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Nepal

This article is about the country. For other uses, see Nepal (disambiguation).

Nepal ( i /nəˈpɔːl/ nə-PAWL; [8] Nepali: नेपाल [neˈpal] ( )), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, [9] is a landlocked country located in South Asia. With an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 27 million, [2] Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by land mass [10] and the 41st most populous country. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China, and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India. Specifically, the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal, and Sikkim border Nepal, whereas across the Himalayas lies the Tibet Autonomous Region. Nepal is separated from Bangladesh by the narrow Indian Siliguri Corridor. Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and largest metropolis.

Nepal This article is about the country. For other uses, see <a href=Nepal (disambiguation) . Nepal ( / nəˈpɔːl / nə- PAWL ; Nepali : नेपाल [neˈpal] ( ) ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal , is a landlocked country located in South Asia . With an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 27 million, Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by land mass and the 41st most populous country. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China , and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India . Specifically, the Indian states of Uttarakhand , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar , West Bengal , and Sikkim border Nepal, whereas across the Himalayas lies the Tibet Autonomous Region . Nepal is separated from Bangladesh by the narrow Indian Siliguri Corridor . Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and largest metropolis. The mountainous north of Nepal has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains , including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest , called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा) in the Nepali language . More than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level are located in Nepal. The southern Terai region is fertile and humid. Hinduism is practiced by about 81.3% of Nepalis, mak- ing it the country with the highest percentage of Hindus. Buddhism is linked historically with Nepal and is prac- ticed by 9%, Islam by 4.4%, Kiratism 3.1%, Christianity 1.4%, and animism 0.4%. A large portion of the popu- lation, especially in the hill region, may identify them- selves as both Hindu and Buddhist, which can be at- tributed to the s y ncretic nature of Hinduism and Bud- dhism in Nepal. A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings from 1768 — when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms until 2008. A decade-long Civil War involving the Communist Party of Nepal and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12-point agreement of 22 November 2005. The ensuing elec- tions for the 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly on 28 May 2008 overwhelmingly favored the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic . The political parties of Nepal agreed to form an in- terim government under the leadership of Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi in order to hold elections for the Con- stituent Assembly by 19 November 2013 to end a po- litical deadlock. The election was held success- fully and the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly was sworn in, with Sushil Koirala appointed as the new prime minister. In 2014, Nepal ranked 145th of 187 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI) and despite several challenges, Nepal has been making steady progress and the Government of Nepal have made commitment to help the nation to graduate towards one of the more developed nations by 2022. 1 Etymology Local legends say that a Hindu sage named “Ne” estab- lished himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times and that the word “Nepal” came into existence as the place protected (“pala” in pali ) by the sage “Ne”. Ac- cording to the Skanda Purana , a rishi called “Ne” or “Ne- muni” used to live in Himalaya. In the Pashupati Pu- rana , he is mentioned as a saint and a protector. He is said to have practised meditation at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers and to have taught there. 2 History Main article: History of Nepal 2.1 Ancient Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic text, Athar- vaveda Parisista as a place exporting blankets, and in the post-Vedic Atharva Siras Upanisad. In Samu- dragupta’s Allahabad inscription it is mentioned as a bor- dering country. The 'Skanda Purana' has a separate chap- ter known as 'Nepal Mahatmya', which " explains in more details about the beauty and power of Nepal. " Nepal is also mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja . According to Gopal Vansawali, the genealogy of Nepalese monarchy, the earliest settlers in Nepal were Gopalas , followed by Mahispala, followed by Kirata . Tibeto-Burman people probably lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago. However, there is no archaeologic evi- dence of Gopala, Mahispala or Kirata rulers other than 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-60" src="pdf-obj-0-60.jpg">
Nepal This article is about the country. For other uses, see <a href=Nepal (disambiguation) . Nepal ( / nəˈpɔːl / nə- PAWL ; Nepali : नेपाल [neˈpal] ( ) ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal , is a landlocked country located in South Asia . With an area of 147,181 square kilometres (56,827 sq mi) and a population of approximately 27 million, Nepal is the world’s 93rd largest country by land mass and the 41st most populous country. It is located in the Himalayas and bordered to the north by the People’s Republic of China , and to the south, east, and west by the Republic of India . Specifically, the Indian states of Uttarakhand , Uttar Pradesh , Bihar , West Bengal , and Sikkim border Nepal, whereas across the Himalayas lies the Tibet Autonomous Region . Nepal is separated from Bangladesh by the narrow Indian Siliguri Corridor . Kathmandu is the nation’s capital and largest metropolis. The mountainous north of Nepal has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains , including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest , called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा) in the Nepali language . More than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level are located in Nepal. The southern Terai region is fertile and humid. Hinduism is practiced by about 81.3% of Nepalis, mak- ing it the country with the highest percentage of Hindus. Buddhism is linked historically with Nepal and is prac- ticed by 9%, Islam by 4.4%, Kiratism 3.1%, Christianity 1.4%, and animism 0.4%. A large portion of the popu- lation, especially in the hill region, may identify them- selves as both Hindu and Buddhist, which can be at- tributed to the s y ncretic nature of Hinduism and Bud- dhism in Nepal. A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings from 1768 — when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms until 2008. A decade-long Civil War involving the Communist Party of Nepal and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12-point agreement of 22 November 2005. The ensuing elec- tions for the 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly on 28 May 2008 overwhelmingly favored the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic . The political parties of Nepal agreed to form an in- terim government under the leadership of Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi in order to hold elections for the Con- stituent Assembly by 19 November 2013 to end a po- litical deadlock. The election was held success- fully and the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly was sworn in, with Sushil Koirala appointed as the new prime minister. In 2014, Nepal ranked 145th of 187 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI) and despite several challenges, Nepal has been making steady progress and the Government of Nepal have made commitment to help the nation to graduate towards one of the more developed nations by 2022. 1 Etymology Local legends say that a Hindu sage named “Ne” estab- lished himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times and that the word “Nepal” came into existence as the place protected (“pala” in pali ) by the sage “Ne”. Ac- cording to the Skanda Purana , a rishi called “Ne” or “Ne- muni” used to live in Himalaya. In the Pashupati Pu- rana , he is mentioned as a saint and a protector. He is said to have practised meditation at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers and to have taught there. 2 History Main article: History of Nepal 2.1 Ancient Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic text, Athar- vaveda Parisista as a place exporting blankets, and in the post-Vedic Atharva Siras Upanisad. In Samu- dragupta’s Allahabad inscription it is mentioned as a bor- dering country. The 'Skanda Purana' has a separate chap- ter known as 'Nepal Mahatmya', which " explains in more details about the beauty and power of Nepal. " Nepal is also mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja . According to Gopal Vansawali, the genealogy of Nepalese monarchy, the earliest settlers in Nepal were Gopalas , followed by Mahispala, followed by Kirata . Tibeto-Burman people probably lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago. However, there is no archaeologic evi- dence of Gopala, Mahispala or Kirata rulers other than 1 " id="pdf-obj-0-62" src="pdf-obj-0-62.jpg">

The mountainous north of Nepal has eight of the world’s ten tallest mountains, including the highest point on Earth, Mount Everest, called Sagarmatha (सगरमाथा) in the Nepali language. More than 240 peaks over 20,000 ft (6,096 m) above sea level are located in Nepal. [11] The southern Terai region is fertile and humid.

Hinduism is practiced by about 81.3% of Nepalis, mak- ing it the country with the highest percentage of Hindus. Buddhism is linked historically with Nepal and is prac- ticed by 9%, Islam by 4.4%, Kiratism 3.1%, Christianity 1.4%, [2] and animism 0.4%. A large portion of the popu- lation, especially in the hill region, may identify them- selves as both Hindu and Buddhist, which can be at- tributed to the syncretic nature of Hinduism and Bud- dhism in Nepal. [12]

A monarchy throughout most of its history, Nepal was ruled by the Shah dynasty of kings from 1768 — when Prithvi Narayan Shah unified its many small kingdoms [1] until 2008. A decade-long Civil War involving the Communist Party of Nepal and several weeks of mass protests by all major political parties led to the 12-point agreement [13] of 22 November 2005. The ensuing elec- tions for the 1st Nepalese Constituent Assembly on 28 May 2008 overwhelmingly favored the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a federal multiparty representative democratic republic.

The political parties of Nepal agreed to form an in- terim government under the leadership of Chief Justice Khil Raj Regmi in order to hold elections for the Con- stituent Assembly by 19 November 2013 to end a po-

litical deadlock. [14][15] The election was held success- fully and the 2nd Nepalese Constituent Assembly was sworn in, with Sushil Koirala appointed as the new prime

minister. [16][17]

In 2014, Nepal ranked 145th of 187 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI) and despite several challenges, Nepal has been making steady progress and the Government of Nepal have made commitment to help the nation to graduate towards one of the more developed nations by 2022. [18][19]

  • 1 Etymology

Local legends say that a Hindu sage named “Ne” estab- lished himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times and that the word “Nepal” came into existence as the place protected (“pala” in pali) by the sage “Ne”. Ac- cording to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called “Ne” or “Ne- muni” used to live in Himalaya. [20] In the Pashupati Pu- rana, he is mentioned as a saint and a protector. [21] He is said to have practised meditation at the Bagmati and Kesavati rivers [22] and to have taught there. [23]

  • 2 History

Main article: History of Nepal

2.1 Ancient

Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic text, Athar- vaveda Parisista as a place exporting blankets, and in the post-Vedic Atharva Siras Upanisad. [24] In Samu- dragupta’s Allahabad inscription it is mentioned as a bor- dering country. The 'Skanda Purana' has a separate chap- ter known as 'Nepal Mahatmya', which "explains in more details about the beauty and power of Nepal." Nepal is also mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja. [24]

According to Gopal Vansawali, the genealogy of Nepalese monarchy, the earliest settlers in Nepal were Gopalas, followed by Mahispala, followed by Kirata. [25] Tibeto-Burman people probably lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago. [25] However, there is no archaeologic evi- dence of Gopala, Mahispala or Kirata rulers other than

1

2

2 HISTORY

2 2 HISTORY <a href=Lumbini , listed as the birthplace of Buddha by the UNESCO World Heritage Convention later documents (Lichchavi and Malla era) mentioning them. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang , dating from c . 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal. The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century, probably due to Tibetan dominance, and was fol- lowed by Thakuri era, from 879 CE ( Nepal Samvat 1), although the extent of their control over the country is uncertain. In the 11th century it seems to have included the Pokhara area. Former royal palace at Basantapur , Kathmandu 2.3 Kingdom of Nepal Main article: Kingdom of Nepal In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah , a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present- day Nepal. He embarked on his mission after seeking arms and aid from India and buying the neutrality of bor- dering Indian kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur , he managed to con- quer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. A detailed account of Prithvi Narayan Shah’s victory was written by Father Giuseppe who was an eyewitness to the war. 2.2 Medieval Main article: Malla (Nepal) In the early 12th century, leaders emerged in far western Nepal whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla (“wrestler”). These kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200 years, until the kingdom splin- tered into two dozen petty states. Another Malla dy- nasty, beginning with Jayasthiti, emerged in the Kath- mandu valley in the late 14th century, and much of central Nepal again came under a unified rule. However, in 1482 the realm was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan , and Bhaktapur . Hindu temples in Patan , capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms The Gorkha dominion reached its height when the north- ern India territories of Kumaon and Garhwal in the west to Sikkim in the east became under Nepal rule. At its maximum extent, Greater Nepal extended from the Tista River in the east, to Kangara , across the Sutlej River in the west as well as further south into the Terai plains and north of the Himalayas than at present. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Chinese Qing Emperor in Peking (now Beijing ) to start the Sino-Nepalese War " id="pdf-obj-1-7" src="pdf-obj-1-7.jpg">

Lumbini, listed as the birthplace of Buddha by the UNESCO World Heritage Convention

later documents (Lichchavi and Malla era) mentioning them. [26]

There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from c. 645 CE. [27][28] Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.

The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century, probably due to Tibetan dominance, and was fol- lowed by Thakuri era, from 879 CE (Nepal Samvat 1), although the extent of their control over the country is uncertain. In the 11th century it seems to have included the Pokhara area.

2 2 HISTORY <a href=Lumbini , listed as the birthplace of Buddha by the UNESCO World Heritage Convention later documents (Lichchavi and Malla era) mentioning them. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang , dating from c . 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal. The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century, probably due to Tibetan dominance, and was fol- lowed by Thakuri era, from 879 CE ( Nepal Samvat 1), although the extent of their control over the country is uncertain. In the 11th century it seems to have included the Pokhara area. Former royal palace at Basantapur , Kathmandu 2.3 Kingdom of Nepal Main article: Kingdom of Nepal In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah , a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present- day Nepal. He embarked on his mission after seeking arms and aid from India and buying the neutrality of bor- dering Indian kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur , he managed to con- quer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. A detailed account of Prithvi Narayan Shah’s victory was written by Father Giuseppe who was an eyewitness to the war. 2.2 Medieval Main article: Malla (Nepal) In the early 12th century, leaders emerged in far western Nepal whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla (“wrestler”). These kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200 years, until the kingdom splin- tered into two dozen petty states. Another Malla dy- nasty, beginning with Jayasthiti, emerged in the Kath- mandu valley in the late 14th century, and much of central Nepal again came under a unified rule. However, in 1482 the realm was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan , and Bhaktapur . Hindu temples in Patan , capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms The Gorkha dominion reached its height when the north- ern India territories of Kumaon and Garhwal in the west to Sikkim in the east became under Nepal rule. At its maximum extent, Greater Nepal extended from the Tista River in the east, to Kangara , across the Sutlej River in the west as well as further south into the Terai plains and north of the Himalayas than at present. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Chinese Qing Emperor in Peking (now Beijing ) to start the Sino-Nepalese War " id="pdf-obj-1-31" src="pdf-obj-1-31.jpg">

Former royal palace at Basantapur, Kathmandu

  • 2.3 Kingdom of Nepal

Main article: Kingdom of Nepal

In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah, a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present- day Nepal. He embarked on his mission after seeking arms and aid from India and buying the neutrality of bor- dering Indian kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur, he managed to con- quer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. A detailed account of Prithvi Narayan Shah’s victory was written by Father Giuseppe who was an eyewitness to the war. [29]

2 2 HISTORY <a href=Lumbini , listed as the birthplace of Buddha by the UNESCO World Heritage Convention later documents (Lichchavi and Malla era) mentioning them. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang , dating from c . 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal. The Licchavi dynasty went into decline in the late eighth century, probably due to Tibetan dominance, and was fol- lowed by Thakuri era, from 879 CE ( Nepal Samvat 1), although the extent of their control over the country is uncertain. In the 11th century it seems to have included the Pokhara area. Former royal palace at Basantapur , Kathmandu 2.3 Kingdom of Nepal Main article: Kingdom of Nepal In the mid-18th century, Prithvi Narayan Shah , a Gorkha king, set out to put together what would become present- day Nepal. He embarked on his mission after seeking arms and aid from India and buying the neutrality of bor- dering Indian kingdoms. After several bloody battles and sieges, notably the Battle of Kirtipur , he managed to con- quer the Kathmandu Valley in 1769. A detailed account of Prithvi Narayan Shah’s victory was written by Father Giuseppe who was an eyewitness to the war. 2.2 Medieval Main article: Malla (Nepal) In the early 12th century, leaders emerged in far western Nepal whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla (“wrestler”). These kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200 years, until the kingdom splin- tered into two dozen petty states. Another Malla dy- nasty, beginning with Jayasthiti, emerged in the Kath- mandu valley in the late 14th century, and much of central Nepal again came under a unified rule. However, in 1482 the realm was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan , and Bhaktapur . Hindu temples in Patan , capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms The Gorkha dominion reached its height when the north- ern India territories of Kumaon and Garhwal in the west to Sikkim in the east became under Nepal rule. At its maximum extent, Greater Nepal extended from the Tista River in the east, to Kangara , across the Sutlej River in the west as well as further south into the Terai plains and north of the Himalayas than at present. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Chinese Qing Emperor in Peking (now Beijing ) to start the Sino-Nepalese War " id="pdf-obj-1-52" src="pdf-obj-1-52.jpg">

2.2 Medieval

Main article: Malla (Nepal) In the early 12th century, leaders emerged in far western Nepal whose names ended with the Sanskrit suffix malla (“wrestler”). These kings consolidated their power and ruled over the next 200 years, until the kingdom splin- tered into two dozen petty states. Another Malla dy- nasty, beginning with Jayasthiti, emerged in the Kath- mandu valley in the late 14th century, and much of central Nepal again came under a unified rule. However, in 1482 the realm was divided into three kingdoms: Kathmandu, Patan, and Bhaktapur.

Hindu temples in Patan, capital of one of the three medieval Newar kingdoms

The Gorkha dominion reached its height when the north- ern India territories of Kumaon and Garhwal in the west to Sikkim in the east became under Nepal rule.

At its maximum extent, Greater Nepal extended from the Tista River in the east, to Kangara, across the Sutlej River in the west as well as further south into the Terai plains and north of the Himalayas than at present. A dispute with Tibet over the control of mountain passes and inner Tingri valleys of Tibet forced the Chinese Qing Emperor in Peking (now Beijing) to start the Sino-Nepalese War

2.3

Kingdom of Nepal

3

2.3 Kingdom of Nepal 3 Janaki Mandir, one of the famous temples of Janakpur, Nepal NepaleseBritish East India Com- pany over the annexation of minor states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1815–16). At first the British underestimated the Nepalese and were soundly defeated until committing more military re- sources than they had anticipated needing. They were greatly impressed by the valour and competence of their adversaries. Thus began the reputation of “Gurkhas” as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Treaty of Sugauli , under which Nepal ceded recently captured portions of Sikkim and lands in Terai as well as the right to recruit soldiers. Madheshis , though having supported the British East India Company during the war, had their lands gifted to Nepalese. Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of in- stability. In 1846 a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Ba- hadur Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot Massacre ; armed clashes between military per- sonnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the ex- ecution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Jung Bahadur Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana Lineage and was later known as Jung Bahadur Rana . The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Sepoy Rebellion in 1857 (and later in both World Wars ). Some parts of the Terai Region populated with non-Nepalese peoples were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture, because of her military help to sus- tain British control in India during the Sepoy Rebellion. In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, which superseded the Sugauli Treaty signed in 1816. Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924. Nevertheless debt bondage even involving debtors’ children has been a persistent social problem in the Terai. Rana rule was marked by tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation and religious persecution. In the late 1940s, newly emerging pro-democracy move- ments and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy. Meanwhile, with the invasion of Ti- bet by China in the 1950s, India sought to counterbal- ance the perceived military threat from its northern neigh- bour by taking pre-emptive steps to assert more influence in Nepal. India sponsored both King Tribhuvan (ruled 1911–55) as Nepal’s new ruler in 1951 and a new gov- ernment, mostly comprising the Nepali Congress Party , thus terminating Rana hegemony in the kingdom. After years of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra (ruled 1955–72) scrapped the democratic experiment in 1959, and a “partyless” Panchayat system was made to govern Nepal until 1989, when the “Jan Andolan” (People’s Movement) forced King Birendra (ruled 1972–2001) to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament that took seat in May 1991. In 1991–92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 Bhutanese citizens of Nepali descent, most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since. In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) started a bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people’s republic by violent means. This led to the long Nepal Civil War and more than 12,000 deaths. On 1 June 2001, there was a massacre in the royal palace . King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya , and seven other members of the royal family were killed. The perpetrator was Crown Prince Dipendra , who committed suicide (he died three days later) shortly thereafter. This outburst was alleged to have been Dipendra’s response to his parents’ refusal to accept his choice of wife. Nevertheless there are specula- tion and doubts among Nepalese citizens about who was responsible. Following the carnage, King Birendra’s brother Gyanendra inherited the throne. On 1 February 2005, King Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers to quash the violent Maoist movement, but this initiative was unsuccessful because a stalemate had developed in which the Maoists were firmly entrenched in large expanses of countryside " id="pdf-obj-2-9" src="pdf-obj-2-9.jpg">

Janaki Mandir, one of the famous temples of Janakpur, Nepal

2.3 Kingdom of Nepal 3 Janaki Mandir, one of the famous temples of Janakpur, Nepal NepaleseBritish East India Com- pany over the annexation of minor states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1815–16). At first the British underestimated the Nepalese and were soundly defeated until committing more military re- sources than they had anticipated needing. They were greatly impressed by the valour and competence of their adversaries. Thus began the reputation of “Gurkhas” as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Treaty of Sugauli , under which Nepal ceded recently captured portions of Sikkim and lands in Terai as well as the right to recruit soldiers. Madheshis , though having supported the British East India Company during the war, had their lands gifted to Nepalese. Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of in- stability. In 1846 a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Ba- hadur Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot Massacre ; armed clashes between military per- sonnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the ex- ecution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Jung Bahadur Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana Lineage and was later known as Jung Bahadur Rana . The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Sepoy Rebellion in 1857 (and later in both World Wars ). Some parts of the Terai Region populated with non-Nepalese peoples were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture, because of her military help to sus- tain British control in India during the Sepoy Rebellion. In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, which superseded the Sugauli Treaty signed in 1816. Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924. Nevertheless debt bondage even involving debtors’ children has been a persistent social problem in the Terai. Rana rule was marked by tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation and religious persecution. In the late 1940s, newly emerging pro-democracy move- ments and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy. Meanwhile, with the invasion of Ti- bet by China in the 1950s, India sought to counterbal- ance the perceived military threat from its northern neigh- bour by taking pre-emptive steps to assert more influence in Nepal. India sponsored both King Tribhuvan (ruled 1911–55) as Nepal’s new ruler in 1951 and a new gov- ernment, mostly comprising the Nepali Congress Party , thus terminating Rana hegemony in the kingdom. After years of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra (ruled 1955–72) scrapped the democratic experiment in 1959, and a “partyless” Panchayat system was made to govern Nepal until 1989, when the “Jan Andolan” (People’s Movement) forced King Birendra (ruled 1972–2001) to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament that took seat in May 1991. In 1991–92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 Bhutanese citizens of Nepali descent, most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since. In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) started a bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people’s republic by violent means. This led to the long Nepal Civil War and more than 12,000 deaths. On 1 June 2001, there was a massacre in the royal palace . King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya , and seven other members of the royal family were killed. The perpetrator was Crown Prince Dipendra , who committed suicide (he died three days later) shortly thereafter. This outburst was alleged to have been Dipendra’s response to his parents’ refusal to accept his choice of wife. Nevertheless there are specula- tion and doubts among Nepalese citizens about who was responsible. Following the carnage, King Birendra’s brother Gyanendra inherited the throne. On 1 February 2005, King Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers to quash the violent Maoist movement, but this initiative was unsuccessful because a stalemate had developed in which the Maoists were firmly entrenched in large expanses of countryside " id="pdf-obj-2-13" src="pdf-obj-2-13.jpg">

Nepalese royalty in the 1920s

compelling the Nepalese to retreat and pay heavy repara- tions to Peking.

Rivalry between Nepal and the British East India Com- pany over the annexation of minor states bordering Nepal eventually led to the Anglo-Nepalese War (1815–16). At first the British underestimated the Nepalese and were soundly defeated until committing more military re- sources than they had anticipated needing. They were greatly impressed by the valour and competence of their adversaries. Thus began the reputation of “Gurkhas” as fierce and ruthless soldiers. The war ended in the Treaty of Sugauli, under which Nepal ceded recently captured portions of Sikkim and lands in Terai as well as the right to recruit soldiers. Madheshis, though having supported the British East India Company during the war, had their lands gifted to Nepalese.

Factionalism inside the royal family led to a period of in- stability. In 1846 a plot was discovered revealing that the reigning queen had planned to overthrow Jung Ba- hadur Kunwar, a fast-rising military leader. This led to the Kot Massacre; armed clashes between military per- sonnel and administrators loyal to the queen led to the ex- ecution of several hundred princes and chieftains around the country. Jung Bahadur Kunwar emerged victorious and founded the Rana Lineage and was later known as Jung Bahadur Rana.

The king was made a titular figure, and the post of Prime Minister was made powerful and hereditary. The Ranas were staunchly pro-British and assisted them during the Indian Sepoy Rebellion in 1857 (and later in both World Wars). Some parts of the Terai Region populated with non-Nepalese peoples were gifted to Nepal by the British as a friendly gesture, because of her military help to sus- tain British control in India during the Sepoy Rebellion. In 1923, the United Kingdom and Nepal formally signed an agreement of friendship, which superseded the Sugauli Treaty signed in 1816.

Slavery was abolished in Nepal in 1924. [30] Nevertheless debt bondage even involving debtors’ children has been a persistent social problem in the Terai. Rana rule was marked by tyranny, debauchery, economic exploitation

and religious persecution. [31][32]

In the late 1940s, newly emerging pro-democracy move- ments and political parties in Nepal were critical of the Rana autocracy. Meanwhile, with the invasion of Ti- bet by China in the 1950s, India sought to counterbal- ance the perceived military threat from its northern neigh- bour by taking pre-emptive steps to assert more influence in Nepal. India sponsored both King Tribhuvan (ruled 1911–55) as Nepal’s new ruler in 1951 and a new gov- ernment, mostly comprising the Nepali Congress Party, thus terminating Rana hegemony in the kingdom.

After years of power wrangling between the king and the government, King Mahendra (ruled 1955–72) scrapped the democratic experiment in 1959, and a “partyless” Panchayat system was made to govern Nepal until 1989, when the “Jan Andolan” (People’s Movement) forced King Birendra (ruled 1972–2001) to accept constitutional reforms and to establish a multiparty parliament that took seat in May 1991. [33] In 1991–92, Bhutan expelled roughly 100,000 Bhutanese citizens of Nepali descent, most of whom have been living in seven refugee camps in eastern Nepal ever since. [34]

In 1996, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) started a bid to replace the royal parliamentary system with a people’s republic by violent means. This led to the long Nepal Civil War and more than 12,000 deaths. On 1 June 2001, there was a massacre in the royal palace. King Birendra, Queen Aiswarya, and seven other members of the royal family were killed. The perpetrator was Crown Prince Dipendra, who committed suicide (he died three days later) shortly thereafter. This outburst was alleged to have been Dipendra’s response to his parents’ refusal to accept his choice of wife. Nevertheless there are specula- tion and doubts among Nepalese citizens about who was responsible.

Following the carnage, King Birendra’s brother Gyanendra inherited the throne. On 1 February 2005, King Gyanendra dismissed the entire government and assumed full executive powers to quash the violent Maoist movement, [33] but this initiative was unsuccessful because a stalemate had developed in which the Maoists were firmly entrenched in large expanses of countryside

4

3 GEOGRAPHY

yet could not dislodge the military from numerous towns and the largest cities. In September 2005, the Maoists declared a three-month unilateral ceasefire to negotiate.

In response to the 2006 democracy movement King Gya- nendra agreed to relinquish sovereign power to the peo- ple. On 24 April 2006 the dissolved House of Represen- tatives was reinstated. Using its newly acquired sovereign authority, on 18 May 2006 the House of Representatives unanimously voted to curtail the power of the king and declared Nepal a secular state, ending its time-honoured official status as a Hindu Kingdom. On 28 December 2007, a bill was passed in parliament to amend Article 159 of the constitution – replacing “Provisions regard- ing the King” by “Provisions of the Head of the State” –

declaring Nepal a federal republic, and thereby abolish- ing the monarchy. [35] The bill came into force on 28 May

  • 2008. [36]

separation of powers, then Chief Justice Khila Raj Regmi was made the chairman of the caretaker government. Un- der Mr. Regmi, the nation saw peaceful elections for the constituent assembly. The major forces in the earlier constituent assembly (namely CPN Maoists and Madhesi parties) dropped to distant 3rd and even below. [46][47]

In February 2014, after consensus was reached between the two major parties in the constituent assembly, Sushil Koirala was sworn in as the new prime minister of

Nepal. [16][48]

3 Geography

2.4 Republic

The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) won the largest number of seats in the Constituent Assembly election held on 10 April 2008, and formed a coalition govern- ment which included most of the parties in the CA. Al- though acts of violence occurred during the pre-electoral period, election observers noted that the elections them- selves were markedly peaceful and “well-carried out”. [37]

The newly elected Assembly met in Kathmandu on 28 May 2008, and, after a polling of 564 constituent Assem- bly members, 560 voted to form a new government, [36] with the monarchist Rastriya Prajatantra Party, which had four members in the assembly, registering a dissent- ing note. At that point, it was declared that Nepal had be- come a secular and inclusive democratic republic, [38][39] with the government announcing a three-day public holi- day from 28 to 30 May. The King was thereafter given 15 days to vacate the Narayanhiti Royal Palace, to re-open it as a public museum. [40]

Nonetheless, political tensions and consequent power- sharing battles have continued in Nepal. In May 2009, the Maoist-led government was toppled and another coali- tion government with all major political parties bar- ring the Maoists was formed. [41] Madhav Kumar Nepal of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist- Leninist) was made the Prime Minister of the coalition government. [42] In February 2011 the Madhav Kumar Nepal Government was toppled and Jhala Nath Khanal of the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist- Leninist) was made the Prime Minister. [43] In August 2011 the Jhala Nath Khanal Government was toppled and Baburam Bhattarai of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) was made the Prime Minister. [44]

The political parties were unable to draft a constitution in the stipulated time. [45] This led to dissolution of the Con- stituent Assembly to pave way for new elections to strive for a new political mandate. In opposition to the theory of

Nepal is of roughly trapezoidal shape, 800 kilometres (497 mi) long and 200 kilometres (124 mi) wide, with an area of 147,181 km 2 (56,827 sq mi). See List of ter- ritories by size for the comparative size of Nepal. It lies between latitudes 26° and 31°N, and longitudes 80° and

Nepal is commonly divided into three physiographic ar- eas: Mountain, Hill and Terai. These ecological belts run east-west and are vertically intersected by Nepal’s major, north to south flowing river systems.

The southern lowland plains or Terai bordering India are part of the northern rim of the Indo-Gangetic plains. They were formed and are fed by three major Himalayan rivers: the Kosi, the Narayani, and the Karnali as well as smaller rivers rising below the permanent snowline. This region has a subtropical to tropical climate. The outer- most range of foothills called Shiwalik or Churia Range cresting at 700 to 1,000 metres (2,297 to 3,281 ft) marks the limit of the Gangetic Plain, however broad, low val- leys called Inner Tarai (Bhitri Tarai Uptyaka) lie north of these foothills in several places.

The Hill Region (Pahad) abuts the mountains and varies from 800 to 4,000 metres (2,625 to 13,123 ft) in altitude with progression from subtropical climates below 1,200 metres (3,937 ft) to alpine climates above 3,600 metres (11,811 ft). The Mahabharat Range reaching 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,921 to 9,843 ft) is the southern limit of this region, with subtropical river valleys and “hills” al- ternating to the north of this range. Population density is high in valleys but notably less above 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) and very low above 2,500 metres (8,202 ft) where snow occasionally falls in winter.

The Mountain Region (Parbat), situated in the Great Himalayan Range, makes up the northern part of Nepal. It contains the highest elevations in the world including 8,848 metres (29,029 ft) height Mount Everest (Sagar- matha in Nepali) on the border with China. Seven other of the world’s eight thousand metre peaks are in Nepal or on its border with China: Lhotse, Makalu, Cho Oyu,

5

Nepal has five climatic zones, broadly corresponding to the altitudes. The tropical and subtropical zones lie be- low 1,200 metres (3,937 ft), the temperate zone 1,200 to 2,400 metres (3,937 to 7,874 ft), the cold zone 2,400 to 3,600 metres (7,874 to 11,811 ft), the subarctic zone 3,600 to 4,400 metres (11,811 to 14,436 ft), and the Arctic zone above 4,400 metres (14,436 ft).

Nepal experiences five seasons: summer, monsoon, au- tumn, winter and spring. The Himalaya blocks cold winds from Central Asia in the winter and forms the northern limit of the monsoon wind patterns. In a land once thickly forested, deforestation is a major problem in all regions, with resulting erosion and degradation of ecosystems.

Nepal is popular for mountaineering, having some of the highest and most challenging mountains in the world, in- cluding Mount Everest. Technically, the south-east ridge on the Nepali side of the mountain is easier to climb; so, most climbers prefer to trek to Everest through Nepal.

  • 3.1 Neotectonics

montane grasslands and shrublands and rock and ice at the highest elevations.

At the lowest elevations is the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. These form a mosaic with the Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests, which occur from 500 to 1,000 metres (1,600 to 3,300 ft) and in- clude the Inner Terai Valleys. Himalayan subtropical pine forests occur between 1,000 and 2,000 metres (3,300 and 6,600 ft).

Above these elevations, the biogeography of Nepal is gen- erally divided from east to west by the Gandaki River. Ecoregions to the east tend to receive more precipitation and to be more species-rich. Those to the west are drier with fewer species.

From 1,500 to 3,000 metres (4,900 to 9,800 ft), are temperate broadleaf forests: the eastern and western Hi- malayan broadleaf forests. From 3,000 to 4,000 me- tres (9,800 to 13,100 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan subalpine conifer forests. To 5,500 metres (18,000 ft) are the eastern and western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.

The collision between the Indian subcontinent and the Eurasian continent, which started in Paleogene time and continues today, produced the Himalaya and the Tibetan Plateau, a spectacular modern example of the effects of plate tectonics. Nepal lies completely within this colli- sion zone, occupying the central sector of the Himalayan arc, nearly one third of the 2,400 km (1,500 mi)-long

Himalayas. [49][50][51][52][53][54]

The Indian plate continues to move north relative to Asia at the rate of approximately 50 mm (2.0 in) per year. [55] Given the great magnitudes of the blocks of the Earth’s crust involved, this is remarkably fast, about twice the speed at which human fingernails grow. As the strong Indian continental crust subducts beneath the rel- atively weak Tibetan crust, it pushes up the Himalayan Mountains. This collision zone has accommodated huge amounts of crustal shortening as the rock sequences slide one over another. As such Nepal is prone to frequent earthquakes, a major earthquake happening within every 100 years. [56]

Erosion of the Himalayas is a very important source of sediment, which flows via several great rivers (the Indus to the Indian Ocean, and the Ganges and Brahmaputra river system) to the Bay of Bengal. [57]

  • 3.2 Environment

The dramatic differences in elevation found in Nepal re- sult in a variety of biomes, from tropical savannas along the Indian border, to subtropical broadleaf and coniferous forests in the Hill Region, to temperate broadleaf and coniferous forests on the slopes of the Himalaya, to

4

Politics

Main article: Politics of Nepal

Nepal has seen rapid political changes during the last two decades. Up until 1990, Nepal was a monarchy under executive control of the King. Faced with a communist movement against absolute monarchy, King Birendra, in 1990, agreed to a large-scale political reform by creating a parliamentary monarchy with the King as the head of state and a Prime Minister as the head of the government.

Nepal’s legislature was bicameral, consisting of a House of Representatives called the Pratinidhi Sabha and a National Council called the Rastriya Sabha. The House of Representatives consisted of 205 members directly elected by the people. The National Council had 60 members: ten nominated by the king, 35 elected by the House of Representatives, and the remaining 15 elected by an electoral college made up of chairs of villages and towns. The legislature had a five-year term but was dis- solvable by the king before its term could end. All Nepali citizens 18 years and older became eligible to vote.

The executive comprised the King and the Council of Ministers (the cabinet). The leader of the coalition or party securing the maximum seats in an election was ap-

pointed as the Prime Minister. The Cabinet was ap- pointed by the king on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. Governments in Nepal tended to be highly un- stable, falling either through internal collapse or parlia- mentary dissolution by the monarch, on the recommenda- tion of the prime minister, according to the constitution; no government has survived for more than two years since

6

4 POLITICS

1991.

The movement in April 2006 brought about a change in the nation’s governance: an interim constitution was pro- mulgated, with the King giving up power, and an interim House of Representatives was formed with Maoist mem- bers after the new government held peace talks with the Maoist rebels. The number of parliamentary seats was also increased to 330. In April 2007, the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) joined the interim government of Nepal.

In December 2007, the interim parliament passed a bill making Nepal a federal republic, with a president as head of state. Elections for the constitutional assembly were held on 10 April 2008; the Maoist party led the results but did not achieve a simple majority of seats. [58] The new parliament adopted the 2007 bill at its first meeting by an overwhelming majority, and King Gyanendra was given 15 days to leave the Royal Palace in central Kathmandu. He left on 11 June. [59]

On 26 June, the prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala, who had served as Acting Head of State since January 2007, announced that he would resign on the election of the country’s first president by the Constituent Assembly. The first round of voting, on 19 July, saw Parmanand Jha win election as Nepali vice-president, but neither of the contenders for president received the required 298 votes and a second round was held two days later. Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali Congress party defeated Maoist- backed Ram Raja Prasad Singh with 308 of the 590 votes cast. [60] Koirala submitted his resignation to the new pres- ident after Yadav’s swearing-in ceremony on 23 July.

6 4 POLITICS 1991. The movement in April 2006 brought about a change in the nation’sCommunist Party of Nepal (Maoist) joined the interim government of Nepal. In December 2007, the interim parliament passed a bill making Nepal a federal republic, with a president as head of state. Elections for the constitutional assembly were held on 10 April 2008; the Maoist party led the results but did not achieve a simple majority of seats. The new parliament adopted the 2007 bill at its first meeting by an overwhelming majority, and King Gyanendra was given 15 days to leave the Royal Palace in central Kathmandu. He left on 11 June. On 26 June, the prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala , who had served as Acting Head of State since January 2007, announced that he would resign on the election of the country’s first president by the Constituent Assembly. The first round of voting, on 19 July, saw Parmanand Jha win election as Nepali vice-president, but neither of the contenders for president received the required 298 votes and a second round was held two days later. Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali Congress party defeated Maoist- backed Ram Raja Prasad Singh with 308 of the 590 votes cast. Koirala submitted his resignation to the new pres- ident after Yadav’s swearing-in ceremony on 23 July. Prachanda speaking at a rally in Pokhara. On 15 August 2008, Maoist leader Prachanda ( Pushpa Kamal Dahal ) was elected Prime Minister of Nepal, the first since the country’s transition from a monarchy to a republic. On 4 May 2009, Dahal resigned over on-going conflicts with regard to the sacking of the Army chief. Since Dahal’s resignation, the country has been in a se- rious political deadlock with one of the big issues being the proposed integration of the former Maoist combat- ants, also known as the People’s Liberation Army, into the national security forces. After Dahal, Jhala Nath Khanal of CPN (UML) was elected the Prime Minister. Khanal was forced to step down as he could not succeed in carrying forward the Peace Process and the constitu- tion writing. On August 2011, Maoist Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai became third Prime Minister after the election of constituent assembly. On 24 May 2012, Nepals’s Deputy PM Krishna Sitaula resigned. On 27 May 2012, the country’s Constituent Assembly failed to meet the deadline for writing a new constitution for the coun- try. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai announced that new elections will be held on 22 November. “We have no other option but to go back to the people and elect a new assembly to write the constitution,” he said in a na- tionally televised speech. One of the main obstacles has been disagreement over whether the states which will be created will be based on ethnicity. Nepal is one of the few countries in Asia to abolish the death penalty and the first country in Asia to rule in favor of same-sex marriage . The decision was based on a seven-person government committee study, and enacted through Supreme Court 's ruling November 2008. The ruling granted full rights for LGBT individuals, includ- ing the right to marry and now can get citizenship as a third gender rather than male or female as authorized by Nepal’s Supreme Court in 2007. 4.1 Environmental policy As a mountainous country with agriculture, hydropower and tourism all important for its economy, Nepal is vul- nerable to the impacts of climate change, such as ris- ing temperatures, erratic rainfall patterns and incidents of drought. According to the Climate & Development Knowledge Network , this has prompted the government to introduce new initiatives and institutional reforms. 4.2 Government Singha Durbar , the seat of Nepalese government Nepal is a multi-party system federal republic. The In- terim Constitution of Nepal, 2063 has defined three or- " id="pdf-obj-5-34" src="pdf-obj-5-34.jpg">

Prachanda speaking at a rally in Pokhara.

On 15 August 2008, Maoist leader Prachanda (Pushpa Kamal Dahal) was elected Prime Minister of Nepal, the first since the country’s transition from a monarchy to a republic. On 4 May 2009, Dahal resigned over on-going conflicts with regard to the sacking of the Army chief. Since Dahal’s resignation, the country has been in a se- rious political deadlock with one of the big issues being the proposed integration of the former Maoist combat- ants, also known as the People’s Liberation Army, into the national security forces. [61] After Dahal, Jhala Nath

Khanal of CPN (UML) was elected the Prime Minister. Khanal was forced to step down as he could not succeed in carrying forward the Peace Process and the constitu- tion writing. On August 2011, Maoist Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai became third Prime Minister after the election of constituent assembly. [62] On 24 May 2012, Nepals’s Deputy PM Krishna Sitaula resigned. [63] On 27 May 2012, the country’s Constituent Assembly failed to meet the deadline for writing a new constitution for the coun- try. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai announced that new elections will be held on 22 November. “We have no other option but to go back to the people and elect a new assembly to write the constitution,” he said in a na- tionally televised speech. One of the main obstacles has been disagreement over whether the states which will be created will be based on ethnicity. [64]

Nepal is one of the few countries in Asia to abolish the death penalty [65] and the first country in Asia to rule in favor of same-sex marriage. The decision was based on a seven-person government committee study, and enacted through Supreme Court's ruling November 2008. The ruling granted full rights for LGBT individuals, includ- ing the right to marry [66] and now can get citizenship as a third gender rather than male or female as authorized by Nepal’s Supreme Court in 2007. [67]

  • 4.1 Environmental policy

As a mountainous country with agriculture, hydropower and tourism all important for its economy, Nepal is vul- nerable to the impacts of climate change, such as ris- ing temperatures, erratic rainfall patterns and incidents of drought. According to the Climate & Development Knowledge Network, this has prompted the government to introduce new initiatives and institutional reforms. [68]

  • 4.2 Government

6 4 POLITICS 1991. The movement in April 2006 brought about a change in the nation’sCommunist Party of Nepal (Maoist) joined the interim government of Nepal. In December 2007, the interim parliament passed a bill making Nepal a federal republic, with a president as head of state. Elections for the constitutional assembly were held on 10 April 2008; the Maoist party led the results but did not achieve a simple majority of seats. The new parliament adopted the 2007 bill at its first meeting by an overwhelming majority, and King Gyanendra was given 15 days to leave the Royal Palace in central Kathmandu. He left on 11 June. On 26 June, the prime minister Girija Prasad Koirala , who had served as Acting Head of State since January 2007, announced that he would resign on the election of the country’s first president by the Constituent Assembly. The first round of voting, on 19 July, saw Parmanand Jha win election as Nepali vice-president, but neither of the contenders for president received the required 298 votes and a second round was held two days later. Ram Baran Yadav of the Nepali Congress party defeated Maoist- backed Ram Raja Prasad Singh with 308 of the 590 votes cast. Koirala submitted his resignation to the new pres- ident after Yadav’s swearing-in ceremony on 23 July. Prachanda speaking at a rally in Pokhara. On 15 August 2008, Maoist leader Prachanda ( Pushpa Kamal Dahal ) was elected Prime Minister of Nepal, the first since the country’s transition from a monarchy to a republic. On 4 May 2009, Dahal resigned over on-going conflicts with regard to the sacking of the Army chief. Since Dahal’s resignation, the country has been in a se- rious political deadlock with one of the big issues being the proposed integration of the former Maoist combat- ants, also known as the People’s Liberation Army, into the national security forces. After Dahal, Jhala Nath Khanal of CPN (UML) was elected the Prime Minister. Khanal was forced to step down as he could not succeed in carrying forward the Peace Process and the constitu- tion writing. On August 2011, Maoist Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai became third Prime Minister after the election of constituent assembly. On 24 May 2012, Nepals’s Deputy PM Krishna Sitaula resigned. On 27 May 2012, the country’s Constituent Assembly failed to meet the deadline for writing a new constitution for the coun- try. Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai announced that new elections will be held on 22 November. “We have no other option but to go back to the people and elect a new assembly to write the constitution,” he said in a na- tionally televised speech. One of the main obstacles has been disagreement over whether the states which will be created will be based on ethnicity. Nepal is one of the few countries in Asia to abolish the death penalty and the first country in Asia to rule in favor of same-sex marriage . The decision was based on a seven-person government committee study, and enacted through Supreme Court 's ruling November 2008. The ruling granted full rights for LGBT individuals, includ- ing the right to marry and now can get citizenship as a third gender rather than male or female as authorized by Nepal’s Supreme Court in 2007. 4.1 Environmental policy As a mountainous country with agriculture, hydropower and tourism all important for its economy, Nepal is vul- nerable to the impacts of climate change, such as ris- ing temperatures, erratic rainfall patterns and incidents of drought. According to the Climate & Development Knowledge Network , this has prompted the government to introduce new initiatives and institutional reforms. 4.2 Government Singha Durbar , the seat of Nepalese government Nepal is a multi-party system federal republic. The In- terim Constitution of Nepal, 2063 has defined three or- " id="pdf-obj-5-83" src="pdf-obj-5-83.jpg">

Singha Durbar, the seat of Nepalese government

Nepal is a multi-party system federal republic. The In- terim Constitution of Nepal, 2063 has defined three or-

4.3 Subdivisions

7

gans of the government.

4.3 Subdivisions

Executive: The executive power of Nepal is vested in the Council of Ministers. The responsibility of issuing general directives, controlling and regulat- ing the administration of Nepal lie in the Coun- cil of Ministers. The Prime Minister of Nepal is the head of the Government. The Prime Minister appoints the Ministers. While appointing Minis- ters, the Prime Minister shall appoint them, on the recommendation of the concerned political party, from amongst the members of the Legislature- Parliament.

Legislative: The Legislature-Parliament of Nepal is unicameral. Constituent assembly is working as the legislature of Nepal at present. The legislature is composed of 601 members. Among them, 240 members are directly elected by the people from 240 constituencies. 335 members are elected through proportional basis and 26 members are nominated by the cabinet. All the bills are presented in the par- liament. After passing the bills by the majority. Af- ter his approval, it becomes the law. In this way, all the laws are made in the parliament. The legisla- tive controls over the finance of the country. Leg- islative passes the annual budget according to which the government spends money in various tasks. Leg- islative can raise questions to any work of the gov- ernment. If the government does not work properly, legislative can withdraw its support and government is dissolved. In this way the legislative has control over the executive.

Main articles: Development Regions of Nepal, List of zones of Nepal and List of districts of Nepal Nepal is divided into 14 zones and 75 districts, grouped

Mahakali Bagmati Seti Bheri Rapti Lumbini Narayani Janakpur Karnali Dhawalagiri Gandaki
Mahakali
Bagmati
Seti
Bheri
Rapti
Lumbini
Narayani
Janakpur
Karnali
Dhawalagiri Gandaki

Sagarmatha Koshi Mechi

Administrative subdivisions of Nepal

into five development regions. Each district is headed by a permanent chief district officer responsible for main- taining law and order and coordinating the work of field agencies of the various government ministries. The five regions and 14 zones are:

Koshi

Mechi

Judiciary: The Constitution provides three tiers of Court which include the Supreme Court of Nepal, the Court of Appeal and the District Courts. Supreme Court is the Apex Court. All courts and judicial institutions except the constitutional assem- bly court, are under the Supreme Court. There is no distinction between Criminal and Civil court except some basic procedures. District Court is the Court of first instance upon which Court of Appeal hear appeal. In addition to these regular courts there is provision in constitution to establish special types of courts or tribunals for the purpose of hearing special types of cases by the law. According to these provi- sion there are four Revenue Tribunals, one Adminis- trative Court, one Labor Court, one Debt Recovery tribunal and one Debt recovery Appeal Tribunal and one special court are functioning under the respec- tive laws. These institutions are under the judicial control of the Supreme Court. There are 16 Court of Appeal and 15 Districts in Nepal. The Supreme Court is also the ultimate interpreter of the consti- tution.

Bagmati

Janakpur

Narayani

Gandaki

Lumbini

Bheri

Karnali

Rapti

Mahakali

Seti

8

6 ECONOMY

  • 5 Foreign relations and military

Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbors, India and China. In accordance with a long-standing treaty, Indian and Nepalese citizens may travel to each other’s coun- tries without a passport or visa. Nepalese citizens may work in India without legal restriction. The Indian Army maintains seven Gorkha regiments consisting of Gorkha troops recruited mostly from Nepal.

8 6 ECONOMY 5 Foreign relations and military Main articles: <a href=Nepalese Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Nepal Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbors, India and China. In accordance with a long-standing treaty, Indian and Nepalese citizens may travel to each other’s coun- tries without a passport or visa. Nepalese citizens may work in India without legal restriction. The Indian Army maintains seven Gorkha regiments consisting of Gorkha troops recruited mostly from Nepal. Khukuri symbolic weapon of the Nepalese Army and Gurkha However, since the Government of Nepal has been domi- nated by Socialists and India’s by more right-wing parties, India has been remilitarizing the “porous” Indo-Nepali border, to stifle the flow of Islamist groups. Nepal established relations with the People’s Republic of China on 1 August 1955, and relations since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexis- tence . Nepal has aided China in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake , and China has provided eco- nomic assistance for Nepali infrastructure. Both coun- tries have cooperated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest . Nepal has assisted in curbing anti-China protests from the Tibetan diaspora . Nepal’s military consists of the Nepalese Army , which includes the Nepalese Army Air Service . The Nepalese Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal is the paramilitary force. Service is vol- untary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Nepal spends $99.2 million (2004) on its military— 1.5% of its GDP. Much of the equipment and arms are imported from India. Consequently, the US provided M16s M4s and other Colt weapons to combat commu- nist (Maoist) insurgents. The standard-issue battle rifle of the Nepalese army is the Colt M16. In the new regulations by Nepalese Army , female soldiers have been barred from participating in combat situations and fighting in the frontlines of war . However, they are al- lowed to be a part of the army in sections like intelligence , headquarters , signals and operations . 6 Economy Main article: Economy of Nepal Nepal’s gross domestic product ( GDP ) for 2012 was Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas. Kathmandu street vendors estimated at over $17.921 billion (adjusted to Nominal GDP ). In 2010, agriculture accounted for 36.1%, ser- vices comprise 48.5%, and industry 15.4% of Nepal’s GDP . While agriculture and industry is contracting, the contribution by service sector is increasing. Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18% and manufacturing/craft-based industry 6%. Agricultural produce – mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India – includes tea, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops , milk, and water buffalo meat. Industry mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce, includ- ing jute , sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Its workforce of about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labor. Nepal’s economic growth continues to be adversely af- fected by the political uncertainty. Nevertheless, real GDP growth is estimated to increase to almost 5 percent for 2011/2012. This is a considerable improvement from " id="pdf-obj-7-23" src="pdf-obj-7-23.jpg">

Khukuri symbolic weapon of the Nepalese Army and Gurkha

However, since the Government of Nepal has been domi- nated by Socialists and India’s by more right-wing parties, India has been remilitarizing the “porous” Indo-Nepali border, to stifle the flow of Islamist groups. [69]

Nepal established relations with the People’s Republic of China on 1 August 1955, and relations since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexis- tence. Nepal has aided China in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake, and China has provided eco- nomic assistance for Nepali infrastructure. Both coun- tries have cooperated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest. [70] Nepal has assisted in curbing anti-China protests from the Tibetan diaspora. [71]

Nepal’s military consists of the Nepalese Army, which includes the Nepalese Army Air Service. The Nepalese Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal [72] is the paramilitary force. Service is vol- untary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Nepal spends $99.2 million (2004) on its military— 1.5% of its GDP. Much of the equipment and arms are imported from India. Consequently, the US provided M16s M4s and other Colt weapons to combat commu- nist (Maoist) insurgents. The standard-issue battle rifle of the Nepalese army is the Colt M16. [73]

In the new regulations by Nepalese Army, female soldiers have been barred from participating in combat situations and fighting in the frontlines of war. However, they are al-

lowed to be a part of the army in sections like intelligence, headquarters, signals and operations. [74]

6 Economy

Main article: Economy of Nepal Nepal’s gross domestic product (GDP) for 2012 was

8 6 ECONOMY 5 Foreign relations and military Main articles: <a href=Nepalese Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Nepal Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbors, India and China. In accordance with a long-standing treaty, Indian and Nepalese citizens may travel to each other’s coun- tries without a passport or visa. Nepalese citizens may work in India without legal restriction. The Indian Army maintains seven Gorkha regiments consisting of Gorkha troops recruited mostly from Nepal. Khukuri symbolic weapon of the Nepalese Army and Gurkha However, since the Government of Nepal has been domi- nated by Socialists and India’s by more right-wing parties, India has been remilitarizing the “porous” Indo-Nepali border, to stifle the flow of Islamist groups. Nepal established relations with the People’s Republic of China on 1 August 1955, and relations since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexis- tence . Nepal has aided China in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake , and China has provided eco- nomic assistance for Nepali infrastructure. Both coun- tries have cooperated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest . Nepal has assisted in curbing anti-China protests from the Tibetan diaspora . Nepal’s military consists of the Nepalese Army , which includes the Nepalese Army Air Service . The Nepalese Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal is the paramilitary force. Service is vol- untary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Nepal spends $99.2 million (2004) on its military— 1.5% of its GDP. Much of the equipment and arms are imported from India. Consequently, the US provided M16s M4s and other Colt weapons to combat commu- nist (Maoist) insurgents. The standard-issue battle rifle of the Nepalese army is the Colt M16. In the new regulations by Nepalese Army , female soldiers have been barred from participating in combat situations and fighting in the frontlines of war . However, they are al- lowed to be a part of the army in sections like intelligence , headquarters , signals and operations . 6 Economy Main article: Economy of Nepal Nepal’s gross domestic product ( GDP ) for 2012 was Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas. Kathmandu street vendors estimated at over $17.921 billion (adjusted to Nominal GDP ). In 2010, agriculture accounted for 36.1%, ser- vices comprise 48.5%, and industry 15.4% of Nepal’s GDP . While agriculture and industry is contracting, the contribution by service sector is increasing. Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18% and manufacturing/craft-based industry 6%. Agricultural produce – mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India – includes tea, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops , milk, and water buffalo meat. Industry mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce, includ- ing jute , sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Its workforce of about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labor. Nepal’s economic growth continues to be adversely af- fected by the political uncertainty. Nevertheless, real GDP growth is estimated to increase to almost 5 percent for 2011/2012. This is a considerable improvement from " id="pdf-obj-7-91" src="pdf-obj-7-91.jpg">

Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas.

8 6 ECONOMY 5 Foreign relations and military Main articles: <a href=Nepalese Armed Forces and Foreign relations of Nepal Nepal has close ties with both of its neighbors, India and China. In accordance with a long-standing treaty, Indian and Nepalese citizens may travel to each other’s coun- tries without a passport or visa. Nepalese citizens may work in India without legal restriction. The Indian Army maintains seven Gorkha regiments consisting of Gorkha troops recruited mostly from Nepal. Khukuri symbolic weapon of the Nepalese Army and Gurkha However, since the Government of Nepal has been domi- nated by Socialists and India’s by more right-wing parties, India has been remilitarizing the “porous” Indo-Nepali border, to stifle the flow of Islamist groups. Nepal established relations with the People’s Republic of China on 1 August 1955, and relations since have been based on the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexis- tence . Nepal has aided China in the aftermath of the 2008 Sichuan earthquake , and China has provided eco- nomic assistance for Nepali infrastructure. Both coun- tries have cooperated to host the 2008 Summer Olympics summit of Mt. Everest . Nepal has assisted in curbing anti-China protests from the Tibetan diaspora . Nepal’s military consists of the Nepalese Army , which includes the Nepalese Army Air Service . The Nepalese Police Force is the civilian police and the Armed Police Force Nepal is the paramilitary force. Service is vol- untary and the minimum age for enlistment is 18 years. Nepal spends $99.2 million (2004) on its military— 1.5% of its GDP. Much of the equipment and arms are imported from India. Consequently, the US provided M16s M4s and other Colt weapons to combat commu- nist (Maoist) insurgents. The standard-issue battle rifle of the Nepalese army is the Colt M16. In the new regulations by Nepalese Army , female soldiers have been barred from participating in combat situations and fighting in the frontlines of war . However, they are al- lowed to be a part of the army in sections like intelligence , headquarters , signals and operations . 6 Economy Main article: Economy of Nepal Nepal’s gross domestic product ( GDP ) for 2012 was Terraced farming on the foothills of the Himalayas. Kathmandu street vendors estimated at over $17.921 billion (adjusted to Nominal GDP ). In 2010, agriculture accounted for 36.1%, ser- vices comprise 48.5%, and industry 15.4% of Nepal’s GDP . While agriculture and industry is contracting, the contribution by service sector is increasing. Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18% and manufacturing/craft-based industry 6%. Agricultural produce – mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India – includes tea, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops , milk, and water buffalo meat. Industry mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce, includ- ing jute , sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Its workforce of about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labor. Nepal’s economic growth continues to be adversely af- fected by the political uncertainty. Nevertheless, real GDP growth is estimated to increase to almost 5 percent for 2011/2012. This is a considerable improvement from " id="pdf-obj-7-95" src="pdf-obj-7-95.jpg">

Kathmandu street vendors

estimated at over $17.921 billion (adjusted to Nominal GDP). [5] In 2010, agriculture accounted for 36.1%, ser- vices comprise 48.5%, and industry 15.4% of Nepal’s GDP. [75] While agriculture and industry is contracting, the contribution by service sector is increasing. [75][76] Agriculture employs 76% of the workforce, services 18% and manufacturing/craft-based industry 6%. Agricultural produce – mostly grown in the Terai region bordering India – includes tea, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops, milk, and water buffalo meat. Industry mainly involves the processing of agricultural produce, includ- ing jute, sugarcane, tobacco, and grain. Its workforce of about 10 million suffers from a severe shortage of skilled labor.

Nepal’s economic growth continues to be adversely af- fected by the political uncertainty. Nevertheless, real GDP growth is estimated to increase to almost 5 percent for 2011/2012. This is a considerable improvement from

9

9 The trading of wool. the 3.5 percent GDP growth in 2010/2011 and would be theRwanda and Bangladesh as the percentage of poor dropped to 44.2 percent of the population in 2011 from 64.7 percent in 2006–4.1 percentage points per year, which means that Nepal has made significant improve- ment in sectors like nutrition, child mortality, electricity, improved flooring and assets. So if the progress of reduc- ing poverty continues in this rate, then it’s predicted that Nepal will halve the current poverty rate and eradicate it within the next 20 years. The spectacular landscape and diverse, exotic cultures of Nepal represent considerable potential for tourism , but growth in this hospitality industry has been stifled by po- litical instability and poor infrastructure. Despite these problems, in 2012 the number of international tourists visiting Nepal was 598,204, a 10% increase on the previ- ous year. The tourism sector contributed nearly 3% of national GDP in 2012 and is the second biggest foreign income earner after remittances. The rate of unemployment and underemployment ap- proaches half of the working-age population. Thus many Nepali citizens move to other countries in search of work. Top destinations include India, Qatar, the United States, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Brunei Darussalam, Australia, and Canada. Nepal receives $50 million a year through the Gurkha soldiers who serve in the Indian and British armies and are highly esteemed for their skill and bravery. As of 2010, the total remittance value is worth around $3.5 billion. In 2009 alone, the remittance contributed to 22.9% of the nation’s GDP. A long-standing economic agreement underpins a close relationship with India. The country receives for- eign aid from India, Japan, the UK, the US, the EU, China, Switzerland, and Scandinavian countries. Poverty is acute; per-capita income is around $1,000. The distribution of wealth among the Nepalese is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries: the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the na- tional wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%. The government’s budget is about $1.153 billion, with ex- penditure of $1.789 billion (FY05/06). The Nepalese ru- pee has been tied to the Indian Rupee at an exchange rate of 1.6 for many years. Since the loosening of exchange rate controls in the early 1990s, the black market for for- eign exchange has all but disappeared. The inflation rate has dropped to 2.9% after a period of higher inflation during the 1990s. Nepal’s exports of mainly carpets, clothing, hemp natural fiber , leather goods, jute goods and grain total $822 mil- lion. Import commodities of mainly gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products and fertilizer total US$2 bn. EU (46.13%), the US (17.4%), and Ger- many (7.1%) are its main export partners. Recently, the European Union has become the largest buyer of Nepali ready made garments (RMG). Exports to the EU ac- counted for “46.13 percent of the country’s total gar- ment exports”. Nepal’s import partners include In- dia (47.5%), the United Arab Emirates (11.2%), China (10.7%), Saudi Arabia (4.9%), and Singapore (4%). Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tan- gible natural resources and poor infrastructure, the in- effective post-1950 government of uneducated old self- centered Politicians and the long-running civil war is also a factor in stunting the economic growth and development. " id="pdf-obj-8-5" src="pdf-obj-8-5.jpg">

The trading of wool.

the 3.5 percent GDP growth in 2010/2011 and would be the second highest growth rate in the post-conflict era. [77] Sources of growth include agriculture, construction, fi- nancial and other services. The contribution of growth by consumption fueled by remittances has declined since 2010/2011. While remittance growth slowed to 11 per- cent (in Nepali Rupee terms) in 2010/2011 it has since increased to 37 percent. Remittances are estimated to be equivalent to 25–30 percent of GDP. Inflation has been reduced to a three-year low to 7 percent. [77]

The proportion of poor people has declined substan- tially in recent years. The percentage of people liv- ing below the international poverty line (people earn- ing less than US$1.25 per day) has halved in only seven years. [77] At this measure of poverty the percent- age of poor people declined from 53.1% in 2003/2004 to 24.8% in 2010/2011. [77] With a higher poverty line of US$2 per-capita per day, poverty declined by one quarter to 57.3%. [77] However, the income distribution remains grossly uneven. [78] In a recent survey, Nepal has performed extremely well in reducing poverty along with Rwanda and Bangladesh as the percentage of poor dropped to 44.2 percent of the population in 2011 from 64.7 percent in 2006–4.1 percentage points per year, which means that Nepal has made significant improve- ment in sectors like nutrition, child mortality, electricity, improved flooring and assets. So if the progress of reduc- ing poverty continues in this rate, then it’s predicted that Nepal will halve the current poverty rate and eradicate it within the next 20 years. [79][80][81]

The spectacular landscape and diverse, exotic cultures of Nepal represent considerable potential for tourism, but growth in this hospitality industry has been stifled by po- litical instability and poor infrastructure. Despite these problems, in 2012 the number of international tourists visiting Nepal was 598,204, a 10% increase on the previ- ous year. [82] The tourism sector contributed nearly 3% of national GDP in 2012 and is the second biggest foreign income earner after remittances. [83]

The rate of unemployment and underemployment ap- proaches half of the working-age population. Thus many Nepali citizens move to other countries in search of work. Top destinations include India, Qatar, the United States, Thailand, the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, Japan, Brunei Darussalam, Australia, and Canada. [84][85] Nepal receives $50 million a year through the Gurkha soldiers who serve in the Indian and British armies and are highly esteemed for their skill and bravery. As of 2010, the total remittance value is worth around $3.5 billion. [85] In 2009 alone, the remittance contributed to 22.9% of the nation’s GDP. [85]

A long-standing economic agreement underpins a close relationship with India. The country receives for- eign aid from India, Japan, the UK, the US, the EU, China, Switzerland, and Scandinavian countries. Poverty is acute; per-capita income is around $1,000. [86] The distribution of wealth among the Nepalese is consistent with that in many developed and developing countries:

the highest 10% of households control 39.1% of the na- tional wealth and the lowest 10% control only 2.6%.

The government’s budget is about $1.153 billion, with ex- penditure of $1.789 billion (FY05/06). The Nepalese ru- pee has been tied to the Indian Rupee at an exchange rate of 1.6 for many years. Since the loosening of exchange rate controls in the early 1990s, the black market for for- eign exchange has all but disappeared. The inflation rate has dropped to 2.9% after a period of higher inflation during the 1990s.

Nepal’s exports of mainly carpets, clothing, hemp natural fiber, leather goods, jute goods and grain total $822 mil- lion. Import commodities of mainly gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products and fertilizer total US$2 bn. EU (46.13%), the US (17.4%), and Ger- many (7.1%) are its main export partners. Recently, the European Union has become the largest buyer of Nepali ready made garments (RMG). Exports to the EU ac- counted for “46.13 percent of the country’s total gar- ment exports”. [87] Nepal’s import partners include In- dia (47.5%), the United Arab Emirates (11.2%), China (10.7%), Saudi Arabia (4.9%), and Singapore (4%).

Besides having landlocked, rugged geography, few tan- gible natural resources and poor infrastructure, the in- effective post-1950 government of uneducated old self- centered Politicians and the long-running civil war is also a factor in stunting the economic growth and development. [88][89][90]

10

7 INFRASTRUCTURE

7 Infrastructure

  • 7.1 Energy

The bulk of the energy need is dominated by fuel wood (68%) agricultural waste (15%), animal dung (8%), and imported fossil fuel (8%). [91][92] Except for some lignite deposits, Nepal has no known oil, gas or coal deposits. All commercial fossil fuels (mainly oil and coal) are ei- ther imported from India or from international markets routed through India and China. Fuel imports absorb over one-fourth of Nepal’s foreign exchange earnings. [92] Only about 1% energy need is fulfilled by electricity. Para- doxically, the perennial nature of Nepali rivers and the steep gradient of the country’s topography provide ideal conditions for the development of some of the world’s largest hydroelectric projects in Nepal. Current estimates put Nepal’s economically feasible hydropower potential to be approximately 83,000 MW from 66 hydropower project sites. [92][93] However, currently Nepal has been able to exploit only about 600 MW from 20 major hy- dropower plants and a number of small and micro hy- dropower plants. [91] There are 9 major hydropower plants under construction, and additional 27 sites considered for potential development. [91] Only about 40% of Nepal’s population has access to electricity. [91] Even in this sce- nario there is a great disparity between urban and rural areas. The electrification rate in urban areas is 90%, whereas the rate for rural areas is only 5%. [92] Power cuts of up to 22 hours a day takes place in peak demand pe- riods of winter and the peak electricity demand is almost the double the capability or dependable capacity. [94] The position of the power sector remains unsatisfactory be- cause of high tariffs, high system losses, high generation costs, high overheads, over staffing, and lower domestic demand. [92]

  • 7.2 Transport

10 7 INFRASTRUCTURE 7 Infrastructure 7.1 Energy The bulk of the energy need is dominated byKathmandu Valley . More than one-third of its people live at least a two hours walk from the nearest all-season road; 15 out of 75 district headquarters are not connected by road. In addition, some 60% of road network and most rural roads are not operable during the rainy season. The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Calcutta in India. Internally, the poor state of development of the road system makes access to mar- kets, schools, and health clinics a challenge. 7.3 Communication Mahabir Pun hand-making a satellite dish in Nepal According to the Nepal Telecommunication Authority MIS May 2012 report, there are 7 operators and the total voice telephony subscribers including fixed and mo- bile are 16,350,946 which give the penetration rate of 61.42%. The fixed telephone service account for 9.37%, mobile for 64.63%, and other services (LM, GMPCS) for 3.76% of the total penetration rate. Similarly, the num- bers of subscribers to data/internet services are 4,667,536 which represents 17.53% penetration rate. Most of the data service is accounted by GPRS users. Twelve months " id="pdf-obj-9-32" src="pdf-obj-9-32.jpg">

Means of transport in mountain area

Nepal remains isolated from the world’s major land, air and sea transport routes although, within the country, avi-

ation is in a better state, with 47 airports, 11 of them with paved runways; [95] flights are frequent and support

a sizable traffic. The hilly and mountainous terrain in the northern two-thirds of the country has made the build- ing of roads and other infrastructure difficult and expen- sive. In 2007 there were just over 10,142 km (6,302 mi) of paved roads, and 7,140 km (4,437 mi) of unpaved road, and one 59 km (37 mi) railway line in the south. [95] There is a single reliable road route from India to the Kathmandu Valley. More than one-third of its people live at least a two hours walk from the nearest all-season road; 15 out of 75 district headquarters are not connected by road. In addition, some 60% of road network and most rural roads are not operable during the rainy season. [96] The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Calcutta in India. Internally, the poor state of development of the road system makes access to mar- kets, schools, and health clinics a challenge. [88]

7.3 Communication

10 7 INFRASTRUCTURE 7 Infrastructure 7.1 Energy The bulk of the energy need is dominated byKathmandu Valley . More than one-third of its people live at least a two hours walk from the nearest all-season road; 15 out of 75 district headquarters are not connected by road. In addition, some 60% of road network and most rural roads are not operable during the rainy season. The only practical seaport of entry for goods bound for Kathmandu is Calcutta in India. Internally, the poor state of development of the road system makes access to mar- kets, schools, and health clinics a challenge. 7.3 Communication Mahabir Pun hand-making a satellite dish in Nepal According to the Nepal Telecommunication Authority MIS May 2012 report, there are 7 operators and the total voice telephony subscribers including fixed and mo- bile are 16,350,946 which give the penetration rate of 61.42%. The fixed telephone service account for 9.37%, mobile for 64.63%, and other services (LM, GMPCS) for 3.76% of the total penetration rate. Similarly, the num- bers of subscribers to data/internet services are 4,667,536 which represents 17.53% penetration rate. Most of the data service is accounted by GPRS users. Twelve months " id="pdf-obj-9-55" src="pdf-obj-9-55.jpg">

Mahabir Pun hand-making a satellite dish in Nepal

According to the Nepal Telecommunication Authority MIS May 2012 report, [97] there are 7 operators and the total voice telephony subscribers including fixed and mo- bile are 16,350,946 which give the penetration rate of 61.42%. The fixed telephone service account for 9.37%, mobile for 64.63%, and other services (LM, GMPCS) for 3.76% of the total penetration rate. Similarly, the num- bers of subscribers to data/internet services are 4,667,536 which represents 17.53% penetration rate. Most of the data service is accounted by GPRS users. Twelve months

7.5 Health

11

earlier the data/internet penetration was 10.05%, thus this represents a growth rate of 74.77%. [97]

Not only has there been strong subscriber growth, es- pecially in the mobile sector, but there was evidence of a clear vision in the sector, including putting a reform process in place and planning for the building of nec- essary telecommunications infrastructure. Most impor- tantly, the Ministry of Information and Communications (MoIC) and the telecom regulator, the National Telecom- munications Authority (NTA), have both been very active in the performance of their respective roles. [98] Despite all the effort, there remained a significant disparity between the high coverage levels in the cities and the coverage available in the underdeveloped rural regions. Progress on providing some minimum access had been good, how- ever. Of a total of 3,914 Village Development Commit- tees across the country, only 306 were unserved by De- cember 2009. [98] In order to meet future demand, it was estimated that Nepal needed to invest around US$135 million annually in its telecom sector. [98] In 2009, the telecommunication sector alone contributed to 1% of the nation’s GDP. [99] As of 30 September 2012, Nepal has 1,828,700 Facebook users. [100]

In the broadcast media, as of 2007, the state operates 2 television stations as well as national and regional ra- dio stations. There are roughly 30 independent TV chan- nels registered, with only about half in regular operation. Nearly 400 FM radio stations are licensed with roughly

  • 300 operational. [95] According to 2011 census, the per-

centage of households possessing radio was 50.82%, tele- vision 36.45%, cable TV 19.33%, computer 7.23%. [2]

According to the Press Council Nepal, as of 2012 there are 2038 registered newspapers in Nepal, among which

  • 514 are in publication. [101] In 2013, the Reporters With-

out Borders ranked Nepal at 118th place in the world in

terms of press freedom. [102][103]

7.4 Education

Main article: Education in Nepal Currently the overall literacy rate (for population aged

7.5 Health 11 earlier the data/internet penetration was 10.05%, thus this represents a growth rate ofEducation in Nepal Currently the overall literacy rate (for population aged Nepalese teacher and schoolchildren in Pokhara 5 years and above) has increased from 54.1% in 2001 to 65.9% in 2011. Male literacy rate is 75.1% compared to female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district (86.3%) and low- est in Rautahat (41.7%). While the net primary enroll- ment rate was 74% in 2005; in 2009, that enrollment rate was at 90%. However increasing access to sec- ondary education (grades 9-12) remains a major chal- lenge, as evidenced by the disturbingly low net enrollment rate of 24% at this level. More than half of primary stu- dents do not enter secondary schools, and only one-half of them complete secondary schooling. In addition, fewer girls than boys join secondary schools and, among those who do join, fewer complete the 10th grade. Nepal has six universities: Tribhuvan University , Kathmandu University , Pokhara University , Purbanchal University , Mahendra Sanskrit University , and the Agriculture and Forestry University of Nepal (AFU). Some newly proposed universities are Lumbini Bouddha University, Mid-Western University, and Far-Western University. Some fine scholarship has emerged in the post-1990 [108] 7.5 Health Main article: Health in Nepal Public health and health care services in Nepal are pro- Kunde Hospital in remote Himalayan region vided by both the public and private sector and fares poorly by international standards. According to 2011 census, more than one third (38.17%) of the total house- " id="pdf-obj-10-47" src="pdf-obj-10-47.jpg">

Nepalese teacher and schoolchildren in Pokhara

5 years and above) has increased from 54.1% in 2001 to 65.9% in 2011. Male literacy rate is 75.1% compared to female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district (86.3%) and low- est in Rautahat (41.7%). [2] While the net primary enroll- ment rate was 74% in 2005; [104] in 2009, that enrollment rate was at 90%. [105] However increasing access to sec- ondary education (grades 9-12) remains a major chal- lenge, as evidenced by the disturbingly low net enrollment rate of 24% at this level. More than half of primary stu- dents do not enter secondary schools, and only one-half of them complete secondary schooling. In addition, fewer girls than boys join secondary schools and, among those who do join, fewer complete the 10th grade. [106] Nepal has six universities: Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu University, Pokhara University, Purbanchal University, Mahendra Sanskrit University, and the Agriculture and Forestry University of Nepal (AFU). [107] Some newly proposed universities are Lumbini Bouddha University, Mid-Western University, and Far-Western University. Some fine scholarship has emerged in the post-1990

era. [108]

7.5

Health

Main article: Health in Nepal Public health and health care services in Nepal are pro-

7.5 Health 11 earlier the data/internet penetration was 10.05%, thus this represents a growth rate ofEducation in Nepal Currently the overall literacy rate (for population aged Nepalese teacher and schoolchildren in Pokhara 5 years and above) has increased from 54.1% in 2001 to 65.9% in 2011. Male literacy rate is 75.1% compared to female literacy rate of 57.4%. The highest literacy rate is reported in Kathmandu district (86.3%) and low- est in Rautahat (41.7%). While the net primary enroll- ment rate was 74% in 2005; in 2009, that enrollment rate was at 90%. However increasing access to sec- ondary education (grades 9-12) remains a major chal- lenge, as evidenced by the disturbingly low net enrollment rate of 24% at this level. More than half of primary stu- dents do not enter secondary schools, and only one-half of them complete secondary schooling. In addition, fewer girls than boys join secondary schools and, among those who do join, fewer complete the 10th grade. Nepal has six universities: Tribhuvan University , Kathmandu University , Pokhara University , Purbanchal University , Mahendra Sanskrit University , and the Agriculture and Forestry University of Nepal (AFU). Some newly proposed universities are Lumbini Bouddha University, Mid-Western University, and Far-Western University. Some fine scholarship has emerged in the post-1990 [108] 7.5 Health Main article: Health in Nepal Public health and health care services in Nepal are pro- Kunde Hospital in remote Himalayan region vided by both the public and private sector and fares poorly by international standards. According to 2011 census, more than one third (38.17%) of the total house- " id="pdf-obj-10-84" src="pdf-obj-10-84.jpg">

Kunde Hospital in remote Himalayan region

vided by both the public and private sector and fares poorly by international standards. According to 2011 census, more than one third (38.17%) of the total house-

12

8 CRIME AND LAW ENFORCEMENT

holds do not have toilet in their houses. [2] Tap/Piped water is the main source of drinking water for 47.78% of the total households. Tube well/hand pump is the main source of drinking water for about 35% of the total households, while spout, uncovered well/kuwa and cov- ered well/kuwa are the main source for 5.74%, 4.71% and 2.45% respectively. [2] Based on 2010 World Health Organization (WHO) data, Nepal ranked 139 in life ex- pectancy in 2010 with the average Nepalese living to 65.8

years. [109][110]

Disease prevalence is higher in Nepal than it is in other South Asian countries, especially in rural areas. Leading diseases and illnesses include diarrhea, gastrointestinal disorders, goiter, intestinal parasites, leprosy, visceral leishmaniasis and tuberculosis. [111] About 4 out of 1,000 adults aged 15 to 49 had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and the HIV prevalence rate was 0.5%. [112][113] Malnutrition also remains very high: about 47% of children under 5 are stunted, 15 percent wasted, and

  • 36 percent underweight, although there has been a de-

clining trend for these rates over the past five years, they remain alarmingly high. [114] In spite of these fig- ures, some improvements in health care have been made, most notable is the significant progress in maternal-child health. [115][116] Overall Nepal’s HDI for health was 0.77 in 2011, ranking Nepal 126 out of 194 countries, up from 0.444 in 1980. [117][118]

  • 7.6 Community forestry

The Community Forestry Program in Nepal is a par- ticipatory environmental governance that encompasses well-defined policies, institutions, and practices. The program addresses the twin goals of forest conserva- tion and poverty reduction. As more than 70 per- cent of Nepal’s population depends on agriculture for their livelihood, community management of forests has been a critically important intervention. Through legisla- tive developments and operational innovations over three decades, the program has evolved from a protection- oriented, conservation-focused agenda to a much more broad-based strategy for forest use, enterprise develop- ment, and livelihood improvement. By April 2009, one- third of Nepal’s population was participating in the pro- gram, directly managing more than one-fourth of Nepal’s forest area. [119][120]

The immediate livelihood benefits derived by rural house- holds bolster strong collective action wherein local com- munities actively and sustainably manage forest re- sources. Community forests also became the source of diversified investment capital and raw material for new market-oriented livelihoods. Community forestry shows traits of political, financial, and ecological sustainabil- ity, including emergence of a strong legal and regulatory framework, and robust civil society institutions and net- works. However, a continuing challenge is to ensure eq- uitable distribution of benefits to women and marginal-

ized groups. Lessons for replication emphasize expe- riential learning, establishment of a strong civil society network, flexible regulation to encourage diverse institu- tional modalities, and responsiveness of government and policymakers to a multistakeholder collaborative learning

process. [121][122]

  • 8 Crime and law enforcement

Law enforcement in Nepal is primarily the responsibil- ity of the Nepalese Police Force which is the national police of Nepal. [123] It is independent of the Nepalese

Army. In the days of its establishment, Nepal Police personnel were mainly drawn from the armed forces of the Nepali Congress Party which fought against feudal Rana autocracy in Nepal. Central Investigation Bureau (CIB) and National Investigation Department of Nepal (NID) are the investigation agencies of Nepal. They have offices in all 75 administrative districts including region offices in five regions and Zonal offices in four- teen Zones. Numbers varies from three to five mem- bers at each district level in rural districts and numbers

can be higher in urban districts. They have both Do- mestic and International surveillance unit which mainly deals with cross border terrorists, drug trafficking, money

laundering. [124][125][126][127]

A 2010 survey estimated about 46,000 hard drug users in the country, with 70% of the users to be within the age group of 15 to 29. [128] The same survey also reported that 19% of the users had been introduced to hard drugs when they were less than 15 years old; and 14.4% of drug users were attending school or college. [128] Only 12 of the 17 municipalities studied had any type of rehabilita- tion center. [128][129] There has been a sharp increase in the seizure of drugs such as hashish, heroin and opium in the past few years; and there are indications that drug traf- ficker are trying to establish Nepal as a transit point. [130]

Human trafficking is a major problem in Nepal. [131][132][133] Nepali victims are trafficked within Nepal, to India, the Middle East, and other areas such as Malaysia and forced to become prostitutes, domestic servants, beggars, factory workers, mine workers, circus performers, child soldiers, and others. Sex trafficking is particularly rampant within Nepal and to India, with as many as 5,000 to 10,000 women and girls trafficked to India alone each year. [134][135][136]

With wider availability of information technology, cy- ber crime is a growing trend. The police handled 16 cases of cyber crime in fiscal year 2010/2011, 47 cases in 2011/2012 and 78 in the current fiscal year. [137] In 2013,

9.1 Languages

13

out of 78 cases of cyber crime this year 57 are related to social networking sites. [137]

Capital punishment was abolished in Nepal in 1997. [138] In 2008, the Nepalese government abolished the Haliya system of forced labour, freeing about 20,000 people. [139] How effective this has been has been questioned. [140]

9 Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Nepal According to 2011 census, Nepal’s population grew from

9.1 Languages 13 out of 78 cases of cyber crime this year 57 are related toHali y a system of forced labour, freeing about 20,000 people. How effective this has been has been questioned. 9 Demographics Main article: Demographics of Nepal According to 2011 census, Nepal’s population grew from Population density map of Nepal 9 million people in 1950 to 26.5 million in 2011. The population was 23 million in 2001 with a subsequent fam- ily size decline from 5.44 to 4.9 from 2001 to 2011. Some 1.9 million absentee population was noted in 2011, over a million more than in 2001, most being male workers. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio from 94.41 A mountain village in Nepal Nepalese women dancing in Teej by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , Nepal hosted a population of refugees and asylum seek- ers in 2007 numbering approximately 130,000. Of this population, approximately 109,200 persons were as compared to 99.80 for 2001. The annual population from Bhutan and 20,500 from People’s Republic of growth rate is 1.35%. The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet , and North Burma and the Chinese province of Yunnan via Assam . Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of east mid- region, Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Brahmin and Chetri caste groups came from India’s present Kumaon , Garhwal and Kashmir regions, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to North Burma and Yunnan and Tibet, e.g. the Gurung and Magar in the west, Rai , Sunuwar and Limbu in the east (from Yunnan and north Burma via Assam), and Sherpa and Bhutia in the north (from Tibet). Despite the migration of a significant section of the pop- ulation to the southern plains or terai in recent years, the majority of the population still lives in the central highlands. The northern mountains are sparsely popu- lated. Kathmandu, with a population of over 2.6 million (metropolitan area: 5 million), is the largest city in the country. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008 , published China. The government of Nepal restricted ethnic Nepalese expelled from Bhutan to seven camps in the Jhapa and Morang districts, and refugees were not permitted to work in most professions. At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than 60,000 of these refugees in the US. 9.1 Languages Main article: Languages of Nepal Nepal’s diverse linguistic heritage evolved from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan , Tibeto-Burman , Mongolian and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as na- tive language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali (44.6%), Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Nepal Bhasa (3.2%), Bajjika (3%) and Magar (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%) and Sunwar . In addition, Nepal is home to at least four indige- nous sign languages . Derived from Sanskrit , Nepali is written in Devanagari " id="pdf-obj-12-27" src="pdf-obj-12-27.jpg">

Population density map of Nepal

9 million people in 1950 to 26.5 million in 2011. The population was 23 million in 2001 with a subsequent fam- ily size decline from 5.44 to 4.9 from 2001 to 2011. Some 1.9 million absentee population was noted in 2011, over a million more than in 2001, most being male workers. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio from 94.41

9.1 Languages 13 out of 78 cases of cyber crime this year 57 are related toHali y a system of forced labour, freeing about 20,000 people. How effective this has been has been questioned. 9 Demographics Main article: Demographics of Nepal According to 2011 census, Nepal’s population grew from Population density map of Nepal 9 million people in 1950 to 26.5 million in 2011. The population was 23 million in 2001 with a subsequent fam- ily size decline from 5.44 to 4.9 from 2001 to 2011. Some 1.9 million absentee population was noted in 2011, over a million more than in 2001, most being male workers. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio from 94.41 A mountain village in Nepal Nepalese women dancing in Teej by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , Nepal hosted a population of refugees and asylum seek- ers in 2007 numbering approximately 130,000. Of this population, approximately 109,200 persons were as compared to 99.80 for 2001. The annual population from Bhutan and 20,500 from People’s Republic of growth rate is 1.35%. The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet , and North Burma and the Chinese province of Yunnan via Assam . Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of east mid- region, Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Brahmin and Chetri caste groups came from India’s present Kumaon , Garhwal and Kashmir regions, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to North Burma and Yunnan and Tibet, e.g. the Gurung and Magar in the west, Rai , Sunuwar and Limbu in the east (from Yunnan and north Burma via Assam), and Sherpa and Bhutia in the north (from Tibet). Despite the migration of a significant section of the pop- ulation to the southern plains or terai in recent years, the majority of the population still lives in the central highlands. The northern mountains are sparsely popu- lated. Kathmandu, with a population of over 2.6 million (metropolitan area: 5 million), is the largest city in the country. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008 , published China. The government of Nepal restricted ethnic Nepalese expelled from Bhutan to seven camps in the Jhapa and Morang districts, and refugees were not permitted to work in most professions. At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than 60,000 of these refugees in the US. 9.1 Languages Main article: Languages of Nepal Nepal’s diverse linguistic heritage evolved from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan , Tibeto-Burman , Mongolian and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as na- tive language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali (44.6%), Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Nepal Bhasa (3.2%), Bajjika (3%) and Magar (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%) and Sunwar . In addition, Nepal is home to at least four indige- nous sign languages . Derived from Sanskrit , Nepali is written in Devanagari " id="pdf-obj-12-33" src="pdf-obj-12-33.jpg">

A mountain village in Nepal

9.1 Languages 13 out of 78 cases of cyber crime this year 57 are related toHali y a system of forced labour, freeing about 20,000 people. How effective this has been has been questioned. 9 Demographics Main article: Demographics of Nepal According to 2011 census, Nepal’s population grew from Population density map of Nepal 9 million people in 1950 to 26.5 million in 2011. The population was 23 million in 2001 with a subsequent fam- ily size decline from 5.44 to 4.9 from 2001 to 2011. Some 1.9 million absentee population was noted in 2011, over a million more than in 2001, most being male workers. This correlated with the drop in sex ratio from 94.41 A mountain village in Nepal Nepalese women dancing in Teej by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants , Nepal hosted a population of refugees and asylum seek- ers in 2007 numbering approximately 130,000. Of this population, approximately 109,200 persons were as compared to 99.80 for 2001. The annual population from Bhutan and 20,500 from People’s Republic of growth rate is 1.35%. The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet , and North Burma and the Chinese province of Yunnan via Assam . Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of east mid- region, Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Brahmin and Chetri caste groups came from India’s present Kumaon , Garhwal and Kashmir regions, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to North Burma and Yunnan and Tibet, e.g. the Gurung and Magar in the west, Rai , Sunuwar and Limbu in the east (from Yunnan and north Burma via Assam), and Sherpa and Bhutia in the north (from Tibet). Despite the migration of a significant section of the pop- ulation to the southern plains or terai in recent years, the majority of the population still lives in the central highlands. The northern mountains are sparsely popu- lated. Kathmandu, with a population of over 2.6 million (metropolitan area: 5 million), is the largest city in the country. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008 , published China. The government of Nepal restricted ethnic Nepalese expelled from Bhutan to seven camps in the Jhapa and Morang districts, and refugees were not permitted to work in most professions. At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than 60,000 of these refugees in the US. 9.1 Languages Main article: Languages of Nepal Nepal’s diverse linguistic heritage evolved from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan , Tibeto-Burman , Mongolian and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as na- tive language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali (44.6%), Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Nepal Bhasa (3.2%), Bajjika (3%) and Magar (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%) and Sunwar . In addition, Nepal is home to at least four indige- nous sign languages . Derived from Sanskrit , Nepali is written in Devanagari " id="pdf-obj-12-37" src="pdf-obj-12-37.jpg">

Nepalese women dancing in Teej

by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Nepal hosted a population of refugees and asylum seek- ers in 2007 numbering approximately 130,000. Of this population, approximately 109,200 persons were

as compared to 99.80 for 2001. The annual population from Bhutan and 20,500 from People’s Republic of

growth rate is 1.35%. [2]

The Nepalese are descendants of three major migrations from India, Tibet, and North Burma and the Chinese province of Yunnan via Assam.

Among the earliest inhabitants were the Kirat of east mid- region, Newar of the Kathmandu Valley and aboriginal Tharu in the southern Terai region. The ancestors of the Brahmin and Chetri caste groups came from India’s present Kumaon, Garhwal and Kashmir regions, while other ethnic groups trace their origins to North Burma and Yunnan and Tibet, e.g. the Gurung and Magar in the west, Rai, Sunuwar and Limbu in the east (from Yunnan and north Burma via Assam), and Sherpa and Bhutia in the north (from Tibet).

Despite the migration of a significant section of the pop- ulation to the southern plains or terai in recent years, the majority of the population still lives in the central highlands. The northern mountains are sparsely popu- lated. Kathmandu, with a population of over 2.6 million (metropolitan area: 5 million), is the largest city in the country.

According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published

China. [141][142] The government of Nepal restricted ethnic Nepalese expelled from Bhutan to seven camps in the Jhapa and Morang districts, and refugees were not permitted to work in most professions. [141] At present, the United States is working towards resettling more than 60,000 of these refugees in the US. [34]

9.1 Languages

Main article: Languages of Nepal

Nepal’s diverse linguistic heritage evolved from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolian and various indigenous language isolates. The major languages of Nepal (percent spoken as na- tive language) according to the 2011 census are Nepali (44.6%), Maithili (11.7%), Bhojpuri (6.0%), Tharu (5.8%), Tamang (5.1%), Nepal Bhasa (3.2%), Bajjika (3%) and Magar (3.0%), Doteli (3.0%), Urdu (2.6%) and Sunwar. In addition, Nepal is home to at least four indige- nous sign languages.

Derived from Sanskrit, Nepali is written in Devanagari

14

9 DEMOGRAPHICS

script. Nepali is the official national language and serves as lingua franca among Nepalis of different ethnolinguis- tic groups. The regional languages Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Maithili and rarely Hindi are spoken in the southern Terai Region. Many Nepalis in government and business speak English as well. Varieties of Tibetan are spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Ti- betan is widely understood by those with religious edu- cation. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet.

9.2 Religion

Main article: Religion in Nepal The overwhelming majority of the Nepalese population

14 9 DEMOGRAPHICS script. Nepali is the official national language and serves as lingua franca amongAwadhi , Bhojpuri, Maithili and rarely Hindi are spoken in the southern Terai Region . Many Nepalis in government and business speak English as well. Varieties of Tibetan are spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Ti- betan is widely understood by those with religious edu- cation. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet. 9.2 Religion Main article: Religion in Nepal The overwhelming majority of the Nepalese population Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu , Nepal. follows Hinduism . Shiva is regarded as the guardian deity of the country. Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple, the Pashupatinath Temple , where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage. According to theology, Sita Devi of the epic Ramayana , was born in the Mithila Kingdom of King Janaka Raja. Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site and UNESCO World Heritage Site site in the Kapilavastu district. Tra- ditionally it is held to be the birthplace in about 563 B.C. of Siddhartha Gautama , a Kshatriya caste prince of the Sakya clan, who, as the Buddha Gautama , gave birth to the Buddhist tradition . The holy site of Lumbini is bordered by a large monastic zone, in which only monasteries can be built. All three main branches of Buddhism exist in Nepal and the Newa people have their own branch of the faith. Buddhism is also the dominant religion of the thinly populated northern areas, which are mostly inhabited by Tibetan- related peoples, such as the Sherpa . The Buddha, born as a Hindu, is also said to be a descen- dant of Vedic Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. The Buddha’s family surname is associated with Gautama Maharishi . Differences between Hindus and Bud- dhists have been minimal in Nepal due to the cultural and historical intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist be- liefs. Moreover traditionally Buddhism and Hinduism were never two distinct religions in the western sense of the word. In Nepal, the faiths share common tem- ples and worship common deities. Among other na- tives of Nepal, those more influenced by Hinduism were the Magar , Sunwar , Limbu and Rai and the Gurkhas . Hindu influence is less prominent among the Gurung , Bhutia , and Thakali groups who employ Buddhist monks for their religious ceremonies. Most of the festivals in Nepal are Hindu. The Machendrajatra festival, dedi- cated to Hindu Shaiva Siddha , is celebrated by many Bud- dhists in Nepal as a main festival. As it is believed that Ne Muni established Nepal, some important priests in Nepal are called “Tirthaguru Nemuni”. Islam is a mi- nority religion in Nepal, with 4.2% of the population be- ing Muslim according to a 2006 Nepalese census. Mundhum , Christianity and Jainism are other minority faiths. 9.3 Largest cities Narayanhiti Palace Museum The 14 largest cities in 2011 by population as per cen- sus 2011 Main article: List of cities in NepalKathmandu (Pop.: 975,453) the largest city and cap- ital of Nepal. " id="pdf-obj-13-25" src="pdf-obj-13-25.jpg">

follows Hinduism. Shiva is regarded as the guardian deity of the country. [145] Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple, the Pashupatinath Temple, where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage. According to theology, Sita Devi of the epic Ramayana, was born in the Mithila Kingdom of King Janaka Raja.

Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site and UNESCO World Heritage Site site in the Kapilavastu district. Tra- ditionally it is held to be the birthplace in about 563 B.C. of Siddhartha Gautama, a Kshatriya caste prince of the Sakya clan, who, as the Buddha Gautama, gave birth to the Buddhist tradition.

The holy site of Lumbini is bordered by a large monastic zone, in which only monasteries can be built. All three

main branches of Buddhism exist in Nepal and the Newa people have their own branch of the faith. [146] Buddhism is also the dominant religion of the thinly populated northern areas, which are mostly inhabited by Tibetan- related peoples, such as the Sherpa.

The Buddha, born as a Hindu, is also said to be a descen- dant of Vedic Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. [147] The Buddha’s family surname is associated with Gautama Maharishi. [148] Differences between Hindus and Bud- dhists have been minimal in Nepal due to the cultural and historical intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist be- liefs. Moreover traditionally Buddhism and Hinduism were never two distinct religions in the western sense of the word. In Nepal, the faiths share common tem- ples and worship common deities. Among other na- tives of Nepal, those more influenced by Hinduism were the Magar, Sunwar, Limbu and Rai and the Gurkhas. [25] Hindu influence is less prominent among the Gurung, Bhutia, and Thakali groups who employ Buddhist monks for their religious ceremonies. [25] Most of the festivals in Nepal are Hindu. [149] The Machendrajatra festival, dedi- cated to Hindu Shaiva Siddha, is celebrated by many Bud- dhists in Nepal as a main festival. [150] As it is believed that Ne Muni established Nepal, [151] some important priests in Nepal are called “Tirthaguru Nemuni”. Islam is a mi- nority religion in Nepal, with 4.2% of the population be- ing Muslim according to a 2006 Nepalese census. [152] Mundhum, Christianity and Jainism are other minority faiths. [153]

  • 9.3 Largest cities

14 9 DEMOGRAPHICS script. Nepali is the official national language and serves as lingua franca amongAwadhi , Bhojpuri, Maithili and rarely Hindi are spoken in the southern Terai Region . Many Nepalis in government and business speak English as well. Varieties of Tibetan are spoken in and north of the higher Himalaya where standard literary Ti- betan is widely understood by those with religious edu- cation. Local dialects in the Terai and hills are mostly unwritten with efforts underway to develop systems for writing many in Devanagari or the Roman alphabet. 9.2 Religion Main article: Religion in Nepal The overwhelming majority of the Nepalese population Pashupatinath Temple in Kathmandu , Nepal. follows Hinduism . Shiva is regarded as the guardian deity of the country. Nepal is home to the famous Lord Shiva temple, the Pashupatinath Temple , where Hindus from all over the world come for pilgrimage. According to theology, Sita Devi of the epic Ramayana , was born in the Mithila Kingdom of King Janaka Raja. Lumbini is a Buddhist pilgrimage site and UNESCO World Heritage Site site in the Kapilavastu district. Tra- ditionally it is held to be the birthplace in about 563 B.C. of Siddhartha Gautama , a Kshatriya caste prince of the Sakya clan, who, as the Buddha Gautama , gave birth to the Buddhist tradition . The holy site of Lumbini is bordered by a large monastic zone, in which only monasteries can be built. All three main branches of Buddhism exist in Nepal and the Newa people have their own branch of the faith. Buddhism is also the dominant religion of the thinly populated northern areas, which are mostly inhabited by Tibetan- related peoples, such as the Sherpa . The Buddha, born as a Hindu, is also said to be a descen- dant of Vedic Sage Angirasa in many Buddhist texts. The Buddha’s family surname is associated with Gautama Maharishi . Differences between Hindus and Bud- dhists have been minimal in Nepal due to the cultural and historical intermingling of Hindu and Buddhist be- liefs. Moreover traditionally Buddhism and Hinduism were never two distinct religions in the western sense of the word. In Nepal, the faiths share common tem- ples and worship common deities. Among other na- tives of Nepal, those more influenced by Hinduism were the Magar , Sunwar , Limbu and Rai and the Gurkhas . Hindu influence is less prominent among the Gurung , Bhutia , and Thakali groups who employ Buddhist monks for their religious ceremonies. Most of the festivals in Nepal are Hindu. The Machendrajatra festival, dedi- cated to Hindu Shaiva Siddha , is celebrated by many Bud- dhists in Nepal as a main festival. As it is believed that Ne Muni established Nepal, some important priests in Nepal are called “Tirthaguru Nemuni”. Islam is a mi- nority religion in Nepal, with 4.2% of the population be- ing Muslim according to a 2006 Nepalese census. Mundhum , Christianity and Jainism are other minority faiths. 9.3 Largest cities Narayanhiti Palace Museum The 14 largest cities in 2011 by population as per cen- sus 2011 Main article: List of cities in NepalKathmandu (Pop.: 975,453) the largest city and cap- ital of Nepal. " id="pdf-obj-13-131" src="pdf-obj-13-131.jpg">

Narayanhiti Palace Museum

The 14 largest cities in 2011 by population as per cen- sus 2011 [2]

Main article: List of cities in Nepal

Kathmandu (Pop.: 975,453) the largest city and cap- ital of Nepal.

10.1 Cuisine

15

Biratnagar (Pop.: over 700,000 including sub urban areas) the second largest City of Nepal

Pokhara (Pop.: 264,991) Lalitpur (Pop.: 220,802) Bharatpur (Pop.: 143,836) Birganj (Pop.: 135,904) Butwal (Pop.: 118,462) Dharan (Pop.: 116,181) Bhim Datta (Pop.: 104,599) Dhangadhi (Pop.: 101,970) Janakpur (Pop.: 97,776) Hetauda (Pop.:84,671) Madhyapur Thimi (Pop.:83,036) Bhaktapur (Pop.: 81,748)

10

Culture

Main articles: Culture of Nepal and Music of Nepal Folklore is an integral part of Nepalese society. Tradi-

10.1 Cuisine 15 • <a href=Biratnagar (Pop.: over 700,000 including sub urban areas) the second largest City of Nepal • Pokhara (Pop.: 264,991) • Lalitpur (Pop.: 220,802) • Bharatpur (Pop.: 143,836) • Birganj (Pop.: 135,904) • Butwal (Pop.: 118,462) • Dharan (Pop.: 116,181) • Bhim Datta (Pop.: 104,599) • Dhangadhi (Pop.: 101,970) • Janakpur (Pop.: 97,776) • Hetauda (Pop.:84,671) • Madhyapur Thimi (Pop.:83,036) • Bhaktapur (Pop.: 81,748) 10 Culture Main articles: Culture of Nepal and Music of Nepal Folklore is an integral part of Nepalese society. Tradi- Traditional Nepalese cuisine- ( Dal bhat ) tional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Many Nepalese folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music. The Nepali year begins in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the National Day, celebrated on the birthday of the king (28 December), Prithvi Jayanti (11 January), Martyr’s Day (18 February), and a mix of Hindu and Buddhist festivals such as dashain in autumn, and tihar in late autumn. During Swanti , the Newars per- form the Mha Puja ceremony to celebrate New Year’s Day of the lunar calendar Nepal Sambat . Musicians singing devotional songs Momo Most houses in rural lowland of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow- dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs. Nepal’s flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape and is considered to be the most mathematical flag in the world. According to its official description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also color of the rhododendron , the national flower of Nepal. Red also stands for aggression. The flag’s blue border signifies peace. The curved moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepalese, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepalese warriors. 10.1 Cuisine Main articles: Nepalese cuisine and Newa cuisine See also: List of Nepalese dishes A typical Nepalese meal is Dal bhat . Dal is a spicy " id="pdf-obj-14-58" src="pdf-obj-14-58.jpg">

Traditional Nepalese cuisine- (Dal bhat)

tional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Many Nepalese folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music.

The Nepali year begins in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the National Day, celebrated on the birthday of the king (28 December), Prithvi Jayanti (11 January), Martyr’s Day (18 February), and a mix of Hindu and Buddhist festivals such as dashain in autumn, and tihar in late autumn. During Swanti, the Newars per- form the Mha Puja ceremony to celebrate New Year’s Day of the lunar calendar Nepal Sambat.

10.1 Cuisine 15 • <a href=Biratnagar (Pop.: over 700,000 including sub urban areas) the second largest City of Nepal • Pokhara (Pop.: 264,991) • Lalitpur (Pop.: 220,802) • Bharatpur (Pop.: 143,836) • Birganj (Pop.: 135,904) • Butwal (Pop.: 118,462) • Dharan (Pop.: 116,181) • Bhim Datta (Pop.: 104,599) • Dhangadhi (Pop.: 101,970) • Janakpur (Pop.: 97,776) • Hetauda (Pop.:84,671) • Madhyapur Thimi (Pop.:83,036) • Bhaktapur (Pop.: 81,748) 10 Culture Main articles: Culture of Nepal and Music of Nepal Folklore is an integral part of Nepalese society. Tradi- Traditional Nepalese cuisine- ( Dal bhat ) tional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Many Nepalese folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music. The Nepali year begins in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the National Day, celebrated on the birthday of the king (28 December), Prithvi Jayanti (11 January), Martyr’s Day (18 February), and a mix of Hindu and Buddhist festivals such as dashain in autumn, and tihar in late autumn. During Swanti , the Newars per- form the Mha Puja ceremony to celebrate New Year’s Day of the lunar calendar Nepal Sambat . Musicians singing devotional songs Momo Most houses in rural lowland of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow- dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs. Nepal’s flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape and is considered to be the most mathematical flag in the world. According to its official description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also color of the rhododendron , the national flower of Nepal. Red also stands for aggression. The flag’s blue border signifies peace. The curved moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepalese, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepalese warriors. 10.1 Cuisine Main articles: Nepalese cuisine and Newa cuisine See also: List of Nepalese dishes A typical Nepalese meal is Dal bhat . Dal is a spicy " id="pdf-obj-14-78" src="pdf-obj-14-78.jpg">

Musicians singing devotional songs

10.1 Cuisine 15 • <a href=Biratnagar (Pop.: over 700,000 including sub urban areas) the second largest City of Nepal • Pokhara (Pop.: 264,991) • Lalitpur (Pop.: 220,802) • Bharatpur (Pop.: 143,836) • Birganj (Pop.: 135,904) • Butwal (Pop.: 118,462) • Dharan (Pop.: 116,181) • Bhim Datta (Pop.: 104,599) • Dhangadhi (Pop.: 101,970) • Janakpur (Pop.: 97,776) • Hetauda (Pop.:84,671) • Madhyapur Thimi (Pop.:83,036) • Bhaktapur (Pop.: 81,748) 10 Culture Main articles: Culture of Nepal and Music of Nepal Folklore is an integral part of Nepalese society. Tradi- Traditional Nepalese cuisine- ( Dal bhat ) tional stories are rooted in the reality of day-to-day life, tales of love, affection and battles as well as demons and ghosts and thus reflect local lifestyles, cultures and beliefs. Many Nepalese folktales are enacted through the medium of dance and music. The Nepali year begins in mid-April and is divided into 12 months. Saturday is the official weekly holiday. Main annual holidays include the National Day, celebrated on the birthday of the king (28 December), Prithvi Jayanti (11 January), Martyr’s Day (18 February), and a mix of Hindu and Buddhist festivals such as dashain in autumn, and tihar in late autumn. During Swanti , the Newars per- form the Mha Puja ceremony to celebrate New Year’s Day of the lunar calendar Nepal Sambat . Musicians singing devotional songs Momo Most houses in rural lowland of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow- dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs. Nepal’s flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape and is considered to be the most mathematical flag in the world. According to its official description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also color of the rhododendron , the national flower of Nepal. Red also stands for aggression. The flag’s blue border signifies peace. The curved moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepalese, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepalese warriors. 10.1 Cuisine Main articles: Nepalese cuisine and Newa cuisine See also: List of Nepalese dishes A typical Nepalese meal is Dal bhat . Dal is a spicy " id="pdf-obj-14-82" src="pdf-obj-14-82.jpg">

Most houses in rural lowland of Nepal are made up of a tight bamboo framework and walls of a mud and cow- dung mix. These dwellings remain cool in summer and retain warmth in winter. Houses in the hills are usually made of unbaked bricks with thatch or tile roofing. At high elevations construction changes to stone masonry and slate may be used on roofs.

Nepal’s flag is the only national flag in the world that is not rectangular in shape [154] and is considered to be the most mathematical flag in the world. [155] According to its official description, the red in the flag stands for victory in war or courage, and is also color of the rhododendron, the national flower of Nepal. Red also stands for aggression. The flag’s blue border signifies peace. The curved moon on the flag is a symbol of the peaceful and calm nature of Nepalese, while the sun represents the aggressiveness of Nepalese warriors.

10.1 Cuisine

A typical Nepalese meal is Dal bhat. Dal is a spicy

16

13 CITATIONS

lentil soup, served over bhat (boiled rice), served with tarkari (curried vegetables) together with achar (pickles) or chutni (spicy condiment made from fresh ingredients). It consists of non-vegetarian as well as vegetarian items served with non-alcoholic beverages. Mustard oil is the cooking medium and a host of spices, such as cumin, coriander, black pepper, sesame seeds, turmeric, garlic, ginger, methi (fenugreek), bay leaves, cloves, cinnamon, chilies, mustard seeds, etc., are used in the cooking. The cuisine served on festivals is generally the best. Momo is a type of steamed bun with or without fillings. Momo have become a traditional delicacy in Nepal. They are one of the most popular fast foods in many regions of the Nepal.

fier. They have also qualified for the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 which is currently taking place in Bangladesh.

Phapla Cricket Stadium is the national cricket stadium in Nepal. It is located in Dhangadhi Kailali.

  • 12 See also

  • 13 Citations

  • 11 Sports

16 13 CITATIONS lentil soup, served over bhat (boiled rice), served with tarkari (curried vegetables) togetherMomo is a type of steamed bun with or without fillings. Momo have become a traditional delicacy in Nepal. They are one of the most popular fast foods in many regions of the Nepal. fier . They have also qualified for the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 which is currently taking place in Bangladesh . Phapla Cricket Stadium is the national cricket stadium in Nepal. It is located in Dhangadhi Kailali . 12 See also • List of Nepal-related topics Outline of Nepal 13 Citations 11 Sports Dasarath Rangasala Stadium Halchowk Studium Association football is the most popular sport in Nepal and was first played during the Rana dynasty in 1921. Also, cricket has been gaining popularity since the last decade. Cricket in Nepal is making quick progress as the Nepal cricket team has won the 2012 ICC World Cricket League Division Four and the 2013 ICC World Cricket League Division Three simultaneously hence qualifying for 2014 Cricket World Cup Quali- [1] “Nepal5” . Royalark.net. Retrieved 14 February 2014. [2] “National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)" . Central Bureau of Statistics (Nepal). Retrieved 26 November 2012. [3] http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GDP_ PPP.pdf [4] http://databank.worldbank.org [5] “Nepal” . International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April 2012. [6] “Gini Index” . World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. [7] “2014 Human Development Report Summary” . United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014. [8] “Nepal” . Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. [9] “CIA – The World Factbook” . Cia.gov. Retrieved 5 De- cember 2012. [10] “The World Factbook: Rank order population” . CIA. Re- trieved 14 February 2014. [11] Shaha (1992), p. 1. [12] Shrestha, Khadga Man (2005). “Religious Syncretism and Context of Buddhism in Medieval Nepal” . Voice of His- tory 20 (1): 51–60. [13] Nepal, UN. “12-point understanding reached between the Seven Political Parties and Nepal Communist Party (Maoists)" . http://www.un.org.np/ . Retrieved 3 July 2014. [14] Bhusal, Thira (14 March 2013). “Major parties ink 11- point agreement” . Republica . Retrieved 13 March 2013. [15] "बाधा अड्काउ फुकाउनेसहित राजनीतिक सहमतिमा हस्ताक्षर, शपथ भोलि बिहान ९ बजेमात्रै" . Nagarik . 23 November 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. [16] “Sushil Koirala wins vote to be Nepal’s prime minis- ter” . BBC. Retrieved 14 February 2014. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list ( help ) " id="pdf-obj-15-43" src="pdf-obj-15-43.jpg">

Dasarath Rangasala Stadium

16 13 CITATIONS lentil soup, served over bhat (boiled rice), served with tarkari (curried vegetables) togetherMomo is a type of steamed bun with or without fillings. Momo have become a traditional delicacy in Nepal. They are one of the most popular fast foods in many regions of the Nepal. fier . They have also qualified for the 2014 ICC World Twenty20 which is currently taking place in Bangladesh . Phapla Cricket Stadium is the national cricket stadium in Nepal. It is located in Dhangadhi Kailali . 12 See also • List of Nepal-related topics Outline of Nepal 13 Citations 11 Sports Dasarath Rangasala Stadium Halchowk Studium Association football is the most popular sport in Nepal and was first played during the Rana dynasty in 1921. Also, cricket has been gaining popularity since the last decade. Cricket in Nepal is making quick progress as the Nepal cricket team has won the 2012 ICC World Cricket League Division Four and the 2013 ICC World Cricket League Division Three simultaneously hence qualifying for 2014 Cricket World Cup Quali- [1] “Nepal5” . Royalark.net. Retrieved 14 February 2014. [2] “National Population and Housing Census 2011 (National Report)" . Central Bureau of Statistics (Nepal). Retrieved 26 November 2012. [3] http://databank.worldbank.org/data/download/GDP_ PPP.pdf [4] http://databank.worldbank.org [5] “Nepal” . International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 20 April 2012. [6] “Gini Index” . World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. [7] “2014 Human Development Report Summary” . United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014. [8] “Nepal” . Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. [9] “CIA – The World Factbook” . Cia.gov. Retrieved 5 De- cember 2012. [10] “The World Factbook: Rank order population” . CIA. Re- trieved 14 February 2014. [11] Shaha (1992), p. 1. [12] Shrestha, Khadga Man (2005). “Religious Syncretism and Context of Buddhism in Medieval Nepal” . Voice of His- tory 20 (1): 51–60. [13] Nepal, UN. “12-point understanding reached between the Seven Political Parties and Nepal Communist Party (Maoists)" . http://www.un.org.np/ . Retrieved 3 July 2014. [14] Bhusal, Thira (14 March 2013). “Major parties ink 11- point agreement” . Republica . Retrieved 13 March 2013. [15] "बाधा अड्काउ फुकाउनेसहित राजनीतिक सहमतिमा हस्ताक्षर, शपथ भोलि बिहान ९ बजेमात्रै" . Nagarik . 23 November 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013. [16] “Sushil Koirala wins vote to be Nepal’s prime minis- ter” . BBC. Retrieved 14 February 2014. |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list ( help ) " id="pdf-obj-15-47" src="pdf-obj-15-47.jpg">

Halchowk Studium

Association football is the most popular sport in Nepal [156] and was first played during the Rana dynasty in 1921. [157] Also, cricket has been gaining popularity since the last decade. Cricket in Nepal is making quick progress as the Nepal cricket team has won the 2012 ICC World Cricket League Division Four and the 2013 ICC World Cricket League Division Three [158] simultaneously hence qualifying for 2014 Cricket World Cup Quali-

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16 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

  • 16 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

16.1

Text

Nepal Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepal?oldid=635818775 Contributors: Brion VIBBER, Mav, Koyaanis Qatsi, -- April, Andre Engels, Scipius, Danny, Rmhermen, Christian List, William Avery, SimonP, Drbug, B4hand, Fonzy, Olivier, Edward, Bdesham, Nealmcb, Patrick, Michael Hardy, Paul Barlow, Liftarn, Gabbe, Menchi, Mic, Ixfd64, Lquilter, GTBacchus, Delirium, Paddu, Ellywa, Ahoerste- meier, Docu, TUF-KAT, Notheruser, KoyaanisQatsi, Angela, Julesd, Pratyeka, Whkoh, Nikai, Dpol, Jiang, Kaihsu, GCarty, CarlKen- ner, Tobias Conradi, JASpencer, Timwi, David Newton, Janko, RickK, Lfh, N-true, Istabraq, Shresthasj, WhisperToMe, Selket, Pere- grine981, Tpbradbury, Maximus Rex, Imc, Grendelkhan, Morwen, Wernher, Stormie, Raul654, Camerong, Cvaneg, Hajor, Denelson83, Jni, SD6-Agent, Sjorford, Branddobbe, Robbot, Vardion, Santoshmaharjan, Kizor, Lapax, Altenmann, Stephan Schulz, Nurg, Romanm, Samrolken, Hemanshu, Diderot, Timrollpickering, Doidimais Brasil, Hadal, Wikibot, Ungvichian, Mushroom, Ambarish, Scythian99, BovineBeast, PBP, Davidcannon, Alan Liefting, David Gerard, Dave6, Nichalp, Lupin, IRelayer, Tom Radulovich, Peruvianllama, Ev- eryking, Gamaliel, Cantus, Rick Block, Niteowlneils, Dmmaus, Mboverload, Python eggs, Avala, Bobblewik, Sesel, Gugganij, Neilc, Utcursch, LordSimonofShropshire, Pgan002, Andycjp, SebastianBreier, Jasper Chua, Telso, Geni, Mike R, Ebear422, Knutux, Quadell, Ran, Antandrus, Jorm, Beland, Margana, Evertype, Lesgles, Hn acharya, Wmaheriv, Mikko Paananen, Secfan, Supadawg, Bumm13, Sam Hocevar, Asubedi, Arcturus, Soman, Neutrality, Sarcelles, Jh51681, Sonett72, Trevor MacInnis, Squash, Acsenray, Tcr25, Ba- belfisch, Nlnnet, Mike Rosoft, D6, Ulflarsen, EugeneZelenko, Discospinster, Brianhe, Rich Farmbrough, Pak21, Pmsyyz, Shuffdog, Vsmith, Florian Blaschke, Tomtom, HeikoEvermann, YUL89YYZ, Kzzl, Quiensabe, Erolos, Dbachmann, Pavel Vozenilek, Paul Au- gust, ESkog, Sc147, Kbh3rd, Oren Shatz, Blugu128, Brian0918, Aranel, Maclean25, Zscout370, MBisanz, El C, Dhoom, Kwamikagami, Marx Gomes, Aude, Shanes, Tom, Alereon, Sietse Snel, RoyBoy, Indiver, Mqduck, RobNS, Bobo192, Aydee, Chan Han Xiang, Billy- mac00, Flxmghvgvk, Tronno, AtomicDragon, Braeside, Garlics82, Smrits, Captain Blood, Alberuni, La goutte de pluie, CoolGuy, Rje, Numerousfalx, SecretAgentMan00, Pperos, Hintha, Idleguy, MPerel, Polylerus, Ingoman, Gsklee, Cyrillic, Jumbuck, AndromedaRoach, Ane, Gary, Buaidh, Chamatkaribaba, Jeltz, Improv, Hapo, Davenbelle, Riana, Digitalmoron, Ferrierd, Echuck215, Sligocki, Mailer dia- blo, Walkerma, Hégésippe Cormier, Dark Shikari, Wanderingstan, Eukesh, Spangineer, Brentford, Ebz123, Mcferran, Max rspct, Ben- hutchings, Stephen Hodge, Garzo, Evil Monkey, Fdedio, RainbowOfLight, Sciurinæ, Abdel Qadir, Phil Fish, LFaraone, Kaiser matias, Sumit Dutta, H2g2bob, Celeron2002, Siddheshk, Jguk, Zshzn, Khanalsar, Netkinetic, Nightstallion, HenryLi, Kazvorpal, Varungarde, Snroyvskp, Kbolino, Dismas, Hijiri88, Cheungpat, DarTar, Stemonitis, Shanghaiclique, 888, FrancisTyers, Angr, Joriki, Richard Arthur Norton (1958- ), Pekinensis, TSP, OwenX, Woohookitty, Mr Tan, Diggerjohn111, Scriberius, Brunnock, Ganeshk, Skr, Samyem, Cho- chopk, MONGO, Eigenwijze mustang, Tabletop, Kmg90, Hotshot977, Steinbach, John Hill, Plrk, Brendanconway, Wayward, Moostang, Prashanthns, Formeruser0910, Palica, Paxsimius, SilhouetteSaloon, Darren Jowalsen, Graham87, Marskell, Deltabeignet, BD2412, Chun- hian, FreplySpang, JIP, Melesse, Electionworld, Canderson7, Jorunn, Sjakkalle, Behemoth, Rjwilmsi, Tim!, Koavf, Syndicate, Gryffindor, Vary, Bill37212, Tangotango, Bruce1ee, MZMcBride, Funnyhat, The jt, Ligulem, Durin, Brighterorange, Bhadani, TheGWO, Gozar, Ya- mamoto Ichiro, Amitroy5, FayssalF, Summitraj, FlaBot, Pruneau, RobertG, Thegreatloofa, Estrellador*, TheMidnighters, Nivix, Mark83, Celestianpower, RexNL, Gurch, Kolbasz, KFP, Maltmomma, Tu160m, McDogm, BradBeattie, Le Anh-Huy, Idaltu, WouterBot, King of Hearts, Chobot, 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knowledge, Bo99, JorisvS, Kashmiri, Green Giant, Goodnight- mush, Kransky, IronGargoyle, HADRIANVS, Beefy SAFC, Chrisch, Tarikur, Rkmlai, Pazuzu1990, Hvn0413, Werdan7, Beetstra, Noah Salzman, Raymond Palmer, Alethiophile, Samfreed, AxG, Muppeteer, Waggers, SandyGeorgia, Mets501, Ambuj.Saxena, Aotearoa, Pe- ter Horn, Jose77, Aakash87, Dl2000, Kevin W., Hu12, DabMachine, Levineps, Ahtsisab, Iridescent, Joseph Solis in Australia, Theone00, Tmangray, Shoeofdeath, Walton One, VSTiger, Sjerickson07, Tony Fox, Amakuru, Bobamnertiopsis, Linkspamremover, Anger22, Thrice- cube, Tawkerbot2, Pudeo, RaviC, MightyWarrior, Grasshoppa, Fvasconcellos, Dia^, Fentona, CmdrObot, Tanthalas39, Skathayat, Stansult, Van helsing, Aherunar, John Riemann Soong, Rawling, Theleek, Mika1h, Pankajjain, Kushal one, CWY2190, ShelfSkewed, Gsrihari- raju, Outriggr, Shandris, Lazulilasher, WeggeBot, Moreschi, Saturn070, Richard Keatinge, Jac16888, Cydebot, The Deformed Child, Wakeyjamie, Danrok, Ntsimp, Subravenkat, Stephen and Franklin and Roger and James, Perfect Proposal, Bernardmax, Ramitmaha- jan, Achangeisasgoodasa, Gogo Dodo, JFreeman, Corpx, Corcorda, Llort, Vampiric.Media, Wikincs, Socom49, Avashnirvana, Falca- nary, Christian75, Chrislk02, JCO312, Asenine, Biblbroks, Kozuch, Omicronpersei8, Gyudon, EvocativeIntrigue, Joowwww, Mattisse, Thijs!bot, Leo das, Wikiwow, Epbr123, Subcontinental, Biruitorul, Tozznok, Armanaziz, NumaNumaYay, Guluspogi@yahoo.com, Mojo Hand, Anupam, Jp07, RevolverOcelotX, Adhikar1, SGGH, Heelop, Merbabu, Franklee, RFerreira, Rabin06, NigelR, Suraj11024, I nepali, Jws42, Pdhakal, Therequiembellishere, Tonyseeker, Tocino, Big Bird, DeusMP, Haha169, Natalie Erin, AlefZet, Northumbrian, Escarbot, Oreo Priest, Mentifisto, KrakatoaKatie, AntiVandalBot, Luna Santin, Gaviidae, 33066, EarthPerson, Quintote, Dr. Blofeld, DarkAu-

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dit, Websuraj, Scepia, Vanjagenije, Modernist, Superzohar, Danger, Credema, Jhsounds, Gdo01, Yellowdesk, Alphachimpbot, Rcduggan, Ventriloquist, Djackmanson, E.James, MikeLynch, JAnDbot, Dagayute, Uunter, Fellix, Deflective, MER-C, Nepal avish, Smallbighorn, Kshitize, Scythian1, Jackieboy87, Hello32020, Db099221, OhanaUnited, Andonic, Hut 8.5, B cubed, Leolaursen, PhilKnight, Joshua, Dipenda, .anacondabot, SiobhanHansa, Acroterion, Aekbal, Akuyume, HempalShrestha, Magioladitis, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Mar- tinDK, MJD86, Weser, JNW, Bibhu heaven 123, Bigdan201, Jim Douglas, Sindhutvavadin, Pokhrel nabaraj, The Anomebot2, Brian Hickey, Indon, MED12345678, Mrbobmac, Teddythtam2003, Tuncrypt, IkonicDeath, Superbwiktim, Nposs, Jeb8828, 28421u2232nfenfcenc, Sudyp, Rif Winfield, DerHexer, JaGa, Philg88, Edward321, Vsubedi, Lenticel, Karan.ag, Inclusivedisjunction, Samratchand, Flami72, Dvalerio, Wikinger, Gwern, S3000, Misarxist, RoTi38, MartinBot, Donarst, NAHID, ARC Gritt, Paracel63, Kevinsam, Rettetast, R'n'B, CommonsDelinker, AlexiusHoratius, AgarwalSumeet, Jobbus McKnockey, Fconaway, Lilac Soul, Johnluisocasio, What the fuck?, Wilhite A, WWWWWWWWWWWWWWWIKIPEDIA, Element6968, Zhiqiang, Jphism, Echeesekid, J.delanoy, Jahanas, Rgoodermote, Lpark- erjedi, Pharos04, JamesR, Smartguy0, UBeR, Numbo3, Himguard, Pjottermans, Qatter, Riteshlamsal, Textangel, Barts1a, BrokenSphere, Mayaisastar, Yifan1982, Shrivastav, Jhattara, Naniwako, Berkeleybernie, Mjb1981, Ajcfreak, Rockmandu, AntiSpamBot, Youwinjack, Junafani, Plasticup, Nepalikukur, Airpeters01, Sundar1, In Transit, Cynthia0725, SJP, Ahuskay, Sahyogi, Flatterworld, Jamminguy2, Rumpelstiltskin223, Mikeonatrike, Angular, Eljusto1, Cometstyles, Tweisbach, LordCo Centre, Ostentatious, Nimora, Bonadea, Doctorox- enbriery, Jarry1250, Andy Marchbanks, Empty cognizance, Conte di Cavour, Idioma-bot, Montchav, Signalhead, Vranak, G2bambino, Chinneeb, Deor, VolkovBot, That-Vela-Fella, CWii, Safemariner, Dragoonkain, Jeff G., Achbha, Cmkz, Partha lal, RabinK007, Sm- cilreavy, Barneca, Maxtremus, Philip Trueman, Kundadixit, BirmanM, TXiKiBoT, Joopercoopers, Pahari Sahib, GimmeBot, Jalwikip, Bigvibes, Ietsov, Johnb01, Rei-bot, Aymatth2, Someguy1221, Jack of All, Master of None, Iamnepali, Kushalzone, Vanished user iki- jeirw34iuaeolaseriffic, Steven J. Anderson, Lradrama, Lanka07, Ajursha, JhsBot, Slysplace, DyceBot, LeaveSleaves, Arheus, R0kins0l, Veggieburgerfish, David in DC, Ilyushka88, Maxim, Quindraco, Nedrutland, Tidying Up, Larklight, Dick Kimball, Wei Xiwu, Enigma- man, Apforz42, Nw adelman, Synthebot, Meetkamaljee, J. J. in PA, Alfredo J. 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No. 1, Nahnite, Shiva Khanal, Hoo man, Arzun, Plasticspork, Reconsider the static, Terissn, Iokerapid, Lightlowemon, FoxBot, TobeBot, Gangol, Wilhelm Klave, Lotje, Dhilung, Pras.kota, Aoidh, Petronius2, Diannaa, Underlying lk, Tbhotch, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Deshbhakta69, Soewin- han, RjwilmsiBot, Chipmunkdavis, TjBot, Generalboss3, Ripchip Bot, Jimtaip, DASHBot, Shabidoo, Mrsurajsubedi, EmausBot, Wiki- tanvirBot, Milkunderwood, Ghostofnemo, Dadaist6174, Dewritech, Racerx11, GoingBatty, Mesgul82, Heljqfy, Tatiraju.rishabh, Kkm010, HiW-Bot, Ida Shaw, Illegitimate Barrister, Ashowmega, Inhakito, Thargor Orlando, Kamalmonami, Ladokhau, Ganesh Paudel, AvicAWB, Eken7, H3llBot, DBSSURFER, SporkBot, Monterey Bay, Shmilyshy, NeelAbodh, Laurelenril, Tolly4bolly, Highvale, Sadeeshbala, City of Destruction, L Kensington, Jahangir23, Shrigley, TheFoxdonut, Donner60, Shashakura, Rahul kaushik, Madalu, H31331603, Arysov, Zeke foxon, Hazard-Bot, ChuispastonBot, Anupkaphle, Hisagar123, FeatherPluma, Amanhanda, Cielbleu, Sheela koirala, Rohith goura, ClueBot NG, Krizpo, LogX, K1eyboard, Gilderien, Suraz03, SumerianPrince, Another n00b, XXPowerMexicoXx, Kman665, Karrattul, Frietjes, Delusion23, Dansong22, Hazhk, Monsoon Waves, Troglopedetes, Widr, Comonline, Hisham, Prashantk23, Helpful Pixie Bot, Wbm1058, 2001:db8, BG19bot, The Banner Turbo, Mminneman, Northamerica1000, Waterbuck, Niteshpradhans, PhnomPencil, HIDECCHI001, StevenJ81, Philpm930, Dodshe, Official Spokesman, Mark Arsten, Compfreak7, Jarinnp, OttawaAC, Cadiomals, AnwarInsaan, Ankit Ri- mal, Sadan1994, Manoguru, Enredados, Illuminatihacker, Shredder2012, RudolfRed, MeanMotherJr, BattyBot, Arundhungel, MahdiBot, Cyberbot II, DBSSHASPER, HasperHunter, Bitthalr1, Thapamagar2012, Spnepal, IceBrotherhood, Packer1028, Sms.dang, Jaro88slav, Mkg just4u, BrightStarSky, Dexbot, Zulufive, Andrew C. 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16 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

dave, Sam Sailor, Paudelpanchayat, SujanDon, Yoonadue, Blondeguynative, Amrit Ghimire Ranjit, Mr.neel, Bladesmulti, Elatestnews, SigdelVinay, Khijee2, Animal720, Wikiamitmalla, Navyo.eller, Bijayabuddha, Signedbo, Bishal258, Jacstha, Star7899, Sushant Rijal, Akash Simkhada, Theparties, Arjanpara, Spiritclaymore, Naver.np, Rabindahal, Orangoottan, Owais Khursheed, Monopoly31121993, Dirgahyu, Ayuan1110, Romanriwaj, Ditttti, Dangerdipesh, Ascii002, Pajiyarrc, Ojha.dinesh4u, Azkord, Krishna418, Nepalhero, Noxboy, WikiImprovment78 and Anonymous: 1317

16.2 Images

File:Asia_(orthographic_projection).svg Source:

projection%29.svg License: ? Contributors: Map by Ssolbergj Aquarius.geomar.de Original artist:Koyos + Ssolbergj (<a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/User_talk:Ssolbergj' title='User talk:Ssolbergj'>talk</a>)

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