policies, implementation,
follow-up and evaluation techniques should be developed to make this model
successful in achieving the desired results.
In very many cases several pure public institutions deal with pure private
institutions, whereas in a considerable number of cases institutions are comprised
of people from both the private and public sectors and they are formed in
collaboration between the state and the business community.
4. The Public Policy Supremacy Model
Both in the mixed economy and the partnership models, the relationships
between the state and the business community can be said to be horizontal
although to a varying degree. Whereas, in the public policy supremacy model the
relationship among the state and the business community is hierarchical. In other
words, the government is above the private sector and the private sector is

subordinate too and is expected to operate based on the decisions and


instructions from the state. In this model, the government has more power than
the business community and can direct the ownership structure and market
operations and coordination mechanisms. Giving more power to the government
relative to the business community is believed to lead to a more optimal
utilization of resources and efficiency in the market. In most of the cases,
government policies and actions are not at all or are to a minimum extent based
on or integrated into existing business and economics models and theories. The
government acts and the private sector or business community reacts. The private
sector management and marketing principles and practices are not well
understood and they are not seriously taken into consideration in the market.
5. The Central Planning Model (The Command Economy Model)
It is a central government which guides a command economy . This economic
system has failed to achieve the expected results that were set up by those who
developed and applied this economic system as a model of development. Briefly,
sustainable economic growth, prosperity and even economic security of citizens
could not be achieved in those countries where command economy had been
applied as a model of economic development. It is in this model that the
government plays the strongest role or manages most just the opposite to how
the market is said to function according to the laissez-faire model. The centrally
planned economy means that one should totally eliminate market economy and
the price mechanism and instead one should let the political and administrative
decisions to fully control the economy (Eklund, 1993). Accordingly, a central
planning body makes all decisions on how resources should be allocated and the
market operations should be coordinated. This body will collect and analyze all
the necessary information, about which products should be produced, in which
quantities and volumes, and with which investment materials and raw materials
and finally prepare production order to the companies. In this model one has to
take into consideration both the economic and technical factors on one side and
political decisions and social priorities on the other.
The private sector is minimized in this model if at all it does exist. Most countries
have abandoned this old concept of central planning model (command economy

model), although some countries still maintain control of few sectors of the
economy.
Management of Resources in Industrial Markets (Networks)
Industrial Networks, see Ford ((ed.) 2002), and specifically industrial markets can
be described to be composed of three main variables, i.e. actors, activities and
resources. By actors, it is meant the various firms and organizations that operate
in the market, which can either be private or public. Activities are the
performances of the various actors operating in the market, such as purchasing,
production, distribution, sales and marketing. Resources are mainly of three
different types, i.e. human, material and financial. In the assessment and the
analysis of which of the above models is being followed in Eritrea, a strict
attention will be given (i) to the main components (variables) of industrial
markets, i.e. actors, activities and resources, and (ii) on how the various
resources, i.e. material, financial and human resources are owned, allocated,
coordinated and managed in the market.
Methodology of the Study
Three different sources of information are used in this study. These are (i) the
authors experience and knowledge of the Eritrean economy, (ii) secondary data
collected from the internet and other sources, i.e., written materials such as
books and articles and (iii) primary data collected through interviews and used to
write the two cases-studies . In presenting both the primary and secondary data,
the author has also used his own personal experience and knowledge. Actually,
whenever the information from the secondary data matches with the authors
knowledge and experience of how the market is structured and functions, sources
are intentionally omitted to avoid duplication. Thus, whenever any source is
missing in presenting the secondary data (information) about the Eritrean market,
it should be taken for granted that the author is the only source.
The fact that my personal experience and knowledge about the Eritrean market
has made it possible to collect relevant information and to check the accuracy of
the information collected. This has increased both the validity and reliability of
the data collected and the conclusions drawn. In the discussion section, an
attempt is done to make an assessment in order to determine the linkage among

the five models of economic development and the empirical data of how the
market in Eritrea is structured and functions. The discussion has enabled the
author to determine which model is being used in Eritrea and whether this mode
of economic development is appropriate or not.
The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMFs) and the Eritrean
Governments Approach to the Development of the Eritrean Economy
The World Bank and the IMF recommendations to the management and
development of the Eritrean economy are more or less the same. Even the
Eritrean government theoretically claims to have followed/implemented the
approach that these international financial institutions recommend, contrary to
what it does in practice, i.e. how it interferes, controls and manages the market in
particular and the economy in general.
In a project named as the Eritrean-Private Sector Reconstruction Credit with a
Report No. PID7016, Project ID ERPE50356, the Eritrean governments position
towards the private sector seems to be positive. According to this source, the
private sector development is seen as a driving force for growth in investment,
production, exports and employment. Moreover, the government is said to have
developed an appropriate incentive framework for the growth of the private
sector.
A competitive exchange rate system had been introduced; tariff rates have been
reduced; a pro-export policy with full foreign exchange retention rights is in place;
there are no export taxes; all sectors of the economy are open to foreign and
domestic private investors; and the government has a strong commitment to
privatizing state-owned institutions.
This project description is prepared by the Eritrean government, supported and
approved by the World Bank of course with some modifications.
In another document the World Bank defines one of the objectives of the
Emergency Reconstruction program-to-be:
The goal of this component is to jumpstart the private sector, especially the
formal private sector by providing relief to enterprises that have been particularly
affected by the conflict; and by making foreign exchange, which has been
particularly scarce, available through the banking system.

The Washington-based IMF said that Eritrea should act immediately and does
need to wait until the border conflict with Ethiopia is solved (Sudan Tribune, Feb.
17, 2005). Further, the IMF recommends that the Eritrean authorities needed to
make their policy making more transparent, and to remove unnecessary
government controls on the economy. The fund urged the central bank to allow a
gradual movement of interest rates and exchange rates toward market-set levels.
A very clear stand of the IMF regarding the management and development of the
Eritrean economy is well stated in the IMF Country Report No. 03/165, June,
2003. Accordingly,
A successful move toward a peacetime economy will also require a
reassessment of the role of government and the adoption of policies that could
promote the development of the sector. In this regard, there is a need to avoid
the dominance of publicly owned or managed enterprises, which could distort
competition, hamper market entry, and give rise to new inefficiencies. Similar
restraint should be exercised to avoid enacting regulations that could create
uncertainty for enterprises, entail an excessive administrative burden, and cast
doubts on the authorities professed commitment to private sector development.
In particular the recent, official proclamations, which tighten business licensing
procedures and require the submission of business plans, should be reviewed to
avoid implementing regulations that could seriously impede expansion of the
private sector.
International Monetary Fund Country Report No. 03/165, June 2003, P.21
The same source wrote about inflation and cooperation with donors as follows:
Macroeconomic developments in 2002 are a source of considerable concern,
and the outlook for 2003 and beyond is subject to much uncertainty. While
growth may recover somewhat in 2003, inflation is likely to remain high. The lack
of donor financing would lead to a continuation of balance of payments pressures
and hamper growth and development because of continued shortages of foreign
exchange. It will, therefore,
be important to reach agreement with the donor community on the governance
issues that have so far prevented its full reengagement in the financing of
development in the country.

The same source recommends monetary policy and the management of the Bank
of Eritrea to be conducted as below:
Monetary policy and management need to be conducted in a manner that is
consistent with the Bank of Eritrea Proclamation. The Bank of Eritrea needs to
become an independent partner in the formulation and implementation of the
countrys economic and financial policies. At the same time, monetary policy
should be closely coordinated with fiscal policy, including, notably, with respect to
the domestic financing of the budget. Monetary tightening, including a move
toward positive real interest rates, needs to be supported by fiscal restraint to
achieve the domestic inflation and external balance objectives. In addition, the
Bank of Eritrea should develop an adequate monetary policy framework to
achieve its objectives of safeguarding the domestic and external value of the
national currency. Such a monetary policy framework would need to provide a
nominal anchor for the conduct of monetary policy and be consistent with the
exchange rate regime to be put in place. In this context, the authorities could
benefit from technical assistance from the fund.
(Opcit, p.22).
The IMF also expressed its belief that it is necessary to deal properly to the
absence of true competition in the financial sector as it can strongly limit or
restrict the efficiency of financial intermediation and private sector development.
For this purpose it recommends partnerships and the attraction of foreign banks,
and to privatize the dominant financial institutions in commercial banking and the
foreign exchange markets. Further, in order to eliminate the resulting restrictions
and distortions it recommends the reform of the present dual exchange rate
regime. To that end, it recommends for the authorities to establish a flexible
market-regulated mechanism for adjusting the official exchange rate to the levels
of the market and to achieve the unification of the rates by a gradual removal of
the exiting exchange restrictions on current transactions, and to eliminate its
restrictive and distortionary features. The IMF further recommends higher fiscal
transparency and accountability; and an open debate and regular publication of
the budget. It should also allow an effective cooperation and dialogue within the

government, and between the government and the private sector which are all
critical for a participatory policy process. The need for the establishment and
regular publication of timely and reliable key statistics is also emphasized.
Empirical Evidence
Sources of Model Failure Based on the Authors Experience and Knowledge
To give an understanding of the Eritrean economic model, first some facts that
cast light in the circumstances in which the model will be applied and presented.
The Structure of the Eritrean Economy
As may be observed from the three sources being utilized in this paper, the
government is one of the main actors in the economy as economy and market
regulator, as a policy maker, as a controller, as an implementer of its policies and
plans, as a decision maker, as producer, as a customer, as a consumer and in any
other form of physical presence it considers its presence will be to its advantage.
It also performs various types of activities as it occupies the position of a key actor
in various sectors of the economy. It is engaged in production, purchasing,
distribution, marketing, sales, logistics, marketing research and any other market
activity that should be carried out in accordance with the various positions it
maintains in the economy of the country.
Almost all essential resources, i.e. materials, financial and human resources are
owned and strictly controlled by the state. For the material resources such as
land, the government declared that it is owned by the state without consulting
and the consent of the legal owners i.e., the people. It does distribute and sell
land anywhere in the country without consulting the owners. Financial resources
can be described both in terms of local and foreign currency. The state has full
and complete access and control of resources in terms of hard currency as it has
under its complete control the foreign accounts. The case is also the same in the
domestic market and it is changing towards a monopolistic position by the state.
The case of the human resources is also more or less the same as that of the
material and financial resources. The state can mobilize and utilize any human
resources in the country in any manner it considers it to fit its plans and
objectives. It would not be far from the truth to state that the government has
nationalized almost all productive manpower in the country. A great portion of

this resource is being mismanaged by the state and the remuneration it receives
does not constitute any significant or meaningful purchasing power in the
hyperinflation which is a common feature of the Eritrean economy.
Importation Problem in Eritrea
There is excessive government intervention and control in the market and even
worse than that, there is plain ignorance of the dynamics of the free market. One
of the critical problems faced by businessmen in Eritrea is the delay and
bottlenecks created in getting an import license application processed, granted
and at the same time the delay in importation due to mass cancellation of
business licenses by the Ministry of Trade. There is hyperinflation in Eritrea and
one of the main causes can be the acute shortage of goods and services in the
market associated with the importation problem.
There is also another disadvantage for private firms, which at the same time helps
the Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ) owned enterprises to develop
a strong position in the market. This is how the government handles imports
financed by foreign currencies from the parallel market at an exchange rate about
70 % higher than the rate applied in the official market. A case in point is that of
the firm which imported cement. The cement was taken by the government to
one of its projects as ordered by President Isaias and the private firm, whose
name is withheld, was refunded in local currency by the amount calculated on the
official exchange rate, which is 42 % lower than the black market rate Gedab
Investigative Report (Nov. 5, 2003).
The Mismanagement of Foreign Exchange
It is only the state-owned banks which manage foreign exchange services in
Eritrea currently. Like in any other developing country there is an acute shortage
of foreign currency in Eritrea. The shortage of foreign currency has created both
the black market and the official exchange rate market. It helps the government
to control the market and to create a favorable atmosphere and competitive
advantage for the PFDJ-owned economic institutions. The PFDJ-owned
enterprises get the necessary foreign currency first and at a favorable rate relative
to the private sector and this enables them to import and sell their goods at a
lower price relative to firms in the private sector. This situation causes a real

competitive disadvantage for the private firms. At a certain period of time, foreign
currency might not be allocated to private firms, which makes importation
impossible, and in such circumstances it is very easy for the PFDJ economic
institutions to dominate or, to some extent, to monopolize the market.
Recently, the government has issued a proclamation that does not allow citizens
to keep and to conduct transactions in any foreign currency (News Asmarino.Com
Front Page-filer/041105_2.htm). This was in addition to the new rule which was
issued in January, 2005 aimed to freeze the foreign currency accounts of Eritreans
at the Commercial Bank of Eritrea (CBE). These rules and regulations victimized
the factories in Eritrea as they resulted in an acute shortage of hard currency and
the factories could not import the raw materials they needed from abroad to
carry out their daily operations. According to the same source, the authorities
ordered all the private foreign exchange bureaus to cease operations and froze all
the import-export licenses. Consequently, two government-owned financial
institutions, i.e. Himbol Financial Services and CBE have monopolized all the
financial exchange transactions in the country.
Ignorance of the Dynamics of a Free Market
There is no fair competition in the Eritrean market and the various market forces
are not in action to operate and interact freely, due to excessive government
control and incompetent intervention. There is some degree of competition
among the private and public sectors, although it is difficult and does not make
too much sense to believe in the existence of a significant private sector in Eritrea.
The private sector is incapacitated by the various government policies and actions
in order to benefit the PFDJ-owned economic institutions, i.e. public-owned or
state-owned and run enterprises. The reason why, the author prefers to call them
state-owned enterprises is not because they are owned by the people , it is only
because they reap the benefits and get any support at the disposal of the state.
They are not owned by the private sector and are not managed by the private
sector marketing and management principles and practices. They are financed by
the government and can use whatever resources the government owns without
restrictions, accountability and control. The excessive support they get from the
government and the authority they have to use whatever resource is owned by

the government and the people has helped the PFDJ-owned economic enterprises
to dominate the various sectors of the economy and have a monopolistic position
in some sectors of the economy.
Not only that there is some sort of state determined competition between the
public and private sector. However, there is also unfair competition among the
state-owned enterprises. This competition is not left for the various actors in the
market to fight for recruiting customers and the gaining of market share, but like
the other form of competition discussed above, it is determined by the top-down
instructions from the government officials. The state-owned enterprises do not
compete on equal footing. In this case, one of the Mass Organizations economic
institutions seems to be loosing as it is in the process of being swallowed by other
government-owned economic institutions, by the orders given by one of the top
army commanders who is in charge of the Central Region .
Moreover, another main factor that helps the PFDJ economic institutions to build
competitive edge is that they are exempted from paying government taxes like
the other private enterprises (Seyoum, 2001) . On top of that, they can utilize
government transportation and storage facilities and they can conscript any
manpower freely without paying any remuneration or compensating at a very low
rate.
Secondary Sources of Information
The Economic Institutions of the Peoples Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ)
These are the economic institutions dominating the Eritrean economy and which
the ruling party (PFDJ) calls private enterprises. To claim that these are private
institutions is very unrealistic and far from the truth. In the Gedab Investigating
Report (Nov 5, 2003), three categories of PFDJ-owned economic institutions are
mentioned. The historical development of these satellite organizations, the
process of their formation and the way they are managed as described in detail
hereunder, clearly show that they are owned, financed, subsidized and supported
by the government directly and indirectly. They are state-owned enterprises;
however, the ruling party calls them private enterprises, which is not only the
case but misleading. One of the main resources that the PFDJ- owned economic
institutions are exploiting and mismanaging is the free labor of the youth which

are languishing in trenches in their projects in the name of the so called National
Service program which was recently baptized as the Warsay-Yekaalo project.
This is similar to the national campaign programs which were carried out in the
various ex-communist countries, which have not contributed anything to
economic development in those countries, expect the waste and mismanagement
of resources. Moreover, these campaign programmes have resulted in
economically, socially and politically insurmountable consequences. For the
Eritrean National Service or the Warsay-Yekaalo project to help in the
development of the country, the government has to put focus on all essential
resources, i.e. the human, material and financial resources. However, this seems
to be unlikely as in the case of the human resources, the participants are being
trained to serve the state machinery rather than to develop their competence and
cognitive thinking. Moreover, the mismanagement of the financial and material
resources is also discussed in detail in different parts of this article.
In March 2005, the PFDJ decided to establish inside and outside Asmara about
fifty state-owned food shops with the aim of making the distribution of staples
efficient (Africa News, 18/03/05).
The Red Sea Trading Corporation (RSTC)
The RSTC was founded in 1983 with a capital of US$14,000 and used to distribute
sugar and clothing to the liberated areas in Eritrea (The Economist, 05/06/1995).
In another related source, the RSTC was founded around the mid of 1980s by the
Eritrean Peoples Liberation Front (EPLF) to collect funds and buy necessities for
the liberation fighters. Later, it started to buy and supply food items to the
Eritreans, which were displaced from their homes and were living in the liberated
and semi-liberated areas. Thereafter, it started to support various industries,
mainly transportation; Gedab Investigative Report (Nov.5, 2003).
According to the same source, after Eritreas independence the RSTC, which is the
PFDJs economic arm, was decided to be restructured as a trust and to operate in
all areas of the economy, which is a clear indication that the ruling party wanted
to participate actively in all sectors of the economy. In 1994, the EPLF declared
that Eritreas economy had to be a market economy and the government would
play a dominant role in this market economy. The role of the government was

justified, among other things, by the following motives: (i) to protect the new
nation from various types of businessmen and (ii) to be the source of income to
the veterans and orphans of the three-decade-old armed struggle. Consequently,
during this period of time (1994) the government was selling almost everything
from cement to cordless/wireless telephones with a capital of US$ 25 million.
RSTC controls a major portion and has a strong position in various industries, such
as the banking and currency exchange industry, the insurance industry, the
transportation industry, the publishing and publication industry, the
manufacturing and IT industry, the hospitality and tourism industry.
The Second Group of Public Economic Agencies
These are the economic institutions which are run by the youth, women and
workers associations. The National Union of Eritrean Youth and Students (NUEYS)
is the organization that established and manages the largest companies which fall
under this category, Gedab Investigative Report (Nov.5, 2003). The specific
companies that can be mentioned here are the national Raymok Lottery, Private
shipping lines and its own publishing firm. According to the same source, these
economic agencies are the strongest competitors of the RSTC. The Raimoc Lottery
was one of the main sources of revenues of those institutions. However, they
were instructed by the authorities to hand over their cash cow and its services to
the Ministry of Finance. The main reason was because those institutions were
considered to be strong competitors by the authorities in question.
A Group in the Ministry of Defense Enters the Eritrean Market
These are a group of commanders which are new entrants and a third category of
competitors in addition to the RSTC and Mass Organizations, Gedab
Investigative Report (Nov.5, 2003). This group as an actor in the economic life of
the country started some years ago in a small scale and it is operating nowadays
in many sectors of the economy. According to the same report, the main
plantations run by the commanders, being Sawa and Af-Himbol every army
division runs large agricultural projects. Sales from the agricultural products are
collected directly by the commanders in the name of their divisions. These actors
in the market are also taking whatever is not done by the RSTC in the construction
industry, making competition complicated and stiffer to the few contractors in the

private sector of the market. The same situation is being developed in the fishery
industry. After taking over from the ministry of fisheries and the few private
sector individuals, the Navy has now taken complete control of both the
investment and commercial operations of the marine sector. Corruption has
reached its highest level in this sector of the market.
Empirical Studies Gathered Through Interviews
Sgalet Clearing and Forwarding Enterprise (SC&FE)
This firm was granted operating license by the end of 1996 and started to operate
in the beginning of 1997. The main purpose of the firm was to provide clearing
and forwarding services of firms engaged in imports and exports.
By the time the SC&FE was established, it was a government-owned firm by name
Maritime Shipping Lines Corporation (MSLC) which was having a dominant
position or a majority market share in this sector of the market. MSLC was
established in 1975 by the military government in Ethiopia when the government
nationalized all private companies which were operating in the free Eritrean
market during Haile Selassies regime. Until 1975 MSLC was operating as a single
private firm in the Eritrean free market on equal footing with other firms.
Following the downfall of Haile Selassies regime, the Ethiopian Military
Government (EMG), i.e. the Dergue took power and declared Ethiopia to be a
socialist state. In line with its Marxist and Leninist ideology, EMG nationalized all
private firms which were operating in the relatively free Eritrean market and
established various government-owned corporations to run the Ethiopian
economy in the various sectors of the market. MSLC was also established in this
historical and critical juncture to play a monopolistic role in the clearing and
forwarding sector of the Eritrean market . It maintained its monopolistic position
until the independence of Eritrea in 1991. After independence the Eritrean
government inherited all the firms which were owned by the EMG. MSLC was also
one of those corporations which continued to operate as one of the Eritrean
government-owned firms after independence. It also maintained its monopolistic
position for a short period of time and at the same time the Eritrean government
issued licenses for private firms to get engaged in the clearing and forwarding
sector of the Eritrean economy. It was during this period of time that the SC&FE

was granted operation license in 1996. However, as the MSLC enjoyed several
years of experience, enormous competence, local and international networks and
full government support and supply and access of whatever resources it needed
and lacked in its operations, the newly established private firms could not
threaten its monopolistic position in the market. All private and governmentowned firms, which were buying clearing and forwarding services from MSLC,
were directly and indirectly influenced to continue to use MSLC as the only source
of these services by the various government authorities. However, in due course
of time some changes were observed which were not to the advantage of the
government and the firms it owns.
The Red Sea Clearing and Forwarding Corporation (RSC&FC)
Around 1995 the government decided to establish the RSC&FC to conduct
clearing and forwarding services. There were various reasons for such a decision.
First, several NGOs and aid organizations were accusing the government of
dominating this sector of the market as the MSLC was owned and controlled by
the state. This is because that does not encourage the private sector to get
developed, although the government was claiming that it is committed to market
economy. Therefore, to show its superficial commitment to the private sector
which is not true, the government established the RSC&FC and gave it the
responsibility of the clearing and forwarding services. It presented the RSC&FC as
a private firm although it was 100% owned by the PFDJ, which is the ruling party,
in order to convince (show) both the Eritrean community and the outside world
that it was following the market economy model and at the same time it was
creating the private sector. Second, the government was not fully satisfied with
the performance of the MSLC services. Third, to have a full control of the market
and for some other reasons which were not officially declared, it decided to
establish the RSC&FC as a private firm. Both the MSLC and RSC&FC being
government-owned, the following division of labor was done among them. The
MSLC should perform only shipping services and the RSC&FC should be in charge
of the clearing and forwarding services.
RSC&FC inherited what MSLC was doing. In addition to that, as all the mass
organizations and governmental institutions and associations were also

performing trade activities, they were instructed to give the clearing and
forwarding services of their imports and exports to the RSC&FC. On top of these
broad ranges or complete coverage of client relationships, the RSC&FC had the
following advantages: tax exemption, free insurance services, free transportation
facilities, almost free storage facilities and whatever assistance it needed and the
government had at its disposal.
Changes and Developments in the Market
Some of the private firms which were buying clearing and forwarding services
from the MSLC in 1997 started to shift to the private and newly established firms.
Those firms found out that the newly established clearing firms could provide
efficient and immediate services which were observed to be superior to that of
the MSCLC. These developments started to threaten MSLCs position in the
market and the government was forced to take measures to control the
developments.
It was SC&FE that took the initiative to the relationship with the private firms.
However, SC&FE performed the functions in a time and money saving way and
provided a superior service relative to that of the MSCLC. Observing the
significant differences in services performance, one big import and export
company gave all its clearing and forwarding services to SC&FE replacing the
MSLC. Another government-owned organization which was also giving its clearing
and forwarding services to MSLC was dissatisfied by its operations. This
organization also gave its work to SC&FE and was satisfied by its services and gave
100 % of its services to SC&FE. The manager of the firm was instructed by the
authorities to give its clearing services to the state-owned company MSLC instead
of giving them to SC&FE. However, as MSLC was not performing its duty properly,
he refused to follow the instructions given by the authorities, despite of the
repeated instructions.
As the authorities did not appreciate these developments, they tried to create
certain inconveniencies in the operations of SC&FE so that the quality of its
services and operations would be depreciated. However, they were not successful
and the SC&FE continued with its efficient operations and kept the customers
satisfied.

Around the mid of 1998, MSLC stopped clearing and focused on shipping
activities. This development helped the private firms to get the duty which were
performed by the MSLC. SC&FE also got the services of the Eritrean Relief
Association which was not appreciated by the government. At this critical
juncture, the Eritrean Relief Association received a very clear instruction from its
commissioner, that all the clearing and forwarding activities of the Eritrean Relief
Association (ERA) should be done by the RSC&FC and the ERA should stop giving
to SC&FE clearing and forwarding duties. According to the commissioner, the
circular did not concern the ERA and SC&FE relationship only, however, all
clearing and forwarding activities of all governmental and public institutions
should be assigned to RSC&FC and no duty should be performed by any private
clearing and forwarding firm according to the circular. From that date onwards
neither SC&FE nor any other private firm was assigned to do any clearing and
forwarding services to any of the state-owned and public firms and organizations,
including the NGOs and other aid organizations.
The Ministry of Defense in Clearing and Forwarding Services
During this critical juncture, the Ministry of Defense established its own clearing
and forwarding enterprise and started to operate immediately. The main clients
of its services were (i) the ministry by itself as it was doing foreign purchases
through its own purchasers (ii) the ministry by itself for purchases which were
done by other independent importers and (iii) other state-owned and private
firms.
Pricing in the Market
The state claims the Eritrean market to be a free market. The various actors, i.e.
clearing and forwarding firms in this sector were applying a very expensive price
which was set up by MSLC. This price ceiling was applied by RSC&FC and its clients
did not have any other choice rather than accept it. In other wards, the clients
which were buying clearing and forwarding services from RSC&FC did not have
any other alternative rather than accept this high price, as they were allowed
neither to select or choose their own suppliers for these services nor to determine
the prices through negotiation. Sometimes prices were pressed down in the cases
of bidding. The winner did not have the chance to get such services unless he

reduced his prices considerably as such bids were highly competitive. In such
cases prices were not more than 40 or 50 % of the price levels which were set up
by the PFDJ economic institutions. These are the cases in which competition
among the various actors determines the prices to be applied. However, such
cases were very rare and a very minor part of the whole market. In other words, it
is not very common as the business and market operations were dominated by
the PFDJ economic institutions, such as RSC&FC and MSLC in collaboration with
the concerned government authorities.
Hidri Swuat Share Company (HSSC)
HSSC was established in 1995 by Eritreans living in the diaspora. The main
purpose of its establishment was to produce construction materials, specifically
marble and roofing-tiles on the first stage as well as bricks on the second stage.
The other long-range objective of the company, i.e. on the third stage was to
open a technical school. The objectives set for the first stage could not be
implemented as there was no qualified manpower to produce roofing-tiles and
marbles. Consequently, the company did not have any other choice rather than
start with the objectives set for the second stage. In order to overcome the
problem of the shortage of qualified and skilled manpower to produce roofingtiles and marble, it decided to plan and implement manpower development
project in collaboration with SIDA.
Financing
During the establishment the company had a capital of four million Ethiopian birr,
i.e. the local currency that was used in Eritrea at that time as Eritrea did not have
its own currency. As this capital was not adequate for the company to carry out
the objectives which were set in three different consecutive stages, it planned to
borrow about seven million local currencies from a local Eritrean bank. It was
really a time and resources consuming process to get the fund application
processed and it finally turned out to be a real problem to borrow money from
the local bank. Several reasons were given by the bank to get the decision delayed
and to finally reject the application. First, the company was not considered to be
seriously engaged in the stated business (objective). Second, there were too many
shareholders and the bank was of the opinion that it would be difficult to deal

with all of them. Third and one of the main reasons for rejecting the application
was that the company did not have a general manager. It took about one year for
HSSC to do feasibility studies with the help of local consultants and to follow-up
the application. However, the application was finally rejected. Finally, the Eritrean
authorities were asked to buy shares from the company, however the request
was refused.
Developments after the Border War with Ethiopia
It is already mentioned that the company started its operations with the
objectives set for the second stage, as the first stage objectives could not be
implemented due to the absence of qualified manpower. During the early stage of
its operations, HSSC was allowed to buy cement from the Massawa Cement
Factory which is state-owned. Later, the company was instructed to buy cement
from RSTC at a very high price which was double or triple the amount charged by
the cement factory. The difference was a commission or a margin for the PFDJ run
and owned corporation, RSTC, which was providing distribution services. This
made the price of the main raw material cement very expensive which had a
direct impact on the production costs and the price of the final product. HSSC was
not allowed to buy cement from the factory in Massawa directly, as the RSTC was
involved as an intermediary unnecessarily.
Later, when the company started to produce marble, it was allowed to buy
cement from Massawa cement factory directly. This was the time when the stateowned enterprises started to buy marble from HSSC (final product) and it found
out that it was very cheap. The other related problem to HSSC operations was
that RSTC was importing the same products as that of HSSC and it was selling
them in the market at a very low price relative to that of HSSC. This clearly
indicates that they did not offer any protection or incentive for local private
producers. It was during this stage of its operations that the war started and all
the skilled and unskilled people working with the company were taken into the
war front creating a real problem and bottleneck in its operations.
Competition and Availability of Raw Materials
There were other private local competitors in the market; however they had a
very limited capacity. Competition was very strong in the market and most of

them closed due to the shortage of supply of cement and skilled manpower. The
problem due to the shortage of cement in the local market could be dealt with by
importing cement in large quantities. This was not easily implemented for two
main reasons. First, there was and still there is a shortage of foreign currency in
the local market. Whatever is available is allocated to the PFDJ and other stateowned economic institutions. Second, the government first imports
large
quantities of cement and sells it at favorable (profitable) prices. Thereafter, when
the market is saturated and it has created surplus in the market by whatever is
left over from its imports, it allows the importation of the private businessmen.
However, it is difficult for the private businessmen to sell their products as the
stated-owned economic institutions have already imported large quantities and
sold their imports at a profitable price in the early stages and overflowed the
market at a very low price in the later stages. The businessmen have two main
disadvantages in this context. On the first place, there would not be any market
left for the private businessmen and if there is any left the private sector can not
compete with the PFDJ-owned economic institutions mainly due to price and
being late in the market. To sum up, as discussed in this paragraph, the state
intervenes in the market with its hostile attitude to the private sector for the
purpose of creating a competitive edge for its own firms and the disadvantage of
the private sector.
In addition, the state-owned economic institutions have several advantages
relative to the private firms. First, the hard currency for the PFDJ-owned
economic institutions is obtained from the official market, which is much cheaper
from that of the parallel market, where the private sector obtains hard currency.
Second, the PFDJ institutions import goods without paying customs duties,
whereas a private firm has to pay customs duties. Third, the costs of the
importation of the state-owned economic institutions are very low as they do not
pay port tax, customs duties and annual income tax. However, for the firms
operating in the private sector, the state determines prices and requests them to
pay annual tax assuming that they will make a profit.

Sometimes, they even sell their products at a loss in order to block private
businessmen from selling their products. This is because the market will buy the
products of the PFDJ economic institutions as they offer their products at a very
low price relative to the private sector and well in advance. This helps them to
develop a competitive advantage and to eliminate firms from the private sector.
Once the firms from the private sector are eliminated or very much weakened,
they can double or triple their prices to cover their losses if they have incurred
any loss. They can sell their products even if they are very expensive as they have
dominated the market by eliminating firms from the private sector and the
market does not have any other alternative rather than to buy what is available
and supplied by the state-owned firms.
On top of what is discussed above, the PFDJ economic institutions have access to
a wide range of transportation facilities and that creates an advantage in their
operations and to dominate the market. They have also several other advantages.
This among other things includes that, everything is decided by the state and it
can issue and change commercial laws and proclamations every now and then to
create a favorable situation for its own firms and to make it complicated for firms
in the private sector.
The Current Position of HSSC
HSSC has lost almost all of its initial capital and it is only one person who is
working and managing the company, out of the 20 people who were working
before the war started. The individual who is running the company produces
bricks and sells by himself which can enable him to cover his operation costs.
There are no contacts among the shareholders in the diaspora and the person
who is managing the company. The shareholders would like to sell the company.
However, it is difficult to find a firm or a person who is ready to buy the company
as there would not be anybody willing to do any investment in the business
environment which is very risky. As a matter of fact, the risk is that there is a
hostile/unfriendly attitude of the government towards the private sector.
Discussion

In this section, the analysis will be carried out by linking the three different types
of empirical evidence presented in the preceding section to the five economic
models for the management of an economy discussed after the introduction in
this article. All the various types of empirical evidence in this article clearly
illustrate that almost all the essential and critical resources in the Eritrean
economy are strictly controlled and to a large extent owned by the state. The
government can at any time claim ownership and sells land, at any time,
anywhere in the country, at a rate unilaterally fixed by it. It knows that this is an
indefensible act and whenever it is asked about this issue it flatly rejects the sales
of land in the country. In addition to land, any other material resource available in
the market is also under the complete control of the state, which can either sell or
use in any form it wants. It can conscript an unlimited amount of free labor at any
time in the country for an unlimited period of time. A very nominal compensation
can be paid to the conscripted laborers. However, the remuneration paid to the
conscripted laborers is really insignificant considering the galloping or prevailing
hyperinflation in the country. It also has a full control of the financial resources as
to their ownership, allocation and regulation. Especially, whatever and whichever
hard currency is available is up till 100 % reserved for the state and its economic
institutions. The sale of land to the Eritreans in the diaspora is also the other main
source of hard currency for the state. There is a very small and insignificant
private sector in the market and whenever it is in need of a hard currency, it
obtains hard currency on the black/parallel market at a rate which is around 60 %
higher than the rate in the official market. This is one of the decisive factors as to
the competitive position the public sector and all other state-owned economic
institutions can build and maintain in the market relative to the private sector.
The state claims and declared in different occasions that it is committed to market
economy, in the ownership and allocation of resources as well as the
management of the market. However, none of the empirical evidence above
presented shows any resemblance or similarity to how a market economy or a
mixed economy is structured and functions. It has been observed and found out
that how resources are owned, managed and allocated is a typical characteristic
of a command economy. Specifically, the linkage clearly depicts that the way the

Eritrean economy is managed, structured and functions is by applying/following


the command economy model, however in an improperly planned and poorly
coordinated manner, as it does not consistently follow any clear pattern. This is
not to say that there is no planning in the country. However, the individual and
the strongest decision maker in the economy of the country, i.e. the president can
make unilaterally any decision, change policies and take any action irrespective of
the plans already laid down without consulting the concerned bodies. He goes to
the extent of ordering sellers to repurchase their sales and purchasers to resell
their purchases, which is unique in the management of a market in the
international economy.
Moreover, the empirical evidence presented in this work also clearly illustrates
that there is some sort of command economy network in the market, which is
built by the economic institutions and agencies of the PFDJ to implement its
command economy model. In this network, it is the state which decides what
should be produced, by whom, and how it should be allocated which is also one of
the typical characteristics of the centrally planned economy model. Prices are also
determined directly and indirectly in the same way as the above as the structure
and functioning of the planned economy network, which is directly the opposite
as to how the economy is managed in the market economy and the mixed
economy models. Competition does not play any significant role in the market, as
all the resources are owned, allocated and managed by the state. The state does
not only develop, implement and manage the market regulating mechanisms. At
the same time it is also a dominant business entity in some areas and a
monopolist actor in some other areas in the market. This is because it owns and
manages several economic institutions which are called as private institutions.
These institutions are operating at several levels in the manufacturing and
distribution as well as consumption channels in most or in all sectors of the
economy. They function among other things as importers, producers, distributors,
consumers and exporters in the command economy network. Several clear
examples are given in this work, where the state decides who should and should
not do what in the market. Resources optimization, efficiency and effectiveness

are not the guiding principles in resources ownership, allocation, management,


production and usage as well as in the coordination of the market.
Not only that the state encourages and helps its economic institutions to
dominate and in some instances to fully control or monopolize the market,
however, it also discourages and blocks the private sector in its operations and
performances in the market. This is in contrast to its claim of developing an
appropriate framework as an incentive for encouraging the growth of the private
sector. Such policy and actions enabled the state-owned economic institutions to
dominate the market and to decapacitate the private sector. The government
controls and almost owns all the resources available in the country and it gives
priority to its economic institutions in allocating and utilizing these resources. It
has also a full control of the market which in combination of resources ownership
can give it competitive advantage in the market. Consequently, there are
shortages of several supplies, higher prices, deteriorating qualities, diminishing
employment opportunities, continuously increasing cost of living and social
problems. All these problems could be avoided or to some extent could be solved
and improved if there was a strong functioning private sector. In other words, if
the government intervention in the economic life of the country could be reduced
to a reasonable level, all these problems could have been solved or at least be
reduced to a low level.
The above approach of managing the economy is contrary to the policy the state
claims to be implementing in the market. In brief it promises that both foreign
and domestic private investors will be allowed to operate freely in all sectors of
the economy and the government is really committed to privatize the stateowned institutions. This is in a very clear contradiction to how the market is
managed in practice as we have seen in the empirical evidence presented.
Moreover, the PFDJ has also promised in different occasions that it would
counteract the accumulation of substantial profits by businessmen, by making
commodities reach the market at a reasonable price. This statement alone is in
contradiction to the market economy model. This would and has never been put
into practice, because the more the state intensifies its intervention in the market
operations, the more the shortage is created and the more the prices go up.

Both the IMF and the World Bank advised the government to take the necessary
measures to boost the economy among other things, by making foreign exchange
available through the banking system, by making their policy transparent and by
removing unnecessary government controls in the economy.
The other point that can be raised in this context is that, the measures taken by
the government purely contradict with what it claims to do and what it does in
practice. The case in point is the critique it forwards to the NGOs by accusing
them of the inappropriate use of resources. It believes that the way they use
resources hinders its goal of promoting self-reliance. What is the impact of the
desire to promote self-reliance and the negative attitude towards NGOs finally on
the economic development of the country? They are contradictory and
irreconcilable approaches which cannot enable the country to achieve its goals of
sustainable economic development.
To sum up the discussion, not only that there are no signs of applying/following
the market economy and the mixed economy models, even the partnership
model is totally ignored in Eritrea. Not even the public policy supremacy model is
the guiding principle of managing the Eritrean economy, although some signs of
the model can be noticed sporadically in the market. However, all the empirical
evidence presented in this paper clearly shows that there is a hostile and
unfriendly state attitude towards the private sector, which is a typical character of
command economy which is more or less the same as the command (centrally
planned) economy.
Conclusions
Several conclusions can be drawn from this study. One conclusion is that despite
conflicting signals given by the government, the economic model being applied in
the Eritrean economy is a militarist command economy model. Secondly, the
state has managed to build up a command economy network of relationships in
the market. This network of relationships which is mainly focused on the market
in particular and the economy in general exists and operates both in the domestic
market and abroad. All significant actors in this network are the PFDJ-owned
economic institutions as well as several public institutions, which the state

incorrectly calls private firms. In this work this double standard is called the
paradox of the state-owned private enterprises. It is this network that these
institutions utilize to develop competitive advantage as all firms which are
members of this network have a monopolistic or at least a dominant position in
the market. All those institutions are established (built-up), owned, financed,
managed and supported by the government to monopolize the market.
The third conclusion is that there is no quality, efficiency and customer needs
satisfaction based competition in the market, as the governments economic
model has helped the state-owned firms to have market dominance in few areas
and market monopoly in most sectors of the market. In other words, the Eritrean
market is reserved for the PFDJ-owned economic institutions. Cooperation and
competition exist in the market, however they operate on an unfair and unequal
footing and they are not determined by the interaction among the various market
forces. The state-owned institutions cooperate among themselves as a means of
developing competitive strength and monopolizing the market. They never
compete among themselves as they operate in different sectors of the economy
which is intentionally done by the policy and decision makers. However, they
collaborate in all possible means and ways so that they will dominate the market.
They develop a very strong position in the market with the unlimited and
excessive support they get from the state and from how the market is structured,
regulated and functions. They then direct their efforts to the private sector which
is very much weakened and decapacitated by the various visible and invisible
measures the state takes to gradually weaken and finally eliminate them from the
market.
The fourth conclusion is that, as it can be observed from the way the market
functions and from the successive deterioration of the economic conditions in the
country, it can without any doubt be concluded that the market is suffering from
excessive and incompetent government intervention in the market. Somewhere
in the literature which deals about the Eritrean economy, it is mentioned that
there is ignorance of the market economy. However, the position maintained in
this paper is that the state is not ignorant of how the market economy functions.
It thus concludes that the reason why the state manages the economy the way it

does is that it uses the political approach to the management of the economy to
maintain and strengthen its political power, instead of giving priority to the
economic development of the country. In other words, the main aim of the
government is to consolidate its political position by developing its partys (PFDJs)
economy, which is not the same as building the nations economy. The last
conclusion implies that there are two economies in the country. One is the PFDJ
economy and the second is Eritreas economy. What the state is doing is contrary
to what it promises and proclaims as envisaged/enshrined in the vision of the
nations building-process. That is squeezing and depleting the Eritrean economy
and channeling all resources to the PFDJ economy, not to serve the interest of the
Eritrean people but the interest of a certain faction within the PFDJ central office,
i.e. the clique in power. In sum, developing the partys economy at the expense of
the whole nations economy enables the party to control and monopolize the
political power and the economic, cultural, social and financial resources of the
country.
One clear contradiction can be observed in what the state promises and does in
practice. Certain documents which are also referred in this article claim that the
government declares that it is committed and at the same time it has developed
an appropriate framework as an incentive for encouraging the growth of the
private sector, which is one of the corner stones of the market economy. This has
never been put into practice and the government continuously
accentuates/exacerbates its hostile attitude towards the private sector and it has
become crystal clear that it will eliminate or at least paralyze the business
community in the market by waging baseless allegations and creating different
types of obstacles and bottlenecks.
Managerial and Research Implications
Management should focus on a market niche which is not satisfied or neglected
by the PFDJ-owned economic institutions. Identifying such a niche and developing
the appropriate products and services for such a need can help a firm to develop a
market position which can easily be maintained and strengthened continuously. If
the firms succeed in the niche strategy they can easily develop, strengthen and
maintain their position in the market. Another managerial implication that can be

done from this study is that a firm has to develop unique products or services with
substantial differences from those offered by the PFDJ-owned firms which are
already operating in the market. In other words, firms should develop products
and services which can easily be understood to be unique by the market. The
third implication for management is to get the confidence and support from the
state which is a strong policy maker and a strong actor in the market. If that is
done, management can develop a collaborative agreement with some of the
government-owned economic institutions in the form of a joint venture.
However, if such joint ventures turn out to be successful, they can easily be
dissolved to make them fully owned by the state which creates uncertainties and
management should therefore develop a risk management approach when it is
engaged in a collaborative agreement with the government. To handle this
problem the firm has to insulate itself from whatever measures that could be
taken by the government. Specifically, this can be like developing a unique
competence that can enable the joint venture to survive and strengthen its
position in the market. It should also be very careful so that the unique
competence would not be copied and used by some other state-owned firms. The
final management implication which can be drawn from this article is that
management should develop or acquire resources which the command economy
network built by the state is in a dare need. This can make the firm as a supplier
or a sub-supplier of the PFDJ-owned economic institutions if it is the only
producer and supplier of this resource. To secure its position the firm should
continuously develop a unique competence for the development and
management of this unique resource and make it very difficult to be copied by
potential competitors.
One of the main research implications that can be done from this study is that
there is a need to conduct further research to determine which economic path,
i.e. which economic management model is appropriate or suits the Eritrean
economic reality in order to achieve sustainable growth and development. In sum,
to identify the market management model, which can enable the country to grow
in a sustainable way?

Another research issue to be carried out and which is closely related to the above
is also to find out or to define the demarcation or a division of the various sectors
of the economy that the public and private sector should operate in. Future
research should also focus on the issue of how the private and public sectors
should coordinate their activities in order to be able to achieve a maximum
impact to hit/attain the main targets of the countrys economic visions and
policies. Future research should also address the question of which existing and
additional institutions in Eritrea are necessary to adopt and implement a viable
economic model for the Eritrean economy. Finally, research should also be carried
out to identify the main reasons why the PFDJ government claims to implement a
market economy model, when in practice it is applying a militarist command
economy model which is more dysfunctional than the failed command economy
model to run the continuously deteriorating and depleting Eritrean economy.
Policy Recommendations
It is the excessive and unabated government intervention in the economic life of
the country which is, if not the only, one of the main stumbling blocks that
hinders the economic development of the country. Therefore, the results
achieved in this paper enable us to recommend reduced involvement of the
government in the economic activities of the country. It should further create
favorable conditions and encourage the private sector to prosper and grow. This
should be accompanied by minimizing the role played by the public sector in the
market. This is to strictly recommend the public sector to be involved in those
sectors which are absolutely necessary and where the private sector is not in a
position or does not possess the necessary competence and resources to be an
active actor in.
All the bureaucratic and administrative bottlenecks, the role of the state in the
commercial life of the country and the absence of transparency throughout the
state apparatus have to be dealt with properly by developing appropriate
mechanisms if the country is going to boost the trust of foreign investors and if
the private sector is going to prosper. Related to the last issue, the state should
also launch an appropriate privatization program and implement it without any
reservation and pretension. This should be accompanied by an appropriate

privatization framework which should be developed and adjusted depending on


how the privatization program proceeds in practice. It is to be recommended also
that the government in collaboration with the IMF and the World Bank develop
an appropriate economic model which reflects the reality of the Eritrean economy
in order to be able to achieve sustainable growth. To be successful the tripartite
should define the problems of the Eritrean economy and develop a common view
as to the root causes of the problems and possible measures before they proceed
with recommending what the solutions should be.
The monetary policy recommendation to be done in this work is that the Central
Bank of Eritrea has to be autonomous and the government should not instruct the
bank to bump money into the market. In other words, the role of the fiscal policy
should be adjusted to how an open economy works.
Finally, appropriate measures should also be taken to reduce government
spending and to deal with the problem of the deficit. Success would very much
depend on developing appropriate fiscal policy in order to reduce government
spending.

Eritrean National Wufaq Party (ENWP)


The Eritrean National Wufaq Party (ENWP) calls upon the Eritrean people at home
and in the diaspora to take the convening of the National Congress for Democratic
Change (NCDC) scheduled to launch on November 21st, 2011 in Addis Ababa,
Ethiopia, as a valuable opportunity to unite, organize and rise to put an end to the
brutal thuggish dictatorship of the PFDJ.
In a special session held November 10 to 12, 2011, the Executive Committee of
the ENWP has evaluated the internal and external circumstances under which this
historic NCDC congress is being held and developed important recommendations
to coordinate efforts and positions with all participating Eritrean delegates to
guarantee the successful conclusion of the conference.
The following were the main issues discussed and recommendations developed
during the two-day deliberations of the special session:
(1) Eritreas Refugee and Humanitarian Crisis The Special Session reviewed various
reports shedding light on the catastrophic situation of humanitarian and human
rights challenges facing Eritrean refugees fleeing the PFDJS irresponsible policies

and sadistic practices. The Executive Committee was overwhelmed by the


incredible barbarism facing Eritrean refugees in the Sinai desert at the hands of
Egyptian Bedouin. It has welcomed the enormous efforts undertaken by the
emerging Eritrean civil society movement in reaching out to the victims in the
Sinai Bedouin detention centers an in appealing to the international community
to free the young Eritrean men and women held hostage by a regional conspiracy
of international organized crime.
(2) The Roadmap to Victory
The Special Session discussed the Roadmap document prepared by the NCDC
extensively in light of the current developments of a more energized civil society
component of the Eritrean opposition camp. The Executive Committee concluded
that the NCDCs Roadmap is premised on the assumption of an already unified
political opposition, which is by no means true given the limited scope and reach
of the EDA experience. After reviewing the patterns of effective revolutions in
ongoing phenomenon of the Arab Spring, it noted the imperative of providing the
emerging Eritrean civil society movement a leading role in mobilizing the Eritrean
public into a massive popular uprising. The Executive Committee has, therefore,
assigned a special committee to Eritrean National Wufaq Party (ENWP) develop a
strategy to coordinate with all likeminded political and civic organizations and
individuals participating in the upcoming NCDC congress in order for the
conference to come out with resolutions and structures that recognize the
primacy of the civil society movement in this critical stage of our struggle.
(3) The EDAs Fate after the NCDC Congress
Given the critical role that the EDAs has been playing during the last decade in
providing a unified forum for all Eritrean opposition political parties, the Special
Session discussed extensively various scenarios for the most effective potential
roles of the EDA in the future. The Executive Committee observed that:
a. The infighting within the EDA member organizations in the last few years and
its leaderships inability to resolve the contentions in a satisfactory manner has
limited the EDAs capacity to expand at the same rate as the expansion and
growth within the Eritrean opposition camp. As a result, while the EDA remained
rigidly an umbrella of exclusively 11 opposition organizations, the number of

organized political parties outside that EDA participating in the NCDC congress
alone has multiplied to 23 political parties and an even greater number of civil
society groupings. The number of non-EDA political parties not participating in the
NCDC congress is also considerable.
b. The Special Session noted the imperative need to lay the grounds for a unified
popular uprising that focuses on the current suffering of the Eritrean people in
general and the youth in particular either under the direct brutality of the
security forces of the PFDJ or under its subcontractors of terrors in the organized
crime networks across borders.
The Executive Committee, therefore, calls upon the EDA as the largest grouping of
opposition political parties to continue the positive role its has been playing to
ensure

the success of the NCDC. Towards this end, however, it is imperative that the EDA
leadership recognize the need to concentrate its efforts in coordinating and
cooperating with all political parties under the umbrella of the NCDC to ensure a
smooth transition after the fall of the PFDJ. All Eritrean opposition political parties
including the EDA and its member organizations must realize the critical
importance of refraining from disrupting the tide of the emerging civil society
movement in leading the popular uprising that has already started to besiege the
PFDJ regime.
(4) The Need for a Unified Opposition Narrative
The Special Session recognized the importance of guaranteeing that the change
that will come becomes the change that the Eritrean people want. It is absolutely
critical that the rising civil society movement that is expected to play a decisive
role in ending the PFDJ regime, become well informed about long-standing
societal grievances relating ethnic, religious and regional injustices perpetrated by
the PFDJ regime. The Executive Committee calls upon all civil society
organizations and individuals to bring the demands and grievances of all the
components of the Eritrean society to the centre of the popular demands for
change.

The ENWP wishes all participants of the upcoming NCDC congress success in their
endeavors to come up with a viable alternative to brutal thuggish dictatorship in
Eritrea.
Victory to the Eritrean people!

Isaias Helter-Skelter Foreign Policy


Calls on the Council to urgently consider applying targeted sanctions on relevant
Eritrean authorities including visa restrictions for President Afewerki on travelling
to the EU;
(European Parliament resolution on Eritrea case of Dawit Isaak)
If you were to read and somehow entertain a certain modicum of selfunderestimation, and blindly accept the hyperbolic interpretation of the so-called
new foreign policy posture by Iasias regime as expressed, in some of the web
based yellow journalism, by the most jingoist hyper nationalist writers you will
be an easy customer that will be more likely to purchase a fertile, farm with a
functioning milk factory and a full time gardener, on the moon with Maria Theresa
coins. Stay on earth with both feet firmly anchored on reality. Do not confuse the
new frequent flier status of the president with a historic diplomatic
breakthrough- it is short on substance, flashy in style but more importantly it is a
pure Helter-skelter foreign policy unfolding.
Like a frantic untrained swimmer, who is trying not to sink in the deep end of a
lake too big for his novice status, the Eritrean President is looking for a diplomatic
lifesaver to grasp. Uganda, Equatorial Guinea and the trip to New York to attend
the 66th session of the UN General Assembly are part of the huge knee jerk
behaviour generated by the inevitability of a stronger sanction within coming few
months. The primary captive audiences for this energy depleting frantic effort are
the people of Eritrea.
As far as the rest of the world is concerned no one is buying the enhanced Kabuki
Dance. From Sweden to Djibouti the real enfant terrible behaviour and crass
action of the regime is well documented. The Somali-Eritrea Sanction and
Monitoring Group has meticulously recorded the true actions and behaviours of
the regime. Facts are hard to refute. The leopard has not changed his skin.

According to Shabit.com September 12,2011 edition- reporting on an interview


concerning Isaias trip to Equatorial Guinea- the media outlet controlled by the
Eritrean Ministry of Information stats that:
President Isaias said that there should exist a strategy that could resolve basic
issues in view of the fact that neither the 30-year old OAU nor the African Union
(AU) that replaced it failed to meet the expectations of the peoples of the
continent. .
The all-knowing president makes a swiping conclusion that the old OAU and the
New AU are failures. Previously he has stringently condemned IGAD, Arab League;
American policy on Somalia, PLOs a two state policy, the 1993 Oslo Accords all as
failures. Too many to keep track of.
In a meeting with handpicked few Eritreans in Uganda he went on a tirade stating
that we can withdraw from and return to IGAD at any time, contrary to the
charter, rules and guidelines of IGAD. Of course the Presidents baseless sweeping
declaration was proven wrong and repudiated by the 40th Extraordinary IGAD
ministerial session on August 24, 2011 in Addis Ababa.
Let us see one more example of the utter bankruptcy of the regimes one man
driven foreign policy:
The Government of Eritrea does not support a two-state solution for the
Palestinian question nor does it subscribe to the notion of an accomplished fact.
Neither does it endorse other public relations exercise, for such a ploy would but
only complicate matters and delay a solution.(Shabait August 4, 2011- Ministry
of Foreign Affairs Press Release)
Who asked the Eritrean government i.e. Isaias what his opinion is on the Two
State solution? Did the Palestinian Authority ask the Eritrean government for
advice? Not to the best of my knowledge. This is an example of the ingrained
arrogance and self- aggrandizement tendency of the present day Eritrean
leadership that keeps exposing its lack of capacity to correctly assess its
limitations and mend its ways.
On January 17, 2009 Mr. Isiaias gave interview to the National News of the then
South Sudan. In his own words:

Within three years since the singing of the Comprehensive Agreement (CPA), the
situation further deteriorated. We could say the situation is going out of hand.
The government of South Sudan has received more than five billion dollars.
Where this amount of money gone? If we ask how many roads have been
constructed; to what extend has the supply of potable water being made
available, what health service has been provided, what job opportunities have
created, development and investment projects have been implemented in South
Sudan? The answer is definitely none. Instead of perusing unity, ethnic and clan
divisions became rampant Instead of good governance, a corrupt system has been
established, he said. (As quoted by the Atlanta based writer- Luk Kuth Dak on
April 2, 2009 in an article entitled Should Isaias Afewrki be welcomed in South
Sudan)
Assume the reverse. If a leader of another country was to travel to Asmara and
give an interview with the same level of criticality about the absence of freedom
in Eritrea will it ever make it to the front page of the Eritrean media? No. This is a
president of a dysfunctional state presumptuously diagnosing another nations
internal policy-a pyromaniac assuming the role of a fire chief.
Few days before the president heads for New York the EU The European
Parliament resolution on Eritrea case of Dawit Isaak is made public making Isaias
and his pundits effusive rhetoric on fresh diplomatic breakthrough a mere
charade. The resolution recommends banning the president of Eritrea and his
ruling clique from traveling to Europe as well as suspending the self-reliant
states development assistance. Here is an example of a triumphant
earthshaking diplomatic victory under the omniscient presdent, the kind that TV
ERI should be eager to share with the people of Eritrea.
So what is behind the sudden appearance of the Eritrean president in New York?
The real threat of a more robust sanction is hanging on Isaias head like swords of
Damocles. The gravelling that was started in a meeting with Secretary General
Ban Ki Moon in at the birthday celebration of The Republic of South Sudan is now
being transformed to the City that Never Sleeps: New York.
Yemanes Preliminary Response to the Somalia Eritrea Monitoring Group
Report did not convince a single nation to reject the monitoring groups

definitive report. Sanctions are not negotiated retroactively. Nor are they
dismissed because of government sponsored petitions. For a government that has
no sense of legality or rule of law it might seem so. But the sanction issue is a legal
issue. The legal issue is simple and direct: Has the Eritrean government complied
with all the decisions of resolution 1907. The answer is also straight and simple:
NO. When you fail to comply there is a penalty. Bravado and wild rhetoric do not
sway the Security Council. The issue now is how severe will the next stage of the
sanction be. Can a 10 to 15 minutes We are Just Being Pick On speech by the
president convince Europe, US and Africa to candle Resolution 1907 and refrain
from imposing extra sanction? No.
Isaias effort is like a foolish farmer who has a habit of closing the barren after the
horse has bolted. By confusing being obdurate with being principled and
arrogance with self-confidence, he has single handedly destroyed any sense of
institutionalized and expert based modern diplomacy from emerging in Eritrea. By
strictly subordinating the fundamental national interest of the State of Eritrea to
his power monopolization agenda he has managed to put Eritrea under this no
win situation.
He will have his ten minute on the podium and the world will hear words we
Eritreans have gotten sick and tired of hearing for over a decade. But the world
will see one of the remaining authoritarian tyrants make a feeble attempt to cast
a wide accusation, hopefully minus Nikita Khrushchevs Shoe Banging and Hugo
Chavezs The Devil Came Here Yesterday tantrum, against the United States and
all other western Powers. A four oclock speech with few audiences immediately
destine for the archive.
Isaias desire to meet with the President of America will just have to stay a wish
unfulfilled. It is unlikely that the US will reward this rouge regime with an
audience with president Obama after the utterly contemptuous way he treated
Secretary Clinton, Assistant Secretary Carson and other members of the State
Department. Not even a chance for a corridor encounter- curtsey greeting- should
be given to Al Shebaabs mentor and financer. US should resoundingly repudiate
any move for diplomatic rehabilitation by the Eritrean regime until it is ready to

repudiate its harboring of regional theorists and willing abandons his


authoritarian ways at the minimum.
The most important reason, from my perspective, for the presidents visit to New
York is to try to give one last Hurrah to his dwindling PFDJ members in North
America. The- by invitation- only- meeting to be held somewhere in New York is
based on a desire to shore up the base by overstressing the underlining official
paranoia of we are under attack followed by please open your purse and wallet
before the inevitable sanction becomes a done deal.
The voices of democracy will be heading to New York as well from all corners of
North America. Eritreans, Eritrean Americans and Eritrean Canadians will demand
that the sanction on the regime and its elites be strengthened, and the wish and
will of the people of Eritrea for Justice, Human Rights and Democracy be allowed
to resonate in the halls and chambers of the United Nation dousing the voice of
the tyrant.
Yes to Sanction and No to Tyranny.

The Sign of Our Time


Part I: Time Introduction
Dear fellow citizens, wherever we are, it is impossible to live a life in isolation. I do
not know whether the I can be lived without embracing the we, our collective
sense of identity.
Due to our social identity linkage, we Eritreans in general are living uncomfortable
and disgraceful lives. Being Eritreans or better to say, the PFDJ Eritrea, is
associated with emigration, warring, troublemaking and being unrepresented
diplomatically and internationally. Whether we like it or not, we cannot escape
from these current attributes of Eritreanness.
First and foremost, human beings need peace. Also, they cannot live meaningfully
without family, social life, land (or nation) or true representation. The only thing I
am sure about is that we cannot continue to live like this indefinitely.
Furthermore the essence of change we aspire to, the notion of peace, justice,
democracy, politics and humanity are amongst the key beliefs that we need to
adopt at this particular time. But in the first place, I would like to introduce a
simple but important concept, namely Time, and what time (past-present-

future) means for us. Accordingly, the aim of this introductory article is to raise
awareness of the inexcusable way that we Eritreans live in our collective life
(which may be called politics) and to stop living a waiting life. But rather we need
to really live and be the owner of our present by reading and judging our past-topresent and acting now on the today. It is also my pleasure to write this article
in the month of September a very meaningful month both nationally and
spiritually, to me.
Our Experience and Time
As is the nature of living, we all struggle in the hope of seeing a change for the
better whether in our private, social or political lives. Philosophers claim that if
you are today the same as you were yesterday, this indicates that you have taken
a backward step. This seems self-evident because today and yesterday are not
the same. Experiencing self-assessment is the capacity that one reveals in ones
life and actions. But the worst way of living is living without imagination and
vision, which leads into conflict. And conflict in turn is associated with the absence
of politics, which is the art of living together. Here, the main aim is to explore our
understanding about time (our past-present-future). Without going into a deep
and varying philosophical notion of time, I just want to emphasise whether we
are well aware of our interconnected past and present with our future.
What do we understand by time? To be is to live and act in time. And living in the
present is not merely a utopia. It is the simple but extremely difficult truth about
being. Regarding time, the author of the Confessions, St Augustine, said If no one
asks me, I know what it is, but if I wish to explain it to him who asks, I do not
know. Time is the a priori prerequisite of all phenomena, of everything (Kant).
Time that each of us experiences is both obvious and mysterious. Even though we
may claim we are proud of our past i.e. our mass struggle for independence, we
cannot deny that the evil of our present time was part of that past because it was
born or grew up and reproduced there (in the past), which is also part of present
Eritrean society. And now we may or may not know for sure what role this will
play in our future. However our future, which is yet to come, may not be different
from or may depend upon our present how we live our present and how much
we have learned from our past. To be is to live and act in time.

Philosophically speaking, time is the duration of the past present future. There
is no significant objective or ontological differences between the past, present
and future. If there was, it would merely be subjective. Part of the present period
is already past and part of it is yet to come. This means it is made up of a past and
a future. How could we possibly think about our future without remembering our
ideals/history and act without remembering our desires or plans? Planning our
future is a wise thing to do but it is in the present and not in the future that we
take action. In this case, our past and future are part of our present. Who has ever
lived a yesterday or a tomorrow? We live only in todays, not lying in waiting for
the future. To live in the present is simply to live and act in reality. Thus, on the
today, we can address and solve our problem and are able to have a new and
better start/direction for our future. But how would one be able to do this? By
living and acting on the present which is the only real time given to us; the
present that does not abandon the history or memory (the past); the present that
does not lack the imagination of the not yet achieved. To live separating the past
and the future from the present would mean to abandon the self and the mind. In
other words, the essence of our existence can be judged and shaped not only by
the past or the not yet achieved, but by the present.
Comparing the past with the real present, one may argue, in our case, time does
not exist since nothing is changing both in Eritrea and outside; if there is no
change, there is no time (duration) either, and I cannot say so about the
alternative future. This is a fundamental question for pro-change and peace
activists. If we really know our past or our past-present and are able to be and act
appropriately in the present, we cannot miss capturing our probable future
because they (past-present-future) are one and integral. The past exists for us in
the present as part of the present because we remember. One cannot live the
future i.e. in the not yet achieved but they can anticipate such virtual and
imaginary time to the only present. In other words, by remembering the past one
becomes conscious of the imaginary future. Thus we must live the present, the
today.
To be is to do (to act). There was a classical example given to us at the time when
we were studying philosophy (syllogism). This was: sin is the outcome of

freedom; a slave has no freedom; therefore, a slave cannot sin. It is axiomatic


that there could be no peace without justice. Lets look into our situation: no real
peace in the past, none in the present, and what is our hope for the future (the
now onward)? How can we solve the current overwhelming problems prevailing
in our country? Are we really ready for change and to start that change from
within ourselves first? How can we ensure that our future will be peaceful and
where the rule of law prevails? By merely condemning Mr Isaias Afewerki and his
gang (the PFDJ)? It is not my intention to talk about the dilemma of peace versus
justice now, but may be in a separate theme. My point here is whether we, in our
present, have really learned from our past and have taken a promising step
forward in order to be able to live a better and different tomorrow that starts
from today (now or the present). Mr Redie Mehari (known by Allena) has
promised to publish his book which will reveal numerous alleged facts about our
past and present. Indeed, his book is expected to help us greatly to learn from the
past and present evil system and think forward, not backward. How? By
correcting and rectifying things; changing not only the evil section of our people
(citizens), but above all ourselves, the evil system and the culture diffused by the
PFDJ as a policy, and bringing a remedial justice to all those victims. Dare to
think!!!
Conclusion
We wish for a peaceful and democratic Eritrea in which there are no wars, no
appalling destruction of the nation but rather co-operation and real politics.
Similarly, we wish the same to happen for our neighbours, the IGAD sub-region
and the continent at large. In todays world, one cannot live without politics and
co-operation. However, this all requires not only wishful thinking but commitment
and action based on self-knowledge. In other words, it demands revolution, not
an external one but internal and from within the real self. From this point of
view, the change we declare per se needs a change; to start to deconstruct in
order to be able to create a sane change. To be is to live and act in the present.
Time for us is an essential prerequisite for change. It is the best teacher, so we
should never forget though we could forgive and should not live without
anticipating such a virtual and imaginary time to the only present. The past can

only pass in the present and the future could only be the direction of the present.
We can say we are consciously experiencing time if we remember the past and
anticipate the future. To be is to act in the perpetual now. So, we have to meet
the today on today, which each of us has for granted. By doing so, our dream for a
sane change can be real from the present.

Keeping the hope of justice alive in Eritrea


On September 18, 2011 Eritreans across the globe and many friends of Eritrea,
will mark 10 years to the day the flickering light of hope for justice and human
rights in Eritrea grew considerably dimmer.
The day has come to symbolise not just the unlawful imprisonment and
disappearance of top government officials, veteran fighters of Eritreas long
struggle for liberation, and journalists from Eritreas fledgling independent media,
but also marks the start of a decade of injustice that earned Eritrea a reputation
as a giant prison for its citizens. Elders who sought reconciliation, religious leaders
from virtually every religious group in the country, young people who chose to
free themselves from the shackles of perpetual national service, business men
and women, academics and intellectuals, parents whose adult children have fled
the country, children who were found praying alongside their parents have all
fallen victims of the wrath that was unleashed on Eritreans on September 18,
2001. On Eritreas black September, Eritreas best hope for reform in the country
went on to join many others who became victims of the arbitrary detention they
were trying to put a stop to along with the many other ills of independent
Eritrea.
Many of those who were arrested on the day and since have been subjected to
inhuman treatment, several are said to have died, many remain unaccounted for
and none have been brought before a court of law or charged with any offence.
Every Eritrean, except the handful that benefit directly from the lawlessness in the
country, recognises September 18, 2001 as a really dark day in Eritreas history.
Many in the international community have also condemned the atrocities of that
day calling for the immediate and unconditional rectification of the situation.
However over the last 10 years, the government of Eritrea has simply turned a
deaf ear to calls from Eritreans and the international community alike. This is

mainly due to the fact that the calls for justice in Eritrea have not been resolute
enough.
Ten years is a long time to silently put up with the ever worsening human rights
abuse in Eritrea. Ten years is also too long to keep excusing the actions that are
inexcusable under the law. We therefore call on all Eritreans and friends of Eritrea
to use the opportunity of the 10th anniversary of September 18th 2001 to renew
the commitment to work relentlessly for the realisation of the dream that many
Eritreans sacrificed their life for- A free and just Eritrea for all Eritreans.
Eritrean human rights organisations in the UK would like to invite you, to join us
on a day of commemoration to mark the 10th anniversary of September 18, 2001
and as we renew our vow to call for justice in Eritrea, standing firmly in solidarity
with the victims of human rights abuse in the country.
We would like you to join us as we declare the day black ribbon day, making
black ribbon a symbol of our renewed commitment to justice and solidarity with
victims of human rights abuse in Eritrea.
Together, we will send an unequivocal message of condemnation to the
government of Eritrea, a message of solidarity to all victims of arbitrary detention,
since the advent of Eritreas liberation as well as express our determination to
follow in the footsteps of those who have become symbols of the bitter struggle
for a better Eritrea.
Solidarity and Commemoration- For the first Eritrean Black Ribbon Day, on
September 18, 2011 we call on all Eritrean civic and democratic rights
organisations, political organisations as well as community mosques and churches
to remember and stand in solidarity with victims of abuse in Eritrea.
Renewed commitment Coinciding with these above calls for commemoration
and solidarity there will be an event in London to host friends and families of
Eritreas many prisoners as we remember those that paid a hefty price to express
the aspirations of every Eritrean and renew our pledge to call for justice until
every last one of Eritreas prisoners of conscience is freed.

The dangers of US endorsing African democracy leaders!


Analyst says that US endorsing of African democracy leaders must be tempered
with dose of vigilance

In a White House meeting last week, President Barack Obama met with four
recently elected heads of African states and praised them as effective models
for democratization who are absolutely committed to good governance and
human rights. Yet, as the media and Human rights organizations have noted that
ambitious promises and lofty rhetoric in Washington glossed over troubling, but
all too familiar, reports of human rights and press freedom violations. Mohamed
Keita is an African analyst and advocacy coordinator for the Committee to Protect.
He says that even though it is good for the US government to recognize and
promote democratic leaders on the African continent, it should be willing to
confront these leaders when they fail to live up to the democratic principles to
which they promised their people.

A community centre born of tragedy


THREE times a week, the sound of children fills the downtown community centre
of the Eritrean community.
Tutors work with children of refugee families, many of them who spent years in
camps in Africa without formal schooling.
The program is one of several run by the Eritrean Community In Winnipeg Inc.,
which helps newcomers adjust to Canadian culture, language and life in Winnipeg.
Immigrant communities often run similar programs, but the adoption of these
programs was the direct result of a horrific and bloody tragedy the shooting
death in August 2007 of 14-year-old Sirak Shaggy Okbazion, who had moved to
Winnipeg with his family four years before.
Everything we have done was a direct response to Siraks death and how he
came to die, Lambros Kyriakakos, president of the Eritrean centre, said.
The Okbazion family came to Winnipeg in 2000, sponsored by the First Mennonite
Church. They were refugees from war-ravaged Eritrea, looking for a fresh start
after years in a Kenyan refugee camp.
Rezene Okbazion, then 34, his wife, Hiriti, 30, and their two young children, Sirak,
10, and his sister, Segen, 4, lived in a small apartment off Logan Avenue.
Shaggys life ended in the dark, early hours of Aug. 27, 2007 on Sherbrook Street
and his family fell into a nightmare.

Police found his body beside a garbage bin on Sherbrook Street. Hed been shot
and bled to death. Shaggy had fallen in with a group of teenage boys who were
members of the Mad Cowz, a street gang fighting to control the drug trade in the
downtown and West End. Shaggy wasnt a formal member of the Mad Cowz, but
he hung out with them.
Kyriakakos said Shaggys death shook the Eritrean and African communities to
their core.
Everybody was aware if it could happen (to the Okbazion family), it could happen
to them. We didnt want it to happen again.
Kyriakakos said while western media are preoccupied with the wars that have
ravaged many African countries, life in most African communities has a strong
communal, social but conservative attitude, where all adults look out for the
interests of everyones children.
When they arrive in Winnipeg, they find their non-African neighbours dont want
to know them and care little for their children.
The Eritrean group devised several programs to bridge this culture gap for both
the parents and families, including English-language classes, driving lessons,
support for single mothers and government and non-government resources.
Programs put in place by the local Eritrean community in response to the gang
shooting death of 14-year-old Sirak Shaggy Okbazion in August 2004:
After-school tutoring
Family mentoring
Eritrean language and cultural awareness
Parenting classes
Free loan of traditional cooking utensils
Eritrean Artists Video project
Eritrean Photography project
Enhanced community social activities

Arlington school program helps immigrant families bridge


language gap

A few days after Mikal Sieles long journey from Eritrea ended in Arlington County
this spring, she found herself in a nondescript office building, staring at a series of
drawings, trying to think of the right English words.
Whats happening in this picture? asked Monica Sugaray, who tests newly
arrived students for Arlington public schools.
Mikal, 16, looked at the image of a man moving through water. Swimming, she
said.
Then the questions got more difficult. She read an essay about immigration.
What in this essay is an opinion? Sugaray asked.
Mikal stared at the words, but nothing came to her.
Such questions are part of a rite of passage for more than 3,000 students from
immigrant families who enroll each year in Arlington schools.
About half are foreign-born; half are born in the United States and speak a
language other than English at home. They are the sons and daughters of
ambassadors, refugees, businessmen and taxi drivers, and together they are
fluent in 96 languages.
In one of the regions highest-achieving school systems, officials have undertaken
a monumental effort to integrate these students and their families, translating
thousands of documents and report cards, sending dozens of interpreters to
parent-teacher conferences.
That quest intensely personal and sometimes plagued by cultural pitfalls
begins here, in an office decorated with flags, posters and artifacts from around
the world. The Language Services and Registration Center is Arlingtons academic
Ellis Island, a place where many immigrants will have their first extensive
interaction with a government entity in the United States.
Each day there are new challenges: the Mongolians who refused to send their
children to school for fear of being deported; the sons and daughters of human
trafficking victims from Thailand; the Chinese teenager who arrived
unaccompanied, his life savings in his back pocket. Officials at the center are quick
to tell parents that they do not and cannot legally check the immigration
status of students.

Mikal arrived at the center with her father, Efrem Siele, 12-year-old brother
Rimon and sister Rodas, 9. Efrem Siele left Eritrea six years ago, after the
countrys war with Ethiopia. He got a job at a gas station and saved up to bring
the rest of his family to the United States.
That day in May, the father and his children sat across from Ahmed Osman, a
bilingual family resource assistant. Eight years ago, Osman had brought his own
children to the center after arriving from Sudan. Back then, he asked questions
that he now answers daily.
Are these the best schools in Arlington? Siele asked, after hearing that his
children would attend Abingdon Elementary School, Thomas Jefferson Middle
School and Wakefield High School.
These are very good schools, Osman said.
Will they get to stay in their grades? Siele asked.
Well have to see what the test scores look like, Osman said, scanning a pile of
Eritrean report cards and course work, trying to make sense of the academic
patchwork that many immigrants bring to the center

Eritrean family leaves Tunisia border camp for new life in


Belgium
Filmon was born in Eritrea and says his heart is there, that he never dreamed nor
wished to be far removed from his country. Yet this week he and his family
boarded a plane and headed for a new life over 5,000 kilometres away.
All I ever wanted was the taste of freedom, safety and an opportunity to
continue learning, said the 29-year-old father of two.
His thirst for freedom and knowledge has been a driving force in his life. Forced to
join the Eritrean army at the age of 19, he managed to complete a management
degree at Asmara University and started working as a civil servant at the Ministry
of Transport. But when he refused to spy on his colleagues political leanings, he
was arrested. Upon his release several months later, he decided to leave his
country, fearing that his next detention would not end as quickly.
For the next four years, Filmon and his wife Belaynesh took a perilous journey
across Ethiopia, Sudan and Libya. In each country, they tried to settle down and
start anew. But being unregistered barred him from using his skills and

qualifications, and subjected him to exploitation and the constant risk of


deportation.
After over a year of struggling in Tripoli, Filmon, Belaynesh and their toddler twins
Ebin and Ezer were registered as refugees with UNHCR in the Libyan capital. Nine
months later, the Libyan conflict once again drove the family to flee, this time to
Choucha camp in Tunisia, along with hundreds of thousands of other foreigners in
Libya.
Since the start of the influx in February 2011, many Choucha residents originating
from Asia and West Africa have been able to go home. But thousands of asylumseekers and refugees like Filmon do not have the option of returning as it would
put their lives in danger.
Life in Shousha is difficult. The camp is completely dependent on humanitarian
aid, and subjected to crushing summer heat and sandstorms. A fire in May nearly
destroyed the entire camp. Some 4,000 refugees there are losing hope, prompting
UNHCR to call on the international community to act quickly.
We are urging resettlement countries to provide more opportunities for these
refugees, because resettlement constitutes a worthy solution for them and is in
the spirit of burden sharing with Tunisia which has opened its doors to people
fleeing the war in Libya despite its own delicate transition, said Nasir Fernandes,
UNHCRs Senior Emergency Coordinator in Southern Tunisia.
Belgium was one of the first countries to respond. Following a cabinet decision in
March, the State Secretary for Migration and Asylum, Melchior Wathelet,
announced the transfer of 25 Choucha refugees to Belgium. These people need
protection, and I am proud that Belgium, like some other European countries, is
taking its responsibilities, he said. Providing protection to those who may
benefit from it represents an international obligation, but a moral one too.
Back in Choucha, the loss of hope brings the temptation of desperate measures.
Filmon admits that he considered crossing the Mediterranean with smugglers. I
did think about it, although I have many friends who were lost at sea. But I could
not let my family take the risk, he said.
Just days before his flight from Tunis to Brussels, Filmon was still too busy to think
of the future. He was making sure his departure would not affect fellow refugees

he had been helping both as community leader and as an interpreter working


with UNHCR to interview and register refugees to help them find a way out of the
camp.
Now, Filmon and his family, along with six other families from Eritrea, the
Democratic Republic of the Congo and Somalia, have left to start a new life. Soon,
more refugee families will be leaving for Norway. Perhaps their departures will
bring some measure of hope to those still languishing in the tents of Choucha.

The Tragedy of the Eritrean Refugees Caught Up in the Libyan


Uprising
It is known to the whole world that hundreds of Eritreans flee their country every
day to escape the tortures, repression and suffering perpetrated by the Eritrean
regime.
Their suffering has followed them even outside the Eritrean borders: extensive
networks of human traffickers including the Bedouin in the Sinai desert, Egypt,
have exploited them, tortured them, raped them and even killed them.
There is a large number of Eritrean Refugees in Libya, most of them in the capital,
Tripoli. During the current popular uprising in the country, their lives have been
put in danger. Although it is difficult to get information from Libya, already the
murder of two Eritrean refugees has been confirmed.
Less than a month ago, twenty-seven Eritrean Refugees moved from Tripoli to
Rabesh Gedima, in Benghazi to work for a company. Following the popular
uprising, a group of people broke into the company where the Eritrean Refugees
were staying and attacked them with iron bars, knives and machetes critically
injuring three of them. Robel and Yared went out searching for medicines for the
wounded but they were shot dead by armed citizens. Now the remaining twentyfive people, including the wounded, are hiding underground in a certain location
in Benghazi with no food, water supplies or medicines. How long will it be before
they are discovered and attacked?
The group had approached the British rescue ship that has been sent to Bengazhi
port to evacuate British nationals asking them to assist in their evacuation, but
they had refused.

In a similar incident, on the 22nd and 23rd of February, a group of armed civilians
abduct nineteen Eritreans out of their houses in Tripoli. It is not yet known what
has happened to them. Human Rights Concern Eritrea has also received
information that three Eritrean Refugees have taken refuge at the Swiss Embassy
in Tripoli.
Given the fact that there are some African mercenaries among the governments
forces who are involved in the killing of protesters, the sub-Saharan Africans are
in a dangerous situation. As has been reported by many media outlets, including
the BBC and Al Jazeera, they are seen by the Libyan protesters as enemies and
murderers of the Libyan people. It seems the Libyan protesters are taking revenge
on them, and it is feared that a mass massacre of the Sub-Saharan African
migrants may be the result. Due to the little information available, we do not yet
know the full scale and nature of the tragedy of the Eritrean refugees.
It is worth noting that the case of Eritrean refugees differs from that of other
African migrants because there is no responsible Eritrean government that can
come to their rescue to evacuate them. If they return to their own country,
Eritrea, they face the danger of torture, murder and imprisonment.
Human Rights Concern Eritrea is deeply concerned about the fate of the Eritrean
refugees caught up in the Libyan uprising. Human Rights Concern Eritrea
therefore urges governments, embassies, human rights organizations,
humanitarian organizations, UN agencies and concerned individuals to do all they
can and act urgently to save and protect the Eritrean refugees through the
following means:
Including them in your respective evacuation arrangements and plans;
Providing them with protection and shelter in your embassies, offices, etc as well
as negotiating on their behalf with concerned authorities, groups and individuals
to make sure their safety is protected;
Establishing assembly points for protection and evacuation;
Providing, collecting and sharing information about their situation, what they
need, where to get assistance and whom to contact in case of emergency, and
Lobbying governments on their behalf to provide them with protection and
support.

Refrence: http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/
When Catherine Ashton was appointed the European Unions first high
representative for foreign and security policy in 2009, many met her arrival with
disappointment. She was not the first choice for the role, and her foreign policy
experience was limited to a short stint as commissioner for trade.
The new position of high representative, which included a dual role as vice
president of the European Commission, was created by the Lisbon Treaty and
intended to strengthen the EUs collective foreign policy. The British baronesss
appointment, for some, reflected a lack of ambition. Indeed, for those suspicious
of an expanded EU role in an area still regarded as the preserve of nation-states,
lack of ambition was seen as a good thing. ...
After months of sharp disagreement about the conflict in Syria, Turkey is eager to
compartmentalize its relationship with Iran and focus on areas where the two
countries can cooperate. Yet, despite the attempts to brand the recent meeting
between Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Iranian President
Hassan Rouhani as a turning point for the two countries relationship, the two
sides continue to have serious disagreements about the price of natural gas, the
Syrian civil war and the future of the region.
Nevertheless, there are areas in which the two sides can work together to deepen
trade and political ties. For Turkey, this effort is part of a larger strategy to reboot
its foreign policy. And for the Islamic Republic, the outreach to Turkey is aimed at
improving the economy and demonstrating to the Iranian people the
governments renewed commitment to expanding political and economic ties
with states in the region. ...
Lax oversight. Deregulation. Shadow banking. These are some likely responses
an expert might give if asked what caused the 2008 financial crisis. In the years
since the meltdown, there has consolidated in the public consciousness an image
of the pre-crisis global financial system as a sort of Wild West, where greedy
bankers, rather than reckless outlaws, operated with impunity, causing
irreparable social harm. But there is now a new sheriff in town, with the letters

U.S.A. boldly emblazoned on its badge. Determined to impose order on a once


lawless system, the U.S. Federal Reserve and Justice Department are unilaterally
playing the role of global financial cop, angering economic partners and
threatening to undermine international cooperation.
It was not supposed to be this way. In the immediate wake of the crisis, the
leaders of the worlds largest economies seemed to agree on the way forward:
The global financial system could no longer be effectively managed at the national
level alone. Coordination and harmonization of stricter regulatory rules at the
international level was needed. The effort culminated in 2010 with the
announcement of Basel III, a new set of global financial regulations that were to
be implemented by national authorities over the subsequent five years. The
agreement, designed to prevent future public bailouts of private financial
institutions, required banks around the world to hold more capital in reserve and
regularly conduct so-called stress tests to assess their vulnerability to various
crisis scenarios. ..
Rising tensions in Asia, as highlighted at the recent Shangri-La Dialogue, have
brought to the surface fault lines between Australias foreign affairs and defense
strategies. With a foreign affairs focus on economic diplomacy, Australia has
struggled to reassure its largest trading partner, China, that the deeper military
ties it forged with Japan and the U.S. this week in no way represent a threat.
The Shangri-La Dialogue was notable this year for heated exchanges between
China, Japan and the United States. The 28-nation Asia Security Summit, hosted
annually in Singapore by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, is usually
carefully scripted to avoid controversy. This years dialogue, however, saw
tensions laid bare, with attention focused on Chinas recent destabilizing forays in
the South China Sea and the United States again forced to defend its commitment
to its strategic rebalance to Asia. .
After nearly six years, Rio de Janeiros Police Pacification Units (UPPs) appear to
be faltering. Since the beginning of the year, multiple categories of violent crime
have risen across the city, and with the spotlight on Brazil due to the upcoming
World Cup soccer tournament, the program is now facing unprecedented levels of
criticism and scrutiny. Many pundits and journalists are arguing that the

pacification program is no longer effective. Meanwhile, public security officials are


calling the recent escalation in crime a temporary setback in an otherwise
successful effort to combat powerful drug trafficking gangs. In truth, neither of
these two characterizations accurately represents the various successes and more
recent shortcomings of the pacification program.
Rios Police Pacification program began in 2008 with the plan to wrest control of
many of the citys roughly 1,000 slums, or favelas, from drug-trafficking gangs and
install permanent community policing units in these neighborhoods. As of the end
of May 2014, the program has reached approximately 264 separate favelas,
benefiting an estimated 1.5 million residents.
The much-publicized kiss the new Saudi ambassador to Iran, Abdulrahman bin
Garman Al Shahri, bestowed on former Iranian President Hashemi Rafsanjani on
April 22, and the recent Saudi diplomatic outreach to Irans foreign minister,
Mohammad Javad Zarif, have set off speculation about a potential thaw in the
two countries icy relations. But the gestures should not be viewed as a Saudi
policy reorientation toward what Riyadh still views as a revolutionary Islamic
Republic of Iran. The Saudis appear to be changing their tactics, probably at the
behest of the U.S., but not their regional objectives of rolling back Iranian
involvement in Syria, Iraq and Lebanon.
Reports suggest the U.S. may be behind the reluctant efforts of both Iran and
Saudi Arabia to contain their rivalry, which is destabilizing the region. Journalist Ali
Hashem has reported that backchannel contacts, brokered by Oman, between the
Saudis and Iranians led to direct talks, and that Rafsanjani has Supreme Leader Ali
Khameneis blessing to pursue a plan to reduce tension with the Saudis. Whatever
the case, while there may be room for compromise between Iran and Saudi
Arabia regarding conflicting interests in Lebanon and Bahrain, resolving their
differences in Syria, Iraq and Yemen will be a harder nut to crack due to the
intensity of the Sunni-Shiite violence in those local conflicts. ..
With some Southeast Asian Muslims raising funds and recruiting fighters for Syria,
concerns are growing that these activities will eventually raise the risk of
terrorism in the region. The numbers are still low, but some governments
Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore in particularare beginning to wonder what

the impact will be a few years hence if some of their extremist nationals or
neighbors come back with new skills.
The past decade has seen a steady decline in the extremist threat from the region,
which was once seen as a possible second front for al-Qaida. Enhanced
vigilance, good law enforcement, reasonably cooperative interstate relations, the
peaceful resolution of communal conflicts in Indonesia and the closing of major
terrorist training centers have combined to weaken the networks that had posed
the biggest threat. Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), the group responsible for the 2002 Bali
bombings, once had a presence in five countries. But by 2003, it had largely been
reduced to Indonesia, and its leaders decided to end violent action there in 2007.
They argued that it had become counterproductive, caused unnecessary Muslim
deaths, had weakened the organization through arrests and was not supported by
the community. JI should therefore focus on religious outreach and education
until the organization could be rebuilt, the leaders believed. .
Yesterday, Salvador Sanchez Ceren of the Farabundo Marti National Liberation
Front (FMLN) succeeded Mauricio Funes as president of El Salvador. While Funes
has received overall high marks from the Salvadoran public, in particular in the
area of education, he leaves a public security mess for the incoming Sanchez
Ceren administration.
Funes assumed the presidency in June 2009 amid growing public insecurity due to
MS-13 and 18th Street gang violence, organized crime and drug trafficking. During
his first year in office, Funes ordered 2,500 additional troops to the 1,500 already
patrolling the countrys most violent neighborhoods and streets. The vast majority
of Salvadorans approved of the decision, but human rights activists and public
security analysts objected, claiming that Funes was simply following the same
ineffective policies of his predecessor. The increase in military patrols did little to
reduce the violence in 2010 and 2011.
When Mohammed Amir Waheed Sirkar, a migrant Bangladeshi electrician
employed to help build New York Universitys new campus in Abu Dhabi, joined a
strike to protest working conditions there, he ended up in prison and was
subsequently deported. According to the New York Times, other workers at the
site reported paying recruitment fees of up to a years wages just to get their jobs;

working 11- or 12-hour days, 6-7 days a week; and living with 15 men in rooms
meant for four.
The international labor migration system is rife with this type of exploitation and
abusenot just in the Middle East but in many parts of the world. Far too often,
people suffer extreme conditions and risk their lives to secure work abroad,
usually to support siblings, children and parents back home. .
A serious crisis played out during the past month over the future of Frances
defense budget, pitting the pared-down and overstretched Defense Ministry
against the cost-cutters of the Budget Ministry. Though the Defense Ministry has
been spared for now, the fallout may leave lasting marks on the French military
leaderships morale, and on the countrys reputation as a European defense
leader.
In the first 18 months of Francois Hollandes presidency, France underwent a full
defense review. The financial crisis and geopolitical changes, it was believed,
warranted a revision of the countrys 2008 Defense White Paper. Moreover, a
new Military Program Law (MPL), or multiyear defense plan, had to be drafted,
since the previous one was valid only until 2014. ...
World Cup to Debut Mind-Controlled Robotic Suit
Scientific American speaks with the scientist behind an innovation that will enable
a paralyzed person to walk and feel it
Effect of Panel Shape of Soccer Ball on its Flight Characteristics The beautiful
game will have a robotic addition at this years World Cup kickoff.
Clad in a robotic body suit and a cap adorned with electrodes that will detect
brain signals and cue leg movement, a paralyzed Brazilian will take to the pitch
and move with the assistance of a specially designed exoskeleton during the
opening ceremony of the World Cup on June 12.
Legions of fans tuning in to watch the event will see the debut of a technology
that, according to its creators, will one day use peoples brain waves to control
robotic limbs and effectively make wheelchairs obsolete. This initial
demonstration is merely an early prototype, but Duke University neuroengineer
Miguel Nicolelis, the man behind the project, envisions a future in which the

brainmachine interface will allow individuals who have lost mobility from
accidents or disease to get back on their feeteven if a robotic suit is needed to
make that happen.
The technology hinges on sensors that listen to a barrage of electrical signals in
the brain, reading and translating them into digital commands that, in turn, spark
an artificial device to act on the brains prompts.
Nicolelis wrote about his plans for this World Cup demonstration in the
September 2012 Scientific American (pdf). To learn more about the current state
of the technology and exactly what to expect on and off the field, SA spoke with
Nicolelis just a week before kickoff.
[An edited transcript of the conversation follows.]
Several years ago you were already hoping your technology would be ready for a
debut at the World Cup opening ceremonies. Can you bring us up to speed on
what the exoskeleton will be able to do on June 12?
The eight patients we have worked with in the last few months, who are [mostly]
in their late 20s, are able to walk in the lab with the exoskeleton and kick the ball.
But they also got a sensation they were walking, which is one of the key
objectives here with this projectto give them a feeling that this is not a machine
carrying them but that they are actually walking. This is already happening,
because not only are they controlling the movements with brain activity but they
are getting feedback from the device delivered to their arms where they still have
sensation. They all have this phantom sensationlike a phantom limb
sensationand that is very new. We didnt know that would happen but that is a
very important find.
For the World Cup demo we have only a very limited time so its more of a
symbolic gesture that science can provide the kind of hope that millions of
patients around the world would like to have to one day walk again. Its actually a
kickoff for our project. In 16 months we went from zero to full projectwe were
able to deliver this on time and show that the brainmachine interface has a
really big future.
So, what will the selected individual actually be doing that day? Walking out onto
the field and kicking the ball as you wrote about in 2012?

I cannot tell you what we are going to be doing. I would not tell my mother, let
alone Scientific Americansorry. Its a surprise for a billion people.
Its certainly technologically complex to fine-tune communication between the
brain and robotic circuitry. How much of the action of the exoskeleton is being
controlled by the person and how much is actually automated?
Without the person there is no movement. We are using a noninvasive technique
that is an EEG- [electroencephalography-] based interface. So the person has to
imagine what kind of movement he or she wants to make and that decision
triggers what the exoskeleton doeswhen it stops, when it kicks the ball. In 2002
I published a paper where I discussed this concept of what we call share control
in which the higher order decisions are taken by the brain and lower level
mechanics are taken by the robot. In real time the person is processing the
feedback from the exoskeleton so there is symbiosis. I cannot tell you what
percentage is from each.
Right now, is the brain sending that initial go signal but the actual steps and
kick are preprogrammed into the suits computer?
We have a couple patients who modulate the EEG from step to step. We
discovered some patients are actually capable of doing that and can control the
velocity of the device. This is just coming out in the last few weeks. We have many
things that we are going to publish throughout the next few months showing that
we have actually extended the abilities of this noninvasive interface. We are
basically creating a mental language for the patients to have a variety of actions
that they can control and we are just in the beginning of this. The potential is
pretty big.
Earlier on you thought you would have to implant electrodes directly into the
brain to manipulate the robotic limb, but you did not actually end up doing that.
These young adults are wearing a cap with external sensors, right?
The implantable technology is not ready. It needs to show benefits that outweigh
the potential dangers of a neurosurgical procedure. Im a very strong proponent
of this technology but its not ready for prime time yet. It has to be miniaturized
and improved. Our eight patients are very happy with the results and I dont think

they would be happy with implantable technologies that cannot deliver more
benefits for locomotion than we have for external sensors.
With new implants we designeddiscussed in the journal Nature Methods this
monthwe can now simultaneously record about 512 channels wirelessly and
simultaneously, which no one has done before. These animals [monkeys] were
able to control wheelchairsthey drove the wheelchairs around and did all sorts
of tasks just by brain control showing that this is possible and has a very nice
future, but its just not ready for patients right now. *Scientific American is part of
Nature Publishing Group.]
The signal comes from EEG but my understanding is EEG is prone to noise and
contamination, especially from the muscles and from eye movements. Have you
done anything to prove that the signals are coming from the brain and not these
other sources?
We are recording EEG simultaneously so we can see if there is any effect.
In theory, could the exoskeleton be controlled equally well by sound or finger
movement or something like that?
I dont know. We havent tried.
How did you find the Brazilian patients youve been working with for the last few
months?
We did it with health authorities in Brazil. We partnered with the largest spinal
cord hospital in the countrythey have 65,000 patientsand selected the eight
we decided were best for this study.
Did you want young adults because they were relatively lightweight?
They are from 22 to 38 or so, so they are in a different range of weights, and some
of them are para-athletes so they are healthy young individuals.
Which technologies are novel herethe EEG cap, the suit, the software that
processes signal?
I havent seen any exoskeleton that is controlled by voluntary brain activity and
provides feedback to the patent simultaneously. That doesnt existor at least it
hasnt been published in the literature.
How far is this technology from being usable by paralyzed people around the
world?

Its the same question people asked when people went to the moon, and we
already know the answer. This is how science progresses. You make big advances
and then you discover what can be done and then you try to apply this by
developing new versions that can be used by everybody that needs it.
If things dont go as planned on the big day and the suit does not operate
according to specifications or the patient gets nervous, is there some sort of
backup switch that can operate the system?
We have hours and hours of video footage of these patients walking using this
device that we will make public and available, and we are hoping that the suit will
work.
Is there any particular obstacle you are concerned about for that day like cell
phones in the audience or anything like that?
My obstacle right now is just journalists. There are too many pessimists who
cannot see the big picture of what this means for science in a developing country
and who only look at scientists as a bunch of people that create bombs and things
to kill people. We need to portray science as a good endeavor that can improve
mankind. Thats what we are trying to do.
Why did you choose the World Cup to debut this technology?
Because the World Cup is Brazil. Brazil is the World Cup. Theres no other country
that embodies the beauty of football like Brazil. It makes total sense. We have
plans for the Paralympic Games, too. Thats in Brazil also. Dont worry, well be
there.
A new study from Karolinska Institutet in Sweden shows that a part of the nervous
system, the parasympathetic nervous system, is formed in a way that is different
from what researchers previously believed. In this study, which is published in the
journal Science, a new phenomenon is investigated within the field of
developmental biology, and the findings may lead to new medical treatments for
congenital disorders of the nervous system.
Almost all of the body's functions are controlled by the autonomous, involuntary
nervous system, for example the heart and blood vessels, liver and
gastrointestinal system. At rest, the body is set up for energy saving functions,
which is regulated by the parasympathetic part of the autonomous nervous

system. Current understanding is that many important types of cells, including the
parasympathetic nerve cells in various organs, originate in early progenitor cells
that move short distances while the embryo is still small. But this model does not
explain how many of our organs -- which develop relatively late, when the embryo
is large -- are furnished with cells that form the parasympathetic neurons.
This study alters a fundamental principal of our understanding of how the
peripheral nervous system develops in the body. Researchers at Karolinska
Institutet have made three-dimensional reconstructions of mouse embryos. These
show that the parasympathetic neurons are formed from immature glial cells
known as Schwann cell precursors that travel along the peripheral nerves out to
the body's tissues and organs. The immature cells have the properties of stem
cells and may be the origin of several different types of cells. For example, the
researchers behind this new study have previously demonstrated that the
majority of our melanocytes (pigment cells) are born from these cells.
"Our study focuses on a new principal of developmental biology, a targeted
recruitment of cells that are probably also used in the reconstruction of tissue.
Despite the elegance, simplicity and beauty of this principal, it is still unclear how
the number of parasympathetic neurons is controlled and why only some of the
cells transported by nerves are transformed into that which becomes an
important part of the nervous system," says Igor Adameyko at the Department of
Physiology and Pharmacology who, together with Patrik Ernfors at the
Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, is responsible for the study.
Somewhat surprisingly, the researchers found that the entire parasympathetic
nervous system arises from these progenitor cells that travel along the peripheral
nerves. The researchers hope that this discovery will open up the possibility of
new ways to treat congenital disorders of the autonomous nervous system using
regenerative medicine.
An advance has been achieved towards next generation ultrasonic imaging with
potentially 1,000 times higher resolution than today's medical ultrasounds.
Researchers with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)'s Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have demonstrated a technique for producing,

detecting and controlling ultrahigh frequency sound waves at the nanometer


scale.
Through a combination of subpicosecond laser pulses and unique nanostructures,
a team led by Xiang Zhang, a faculty scientist with Berkeley Lab's Materials
Sciences Division, produced acoustic phonons -- quasi-particles of vibrational
energy that move through an atomic lattice as sound waves -- at a frequency of 10
gigahertz (10 billion cycles per second). By comparison, medical ultrasounds today
typically reach a frequency of only about 20 megahertz (20 million cycles per
second.) The 10GHz phonons not only promise unprecedented resolution for
acoustic imaging, they also can be used to "see" subsurface structures in
nanoscale systems that optical and electron microscopes cannot.
"We have demonstrated optical coherent manipulation and detection of the
acoustic phonons in nanostructures that offer new possibilities in the
development of coherent phonon sources and nano-phononic devices for
chemical sensing, thermal energy management and communications," says Zhang,
who also holds the Ernest S. Kuh Endowed Chair Professor at the University of
California (UC) Berkeley. In addition, he directs the National Science Foundation's
Nano-scale Science and Engineering Center, and is a member of the Kavli Energy
NanoSciences Institute at Berkeley.
Zhang is the corresponding author of a paper describing this research in Nature
Communications. The paper is titled "Ultrafast Acousto-plasmonic Control and
Sensing in Complex Nanostructures." The lead authors are Kevin O'Brien and
Norberto Daniel Lanzillotti-Kimura, members of Zhang's research group. Other coauthors are Junsuk Rho, Haim Suchowski and Xiaobo Yin.
Acoustic imaging offers certain advantages over optical imaging. The ability of
sound waves to safely pass through biological tissue has made sonograms a
popular medical diagnostic tool. Sound waves have also become a valuable tool
for the non-destructive testing of materials. In recent years, ultrahigh frequency
sound waves have been the subject of intense scientific study. Phonons at GHz
frequencies can pass through materials that are opaque to photons, the particles
that carry light. Ultrahigh frequency phonons also travel at the small wavelengths
that yield a sharper resolution in ultrasound imaging.

Xiang Zhang, Haim Suchowski and Kevin O'Brien were part of the team that
produced, detected and controlled ultrahigh frequency sound waves at the
nanometer scale. (Photo by Roy Kaltschmidt)
The biggest challenge has been to find effective ways of generating, detecting and
controlling ultrahigh frequency sound waves. Zhang, O'Brien, Lanzillotti-Kimura
and their colleagues were able to meet this challenge through the design of
nanostructures that support multiple modes of both phonons and plasmons. A
plasmon is a wave that rolls through the conduction electrons on the surface of a
metal.
"Through the interplay between phonons and localized surface plasmons, we can
detect the spatial properties of complex phonon modes below the optical
wavelength," O'Brien says. "This allows us to detect complex nanomechanical
dynamics using polarization-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy."
Plasmons can be used to confine light in subwavelength dimensions and are
considered to be good candidates for manipulating nanoscale mechanical motion
because of their large absorption cross-sections, subwavelength field localization,
and high sensitivity to geometry and refractive index changes.
"To generate 10 GHz acoustic frequencies in our plasmonic nanostructures we use
a technique known as picosecond ultrasonics," O'Brien says. "Sub-picosecond
pulses of laser light excite plasmons which dissipate their energy as heat. The
nanostructure rapidly expands and generates coherent acoustic phonons. This
process transduces photons from the laser into coherent phonons."
To detect these coherent phonons, a second laser pulse is used to excite probe
surface plasmons. As these plasmons move across the surface of the
nanostructure, their resonance frequency shifts as the nanostructure geometry
becomes distorted by the phonons. This enables the researchers to optically
detect mechanical motion on the nanoscale.
"We're able to sense ultrafast motion along the different axes of our
nanostructures simply by rotating the polarization of the probe pulse," says
Lanzillotti-Kimura. "Since we've shown that the polarization of the pump pulse
doesn't make a difference in our nanostructures due to hot electron diffusion, we

can tailor the phonon modes which are excited by designing the symmetry of the
nanostructure."
When the two arms of this Swiss-cross nanostructure oscillate in phase,
symmetric phonons are produced. When the arms oscillate out of phase, antisymmetric phonons are generated. The differences enable the detection of
nanoscale motion.
The plasmonic nanostructures that Zhang, O'Brien, Lanzillotti-Kimura and their
colleagues designed are made of gold and shaped like a Swiss-cross. Each cross is
35 nanometers thick with horizontal and vertical arm lengths of 120 and 90
nanometers, respectively. When the two arms oscillate in phase, the crosses
generate symmetric phonons. When the arms oscillate out of phase, antisymmetric phonons are generated.
"The phase differences in the phonon modes produce an interference effect that
allow us to distinguish between symmetric and anti-symmetric phonon modes
using localized surface plasmons," O'Brien says. "Being able to generate and
detect phonon modes with different symmetries or spatial distributions in a
structure improves our ability to detect nanoscale motion and is a step towards
some potential applications of ultrahigh frequency acoustic phonons."
By allowing researchers to selectively excite and detect GHz mechanical motion,
the Swiss-cross design of the plasmonic nanostructures provides the control and
sensing capabilities needed for ultrahigh frequency acoustic imaging. For the
material sciences, the acoustic vibrations can be used as nanoscale "hammers" to
impose physical strains along different axes at ultrahigh frequencies. This strain
can then be detected by observing the plasmonic response. Zhang and his
research group are planning to use these nanoscale hammers to generate and
detect ultrafast vibrations in other systems such as two-dimensional materials.
This research was supported by the DOE Office of Science through the Energy
Frontier Research Center program.
one of the most remarkable consequences of the rules in quantum mechanics is
the capability of a quantum particle to penetrate through a potential barrier even
though its energy would not allow for the corresponding classical trajectory. This
is known as the quantum tunnel effect and manifests itself in a multitude of well-

known phenomena. For example, it explains nuclear radioactive decay, fusion


reactions in the interior of stars, and electron transport through quantum dots.
Tunneling also is at the heart of many technical applications, for instance it allows
for imaging of surfaces on the atomic length scale in scanning tunneling
microscopes.
All the above systems have in common that they essentially represent the very
fundamental paradigm of the tunnel effect: a single particle that penetrates
through a single barrier. Now, the team of Hanns-Christoph Ngerl, Institute for
Experimental Physics of the University of Innsbruck, Austria, has directly observed
tunneling dynamics in a much more intriguing system: They see quantum particles
transmitting through a whole series of up to five potential barriers under
conditions where a single particle could not do the move. Instead the particles
need to help each other via their strong mutual interactions and via an effect
known as Bose enhancement.
In their experiment the scientists place a gas of Cesium atoms at extremely low
temperatures just above absolute zero temperature into a potential landscape
that is deliberately engineered by laser light. This so-called optical lattice forms a
regular and perfect structure constituting the multiple tunneling barriers, similar
to a washboard. As temperatures are so low and thus the atoms' kinetic energies
are so tiny, the only way to move across the washboard is via tunneling through
the barriers. The tunneling motion is initiated by applying a directed force onto
the atoms along one of the lattice axes, that is, by tilting the washboard. It is now
one of the crucial points in the experiment that the physicists control through
how many barriers the particles penetrate by the interplay between the
interaction and the strength of the force in conjunction with Bose enhancement
as a result of the particles' quantum indistinguishability.
Very similar to a massive object moving in Earth's gravitational field, the tunneling
atoms should loose potential energy when they move down the washboard. But
where can they deposit this energy in such a perfect and frictionless
environment? It's the interaction energy between the atoms when they share the
same site of the lattice that compensates for the potential energy. As a result, the

physicists found that the tunneling motion leads to discrete resonances


corresponding to the number of barriers the particles penetrate through.
It is left for the future to explore the role of such long-range tunneling processes
for lattice systems with ultracold atoms in the context of quantum simulation and
quantum information processing, or for different physical settings, for instance
electronic quantum devices, molecular or even biological systems.
Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, have discovered that
oxytocin -- a hormone associated with maternal nurturing, social attachments,
childbirth and sex -- is indispensable for healthy muscle maintenance and repair,
and that in mice, it declines with age.
The new study published in the journal Nature Communications, presents
oxytocin as the latest treatment target for age-related muscle wasting, or
sarcopenia.
A few other biochemical factors in blood have been connected to aging and
disease in recent years, but oxytocin is the first anti-aging molecule identified that
is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for clinical use in humans, the
researchers said. Pitocin, a synthetic form of oxytocin, is already used to help with
labor and to control bleeding after childbirth. Clinical trials of an oxytocin nasal
spray are also underway to alleviate symptoms associated with mental disorders
such as autism, schizophrenia and dementia.
"Unfortunately, most of the molecules discovered so far to boost tissue
regeneration are also associated with cancer, limiting their potential as
treatments for humans," said study principal investigator Irina Conboy, associate
professor of bioengineering. "Our quest is to find a molecule that not only
rejuvenates old muscle and other tissue, but that can do so sustainably long-term
without increasing the risk of cancer."
Conboy and her research team say that oxytocin, secreted into the blood by the
brain's pituitary gland, is a good candidate because it is a broad range hormone
that reaches every organ, and it is not known to be associated with tumors or to
interfere with the immune system.
A happy hormone

Oxytocin is sometimes referred to as the "trust hormone" because of its


association with romance and friendship. It is released with a warm hug, a
grasped hand or a loving gaze, and it increases libido. The hormone kicks into high
gear during and after childbirth, helping new mothers bond with and breastfeed
their new babies.
"This is the hormone that makes your heart melt when you see kittens, puppies
and human babies," said Conboy, who is also a member of the Berkeley Stem Cell
Center and of the California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences (QB3). "There is
an ongoing joke among my research team that we're all happy, friendly and
trusting because oxytocin permeates the lab."
The researchers pointed out that while oxytocin is found in both young boys and
girls, it is not yet known when levels of the hormone start to decline in humans,
and what levels are necessary for maintaining healthy tissues.
Christian Elabd and Wendy Cousin, both senior scientists in Conboy's lab, were colead authors on this study.
Previous research by Elabd found that administering oxytocin helped prevent the
development of osteoporosis in mice that had their ovaries removed to mimic
menopause.
Extra oxytocin more beneficial for the old
The new study determined that in mice, blood levels of oxytocin declined with
age. They also showed that there are fewer receptors for oxytocin in muscle stem
cells in old versus young mice.
To tease out oxytocin's role in muscle repair, the researchers injected the
hormone under the skin of old mice for four days, and then for five days more
after the muscles were injured. After the nine-day treatment, they found that the
muscles of the mice that had received oxytocin injections healed far better than
those of a control group of mice without oxytocin.
"The action of oxytocin was fast," said Elabd. "The repair of muscle in the old mice
was at about 80 percent of what we saw in the young mice."
Interestingly, giving young mice an extra boost of oxytocin did not seem to cause
a significant change in muscle regeneration.

"This is good because it demonstrates that extra oxytocin boosts aged tissue stem
cells without making muscle stem cells divide uncontrollably," Cousin added.
The researchers also found that blocking the effects of oxytocin in young mice
rapidly compromised their ability to repair muscle, which resembled old tissue
after an injury.
The researchers also studied mice whose gene for oxytocin was disabled, and
compared them with a group of control mice. At a young age, there was no
significant difference between the two groups in muscle mass or repair efficiency
after an injury. It wasn't until the mice with the disabled oxytocin gene reached
adulthood that signs of premature aging began to appear.
"When disabling other types of genes associated with tissue repair, defects
appear right away either during embryonic development, or early in life," said
Conboy. "To our knowledge, the oxytocin gene is the only one whose impact is
seen later in life, suggesting that its role is closely linked to the aging process."
Future treatment options
Cousin noted that oxytocin could become a viable alternative to hormone
replacement therapy as a way to combat the symptoms of both female and male
aging, and for long-term health. Hormone therapy did not show improvements in
agility or muscle regeneration ability, and it is no longer recommended for disease
prevention because research has found that the therapy's benefits did not
outweigh its health risks.
In addition to healthy muscle, oxytocin is predicted to improve bone health, and it
might be important in combating obesity.
Conboy said her lab plans to examine oxytocin's role in extending a healthy life in
animals, and in conserving its beneficial anti-aging effects in humans.
She noted that there is a growing circle of scientists who believe that aging is the
underlying cause of a number of chronic diseases, including Parkinson's and Type
2 diabetes.
"If you target processes associated with aging, you may be tackling those diseases
at the same time," said Conboy. "Aging is a natural process, but I believe that we
can meaningfully intervene with age-imposed organ degeneration, thereby
slowing down the rate at which we become progressively unhealthy."

U.S. Condemns 'Targeted Attacks On Civilians'


New York The USA has called on all armed groups in Sudan to cease the attacks
against civilians and comply with international law. A few days after the USA, the
United Kingdom, and Norway, released a joint statement in which they hold he
Sudanese government responsible for intensifying conflicts and targeting civilians
in Darfur, South Kordofan and Blue Nile, the US Permanent Representative to the
UN, Ambassador Samantha Power, issued a press release denouncing the "targeted
attacks on civilians" by the Sudanese government.
The USA "condemns in the strongest possible terms the attacks by the Government
of Sudan and its Rapid Support Forces (RSF) against civilians in South Kordofan and
Blue Nile," the press release issued today (Thursday) states. "Since April, not only
have ground attacks on, and the shelling of, civilian populations increased, but the
Government of Sudan has intensified its air campaign, dropping hundreds of barrel
bombs and other ordinance on Sudanese towns and villages, deliberately targeting
hospitals and schools.
"We are also disturbed by recent reports of aerial bombings targeting civilian
humanitarian assistance workers - which, if accurate, would be a serious violation
of international law and would compound the impediments that the government
has already placed on the delivery of humanitarian assistance to those in need.
"The rise in violence in South Kordofan and Blue Nile has displaced or severely
affected approximately 1.2 million people; it has increased the population's
vulnerability to disease and malnutrition, and it has disrupted planting cycles,
which will only compound food insecurity in the regions. Non-governmental
organisations operating in Sudan report that the RSF have looted and destroyed
food and water supplies in areas recaptured from opposition forces; the
Government of Sudan has denied humanitarian access to rebel-held areas since the
conflict began nearly three years ago. We have also seen these tactics used
recently in Darfur, displacing over 300,000 people this year.
"The United States calls on all armed groups in Sudan to cease all violence against
civilians and comply with international law. We note the Government of Sudan has
a special responsibility in this regard as it is charged with the protection of its
citizens. We urge the international community and the UN Security Council to

ensure that those responsible for these attacks on civilians are held accountable
and that all available mechanisms for doing so are effectively utilised.

Thousands Flee Attacks in Korma, North Darfur


On 4 and 5 June militia elements attacked a local market and a village in the area of
Korma, El Fasher locality in North Darfur. Residents of villages in the area fled to
what now is called Shooba camp, near the Unamid team site in Korma.
According to a local aid organisation, 9,200 villagers sought refuge at Shooba near
the team site after the June attacks, the UN Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) in Sudan reported in its latest weekly bulletin.
Earlier in March, an estimated 8,800 people also sought shelter at the camp.
Unamid reports that approximately 18,000 people are currently displaced near the
Unamid Korma team site and are in dire need of humanitarian assistance,
especially food, shelter, water, and sanitation. As a life-saving measure, Unamid is
currently supplying water to the new arrivals. An inter-agency mission is scheduled
for 11 June 2014 to assess the situation and the needs of the new displaced, OCHA
reported.
An activist at Shooba, however, told Radio Dabanga, that the North Darfur State
authorities have prevented aid organisations to provide relief items to the
displaced. "They said that they do not want any new camps for the displaced in the
state. By prohibiting the supply of aid to the displaced, they hope that they will
leave the place and return to their villages, while there is absolutely no security."
According to OCHA, the latest group of displaced people in Korma join an estimated
246,000 people in Darfur who, since January, have had to flee their homes and are
unable to return. Some 127,000 people who have been displaced since January
have now returned to their areas of origin. The cumulative number of displaced in
Darfur in 2014 is approximately 373,000 people until now, close to the total
number of people displaced in 2013.

Urgent Statement ACS Condemns the Detention of Ibrahim Al-Sheikh


Arab Coalition for Sudan (ACS) condemns the detention of Ibrahim Al-sheikh, the
leader of the National Congress Party (opposition party), due to his inspection visit
to the two states of West and South Kordofan with some leaders from his party.

ACS expresses its deep concern over the arbitrary procedures of the authorities in
bringing Ibrahim Al-sheikh before a prompt trial so as to force him to legal
confessions over charges that may lead to death penalty; meanwhile his lawyer was
prevented from entering the courtroom.
The detention of Ibrahim Al-sheikh and NCP leaders and the previous detention of
Al-sadiq Al-mahdi, the head of Umma National party and the Imam of the Ansar, as
well as other politicians, is a flagrant violation of civil and political rights guaranteed
in the constitution and stated in international human rights conventions. ACS
empresses its deep concern of using the law to justify oppression actions on
civilians or deprive them of freedoms, especially, freedom of opinion and
expression under the pretext of imposing the authority of the state.
The governing regime launched a national dialogue process to find solutions to the
country's crises late April, but the regime actions in detention, prohibition of
freedoms, closures of newspapers, may undermine the national dialogue and prove
the government unwillingness to achieve a comprehensive reconciliation that
enhances security and stability.
ACS demands prompt release of all political detainees; otherwise they should be
brought before fair trials, it also calls on free media at home and abroad to
continue their pressure on the governing regime in order to adhere to the
constitution and to implement the values of justice.