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Physics141B

FinalExamination

Spring2010

S.G.Louie

May11,2010

Thisisaclosedbookexam.Threesheetsofnotesareallowed.Pleasedoall8problems.
Notethattheproblemsarenotofthesameweight.Thereisatotalof200pointsforthe
exam.Fornumericalevaluations,youmayfindtheTableofValuesattheendofthisexam
useful.

(30pts) 1.Answerthefollowingquestionswithafewsentencesand/orequations.

a) WhatisthemaindifferencebetweenWannierexcitonsandFrenkelexcitons?For
theWannierexcitons,howdotheirbindingenergiesdependonthevariousmaterial
specificparameters?

b) WhatelementwouldyoudopeSiwithtomakeitntype?Explainwhy.

c) WhatisaBlochwall?Whydotheyexistandhowthickaretheyingeneral?

d) WhatistheMeissnereffect?Whatistherelationshipbetweenthecurrentdensity
andthevectorpotentialthatisrequiredtoexplainit?

e) SketchthemagneticsusceptibilityversusTforaparamagnet,aferromagnet,andan
antiferromagnet.

(20pts) 2. Electronicandopticalpropertiesofasimplemetal

Letusconsiderasimplemetal(inthreedimensions)withelectrondensityn=
1020/cm3,andm*=0.1m e.Usewhatyouvelearnedinthecourseto:

a) Sketchtheopticalreflectance,R(),asafunctionoffrequency.Calculateandlabel
importantpoint(s)onthefrequencyaxis(inunitsofeV),andexplainthequalitative
features.

b) Calculate,withinthefreeelectronmodel,theperiodofoscillationinadeHaasvan
Alphenexperimentforthismetal.

(25pts) 3.Landautheoryofphasetransition

ConsideraferroelectricmaterialwiththefollowingLandaufreeenergy(wherePisthe
polarizationandEanappliedelectricfield)

F(P; T, E) = " EP + g0 + 12 g2 (T)P 2 + 14 g4 P 4 + 16 g6 P 6

withg2(T)=(TT0),>0,g4<0,andg6>0.
a) Find,forvanishingfieldE,thevaluesofP(T)thatcorrespondtolocalminimaofthe
Landaufreeenergy.Youwillfindmorethanonesolutions.Inparticular,oneof
themisthesolution,P0(T)=0.[Atequilibrium,thesystemgoestoaconfiguration
withthelowestfreeenergy.]

b) AtthetransitiontemperatureTc,wewillhaveequalitybetweenthefreeenergiesat
thedifferentminima,i.e.,F(P0;Tc,0)=F(PS;Tc,0),whereP0andPscorrespondtothe
twotypesofsolutionsinparta).Showthat

3g4
Ps2 (Tc ) =
.
4g6
c) Usingthepreviousresult,showthat
!

Tc = T0 +

3g42
.
16"g6

d)Isthisafirstorderorsecondorderphasetransition?

(25pts)4. Fermisurfacesandcarrierorbits

Consideratwodimensionalmetalwhichhasoneatomperunitcellinasimple
rectangularlatticewithlatticeconstantsa=2andb=4.Letusassumethateach
atomhasoneactivevalenceelectron.

a) DrawthefirstBrillouinzone.Giveitsdimensionsincm1.

b) CalculatetheradiusofthefreeelectronFermivolume(acircleinthiscase)and
drawittoscaleonthesamedrawingasthefirstBrillouinzone.

c) Sketch,intherepeated(periodic)zonescheme,thenearlyfreeelectronFermi
surface,i.e.,afterswitchingonaweakperiodicpotential.(Forclarity,showthe
portionsoftheFermisurfacecomingfromdifferentenergybandsonseparate
drawings.)

d) IndicatewitharrowsthedirectionofmotionofanelectronontheFermisurfacein
aperpendicularmagneticfieldpointingoutwardswithrespecttothepaper.Explain
yourreasoning(e.g.,bywritingdowntherelevantequations).


(25pts) 5.Lowfrequencydielectricfunctionofapolarinsulator.

Forapolarinsulator,suchasNaCl,atfrequenciesthatarelowcomparedtothe
electronicbandgap,welearnedinclassthatitsdielectricfunctionmaybewrittenas

&# 2 % # 2 )
"1 (# ) = " ($) ( L2
2 +
#
%
#
'
*
T

and

!
2() = A( T).

a) FindtheconstantA.

b) CalculateandplotthefrequencydependentreflectanceR()forelectromagnetic
wavesatnormalincidence.

c) Why,ingeneral,is L largerthanT?

(25pts) 6. Superconductivity

a) Deriveorusephysicalargumentstoobtainanapproximaterelationbetweenthe
criticalfield,Hc,andthesuperconductingenergygap,,inatypeIsuperconductor.

b) WhataretheJosephsoneffects?Giveanestimateofhowthintheseparation
betweentwosuperconductorsisinaJosephsonjunctionbeforetheseeffectsmaybe
observed.

c) Derivetheconditionforthequantizationofmagneticfluxthroughasuperconductor
ring.

(25pts) 7.Magneticresponseofametal

Metalliclithiumisinthebccstructurewithlatticeconstanta=3.5 .Thenucleusspin
ofLi7is3/2anditsmagneticmomentis3.26nuclearmagnetons.[Note:thenuclear
magnetonise h /2McwhereMistheprotonmass.]

a) CalculatethePaulisusceptibilityoftheconductionelectronsinLiassumingthat
theseelectronshavethefreeelectronmass.
!

b) Estimatethenuclearsusceptibilityat10K.Youmaytreatthenucleiasclassical
spins.
3

c) WhatistheNMRresonancefrequencyinafieldof104gauss?

(25pts) 8.Magnetismofacrystalofatomswithlocalspins.

ConsiderasystemofspinswithS=,moment,andconcentrationn.

a)Derivetheexpressionfortheparamagneticmagnetizationasafunctionofmagnetic
fieldBandtemperatureT.

b)Showthatinthelimit<<kBT,theresultisoftheclassicalCurieform.

c)WhatisthevalueofthemeanfieldBEatT=0K?Whatisthephysicaloriginofthis
field?

(EndofExam)