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Physics 141B, Spring 2010

Problem Set #4 Solutions


David Strubbe

1. (Kittel 15.1)
a)
x (t) =

x e

() F eit d
d =

Z
1
eit
=
d
2 02 2 i

it

(1)
(2)

The poles occur when 2 +i02 = 0, whose solutions are 2i , where


q
= 02 41 2 . These poles are both in the lower half plane. For t < 0,

eit 0 as i, so we complete the contour in the upper half plane.


There are no poles enclosed so the result is zero. x (t) = 0, as required by
causality.
b) For t > 0, eit 0 as i, so we complete theP
contour in the lower
half plane. By Cauchys theorem, the result is 2i j Rj , where Rj are
the residues at each pole (the winding number is -1 for a clockwise contour).
Writing the integrand as
eit


+ + 2i + 2i

we can see the residues are


(

eit et/2 eit et/2

,
2
2

eit et/2 eit et/2


1
(2i)
+
x (t) =
2
2
2

(3)

(4)

Therefore the result is

1 t/2
e
sin t

(5)

2. (Kittel 15.3)
The tangential fields Ey and Hz are continuous. Since = 1, H = B.
Outside the material, the fields are
Eyo = Einc ei(kxt) + Erefl ei(kxt)

(6)

Bzo = Binc ei(kxt) + Brefl ei(kxt)

(7)

Inside the material, the fields are

Eyi = Etrans ei(kxt)

(8)

i(kxt
)

Bzi = Btrans e

(9)

where k = nk.
At the interface (x = 0), cancelling the time-dependent phases, we have
Einc + Erefl = Etrans

Binc + Brefl = Btrans

(10)
(11)

As given, Einc = Binc . To find the other relations, we use Maxwells equation

c H = t
D, which becomes k B = D = E. Since the incident and
reflected waves have opposite wavevectors k, Brefl = Erefl . Then using the

dispersion relation, B = E = N E. Thus Btrans = nEtrans .


Our equations are now

Einc + Erefl = Etrans

(12)

Einc Erefl = N Etrans

(13)

2
N 1
Einc Erefl =
Einc
N +1
N +1

(14)

The solutions are


Etrans =

so the reflection coefficient is


r () =

N 1
n + ik 1
=
N +1
n + ik + 1

(15)

(You could also have no minus sign if you defined Erefl in the opposite sense,
as Kittel did. Jackson does it my way.)
R () = |r ()|2 =

(n 1)2 + k 2
|n + ik 1|2
=
|n + ik + 1|2
(n + 1)2 + k 2
2

(16)

3. (Kittel 15.4)
a) From the derivation of the Kramers-Kronig relations (and the Cauchy integral formula), we have
Z
1
(s)
() = P
ds
(17)
i
s

In the limit , this becomes
Z
Z
1
(s)
i
() P
(s) ds
ds =
P
i

(18)

Taking the real part, we have

1
() = P

(s) ds

(19)

What we really want is a relation about the conductivity , so we use equation (15.19):
i
( () 1) = ine2 ()
4
which when substituted in the integral equation yields
Z
1

(s) ds
P
() =

() =

Rearranging and using the fact that () = (),


Z
2
() = P
(s) ds

(20)

(21)

(22)

b) The problem tells us


Z

s ()

d =

n () d

(23)

and s () = 0 for 0 < < g , but there can still be singular value at = 0.
It appears we are supposed to assume additionally that s () = n () for
> g , and that n () is constant for 0 < < g . In that case, we
substract this part from each integral, and are left with
Z
A () d = n (0) g = A
(24)
Thus around = 0,

s ()

= n () g (). Our relation in (a) gives


s () =

1
(0) g
n
3

(25)

c) The equations of motion give us (14.8),


() = 1

4ne2
m 2

(26)

That gives as expressed in (14.17), whence


() = ine2 () = i

ne2
m

(27)

Then from our result in (a),


Z
ne2
2
(s) ds = () =
0
m

(28)

Rearranging,
Z

ne2
2m

(29)

s (s)
ds
s2 2

(30)

(s) ds =
0

4. From the Kramers-Kronig relations,


() =

2
P

To get a relation for the dielectric function, use


() = 1 + 4ne2 ()

(31)

to yield
Z
2
s (s)
P
ds
2 2

s
0
Z
s
2
2ne2
=1+ P
(s g ) ds

s2 2 ms
0
1
4ne2
2ne2 g
ds
=
1
+
=1+2
mg g2 2
m g2 2
() = 1 +

=1+

p2
g2 2

(32)
(33)
(34)
(35)

Evaluating at = 0,
(0) = 1 +

p2
g2

(36)