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# Physics 141B, Spring 2010

## Problem Set #8 Solutions

David Strubbe

1. (Kittel 16.7)
a) From equation (16.38),
(T T0 ) |g4 | Ps2 + g6 Ps4 = 0

(1)

## which can be written in a simpler form for now, via g2 = (T T0 ) (16.39)

and the fact that g4 < 0 for T < TC in a first-order transition, as
g2 + g4 Ps2 + g6 Ps4 = 0

(2)

## Our second condition is F (Ps , TC ) = F (0, TC ), using the general form

1
1
1
F (P, T, E) = EP + g0 + g2 P 2 + g4 P 4 + g6 P 6 + ...
2
4
6

(3)

## Our condition, at electric field E = 0, becomes

1
1
1
g0 + g2 Ps2 + g4 Ps4 + g6 Ps6 + ... = g0
2
4
6

(4)

Subtracting the g0 term from both sides, and dividing by Ps2 (which is
nonzero at a first-order transition), we have
1
1
1
g2 + g4 Ps2 + g6 Ps4 + ... = 0
2
4
6

(5)

Multiply this equation by two and set equal to the first condition:
1
1
g2 Ps + g4 Ps2 + g6 Ps4 = g2 + g4 Ps2 + g6 Ps4
2
3

(6)

## We truncate at sixth order now as in (16.38).

1
1
g4 + g6 Ps2 = g4 + g6 Ps2
2
3
1

(7)

The solution is
Ps2

1
2 g4
2
3 g6

3 |g4 |
4g6

(8)

b) We use
(T T0 ) |g4 | Ps2 + g6 Ps4 = 0

(9)

(T T0 ) |g4 |
(T T0 )

3 |g4 |
+ g6
4g6

3 |g4 |
4g6

2

=0

(10)

3g42
9 |g4 |2
3g42
+
= (T T0 )
=0
4g6
16g6
16g6

(11)

## The final result is

Tc = T0 +

3g42
16g6

(12)

2. (Kittel 16.8)
We begin with (16.38):
F
= E + g2 P + g4 P 3 + g6 P 5 + ... = 0
(13)
P
and truncate at fourth order since in a second-order transition P is small.
E + g2 P + g4 P 3 0

(14)

## Let P (E) = Ps + P (E). Then

E + g2 (Ps + P ) + g4 (Ps + P )3 0

(15)

## Subtracting the defining equation for Ps where E = 0, we have


E + g2 P + g4 3Ps2 P + 3Ps P 2 + P 3 0
E + g2 P +

3g4 Ps2 P

(16)
(17)

## to first order in P , which is appropriate for a small applied field. Substitute

for Ps2 from (16.41), and g2 from (16.39).
(T0 T )
P 0
g4
= E + (T0 T ) P + 3 |T0 T | P 0

(19)

= E + 2 (T0 T ) P 0

(20)

E + (T0 T ) P + 3g4

(18)

P =

E
2 (T0 T )

(21)

= 1 + 4

P
4
2
=1+
=1+
E
2 (T0 T )
(T0 T )

(22)

## For a second-order transition, T0 = TC .

3. (Kittel 16.9)
a) Displacements due to zone-edge phonon:

## b) Frozen-in displacements for dimerized structure:

c) With only one atom per unit cell, there is only one phonon mode, and it
must be acoustic, i.e. go to zero at k = 0 in all cases. For T > T0 , the zoneedge frequency is greater than zero, but it goes to zero at T = T0 . With the
phase transition below T0 , the new structure is stable and the frequency no
longer goes to zero anywhere except k = 0. The unit cell is doubled, and
the phonon dispersion is folded into the new Brillouin zone. It is reasonable
to expect the frequencies to be higher than before dimerization, because the
interatomic forces are stronger when the atoms are closer. There is a gap at
the zone boundary due to the breaking of translational symmetry.

4.
a) (Kittel 11.1)

2
r =

r | (r)| d r =

2

r 2 (a0 )1/2 e2r/a0 4r 2 dr
Z
4
r 4 e2r/a0 dr
= 3
a0 0

(23)
(24)

## We evaluate this integral via four rounds of integration by parts, in which

conveniently the surface term is always zero, and get

2
4 3
r = 3 a50 = 3a50
a0 4
Then the susceptibility for a mole of H atoms is

Ze2 N r 2
=
= 2.38 106 cm3
6mc2

(25)

(26)

## using Z = 1 and N = 6.02 1023 , so the molar susceptibility is 2.38

106 cm3 /mol.
b) (Kittel 11.2)
i) Eu2+ with the given electron configuration 4f 7 5s2 5p6 has filled s- and
p-shells which give no contribution to S or L. The f -shell is half-filled,
so each electron is in a different m state to allow them all to have the
same spin. S = 7/2. L = 0 as always for half-filling. J = S = 7/2. The
term symbol (2S+1 LJ ) is 8 S7/2 .
4

ii) Neutral Yb is 4f 14 5s2 5p6 5d0 6s2 . Yb3+ is 4f 13 5s2 5p6 as given in Table 1.
There is only one unfilled state in the f -shell, so S = 1/2. The maximal
L is 3, from assigning the hole to m = 3 or m = 3. Since we have more
than half-filling, J = L + S = 7/2. The term symbol is 2 F7/2 .
iii) Neutral Tb is 4f 9 5s2 5p6 5d0 6s2 . Tb3+ is 4f 8 5s2 5p6 as given in Table 1.
We have one more electron than half-filling. The maximal S is 3, from
pairing only two electrons and having 6 unpaired electrons. Since halffilling gives L = 0, L here will be that of the extra electron, in the paired
orbital. By assigning the pair to m = 3 or m = 3, we get the maximal
L of 3. Then J = 3 + 3 = 6, and the term symbol is 7 F6 .