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Definitions related to Direct Design Method:(i) Frames: Slab is considered to be a series of frames in two directions.

(ii) Panel (ACI 13.2.3): A panel is bounded by column, beam, or wall centerlines on all sides. A panel
includes all flexural elements between column centerlines
(iii)Column Strip (ACI 13.2.1): Column strip is a design strip with a width on each side of a column
centerline equal to 0.25l2 or 0.25l1, whichever is less. Column strip includes beams, if any.
(iv) l1: l1 is the length of span in direction that moments are being determined, measured center-to-center
of supports.
(v) l2: l2 is the length of span transverse to l1, measured center-to-center of supports.
(vi) Middle strips (ACI 13.2.2): Middle strip is a design strip bounded by two column strips

Distribution of Moments
Total static Moment, Mo (ACI 13.6.2): The total static moment for a span length
ln and width l2 of a given frame is given by ACI equation 13-3 as:
M0
Where,
Wu = Factored load per unit area.
ln = length of clear span in direction that moments are being determined, measured face-to-face of
supports.

l2 = As defined above. However, two exceptional cases as defined by ACI are given below:

ACI 13.6.2.3 where the transverse span of panels on either side of the centerline of supports varies, l2
in Eq. (13-3) shall be taken as the average of adjacent transverse spans.
ACI 13.6.2.4 when the span adjacent and parallel to an edge is being considered, the distance from
edge to panel centerline shall be substituted for l2 in Eq. (13-3).
ln is defined by ACI as given below:
ACI 13.6.2.5 clear span ln shall extend from face to face of columns, capitals, brackets, or walls. Value
of ln used in Eq. (13-3) shall not be less than 0.65l1. Circular or regular polygon shaped supports shall be
treated as square supports with the same area. (ACI 13-3)

ACI R13.6.2.5 if a supporting member does not have a rectangular cross section or if the
sides of the rectangle are not parallel to the spans, it is to be treated as a square support having
the same area, as illustrated in Fig. R13.6.2.5

In taking the values of ln, l1 and l2, the following clauses are to be carefully noted:
(a) Circular supports shall be treated as square supports having the same area i.e., squares of size
0.886D.
(b) When the transverse span of the panel on either side of the centre line of support varies, l2 shall

be taken as the average of the transverse spans.

When the span adjacent and parallel to an edge is being considered, the distance from the edge
to the centre-line of the panel shall be substituted for L2

Longitudinal Distribution of Static Moment


In an Interior Panel
Negative Design Moment 0.65 M0
Positive Design Moment 0.35 M0
The total design moment M0 in a panel is to be distributed into Negative moment and Positive moment as
specified below:
In the End Span

Interior negative design moment


Positive Design Moment

= [

]M0

]M0

=[

Exterior Negative Moment

]M0

Kc = Sum of the flexural stiffness of the columns meeting at the joint; and
Ks = Flexural stiffness of the slab, expressed as moment per unit rotation .