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Experiment no.

11:
Acid-Base Titrations: Analysis of Antacid
Tablets

: 07-07-14

Guillermo, Janina Suzette C.


Escudero, Angela Julia R.
De La Salle University Dasmarias
Dasmarias, Cavite Philippines

ABSTRACT

In this experiment, we learned the technique of acid-base titrations and compared the efficiency
of commercially available antacids by looking at their weight of HCl/wt. of antacid values. Two antacid
tablets were crushed, dissolved in 50.0mL 0.1M HCl; indicators were placed, titrated with 0.1M NaOH and
calculation of the weight of HCl that reacted with the 1g of antacid tablet was done after two trials. The
weight of HCl that reacted with the tablet is calculated and noted as well as compare the efficiency of the
commercially available antacids by looking at their HCl/wt of antacid values. All methods used in the
experiment was effective in learning the technique of acid-base titrations and comparing the efficiency of
antacids by looking at the HCl/wt of antacid values.

INTRODUCTION
Antacids are substances that neutralize stomach acidity and one of the most widely used selfprescribed medicines. They are basic in nature. They are taken to relieve medically undefined conditions
such as heartburn, acid indigestion and sour stomach. Excessive hydrochloric acid in the stomach causes
a feeling of discomfort and a burning sensation beneath the breastbone resulting from a spastic backflow
of this acid content into the esophagus.
Antacid tablets counteract stomach acidity by reacting with the excess hydrochloric acid in the
stomach. Some of these tablets contains Al(OH)3 or Mg(OH)2 or both, while some contain CaCO3. These
components neutralize the acids. Here are some known brands in the Philippines are: Maalox, AlkaSeltzer, and Gaviscon.
The efficiency of the antacid tablet may be determined and compared by finding the number of grams
of HCl that can be neutralized by 1g of the tablet. The higher the amount of HCl that can be neutralized
by the 1g tablet, the more efficient the antacid is. The volume of unreacted HCl in the antacid mixture is
titrated with NaOH to determine the efficiency of an antacid tablet.
The chemical equation that describes the reaction between the HCl and the NaOH:

The equation used to calculate the amount of HCl neutralized is:

Since both HCl and NaOH have 1 equivalence point per mole, the following equation may also be
used:

MATERIALS AND METHODS


The experiment on Acid-Base titrations primarily used reagents that are either strong acid or
strong base to greater facilitate the effect and function of titration. In to our experiment we have used two
antacid tablets with its generic name sanofiaventis. The tablets were crushed separately using a mortar
and pestle. They were also weighed separately using the analytical balance. For accuracy of results, we
have placed each one of them in a paper box made up of one sheet of paper. After getting their actual
weight, they are placed in separate in different Erlenmeyer flasks to conduct at least 2 trials of the
experiment. After placing the crushed tablets in the flask, we added 50.0 mL of 0.1 M of HCl to the
antacid tablets and we let it dissolve. Continuous mixture is a must while performing the experiment to
obtain faster results. Then we added 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator using a medicine dropper into
the mixture for us to see if the mixture has been neutralized already or not. Next we prepare the titration
set up by using a base burette with a burette clamp attached to the iron stand. We placed at unknown
volume of NaOH to the burette but not the flask with the antacid and HCl mixture. Place the flask under
the burettes opening and fill the flask with enough NaOH until the mixture turns into faint pink color. This
procedure will be repeated for the second antacid tablet placed in the other Erlenmeyer flask. After
reacting, calculate the weight of HCl that reacted with the antacid tablet by using the formula.
Formula for calculating the weight of HCl:
of HCl = MWHCl [ (Vol. in literHCl) (molarityHCl) (Vol. in literNaOH) (molarityNaOH)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Table 1: Analysis of Acid-Base titration using Antacid tablets

Antacid tablets (1 & 2): Sanofiaventis


No. of trials
Weight of the tablet
Final volume of NaOH used
Initial volume of NaOH
Volume of NaOH used
Molarity of NaOH
Molarity of HCl
Volume of HCl
Weight of HCl that has reacted
With the antacid table
Weight of HCl / gram of antacid tablet

1
0.5877 g
38.2 mL
0 mL
38.2 mL
0.1 M
0.1 M
50 mL

2
0.5830 g
31.1 mL
0 mL
31.1 mL
0.1 M
0.1 M
50 mL

0.043 g

0.069 g

0.0732

0.1184

Using antacids tablets facilitated the acid-base titration experiment. The generic name of the
antacid tablet was Sanofiaventis, white in color and made up of Ca(OH) 2 and Mg(OH)2 which are
considered to be bases because of the presence of hydroxides. We divide the experiment into two trials
at least to compare which of the antacid tablet has more efficiency. For the first trial, the initial weight of
the antacid tablet itself is 0.5877g. We dissolved it in a 50mL 0.1 M of HCl, which is considered as a
strong acid. At first, the neutralization reaction wasnt obvious because the moles of the antacid were not
enough to react with the moles hydrochloric acid to facilitate neutralization. Before proceeding to titration,
we have used the phenolphthalein indicator of at least 2-3 drops in the mixture to indicate if we already

obtain the equivalence point of the mixture. The phenolphthalein indicator uses a faint pink color as a sign
of equivalence point within mixtures. Next, we have placed unknown amount of NaOH, with the same
molarity of 0.1 to the base burette and titrate the mixture by obtaining enough amount of the NaOH until
the mixture appears into faint to light pink color solution. As to result of our experiment for the first trial,
from an initial volume of NaOH of 0mL to a final volume of 38.2 mL. Same procedure and reagents was
used for the second trial but the outcomes are different.
For the second trial of the experiment, the weight of the antacid tablet was 0.5830 grams, again
dissolved in a 50mL 0.1 M of HCl. We still placed 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator in the mixture and
again titrate the mixture with an unknown amount of NaOH still with a 0.1 Molarity. From an initial volume
of 0 mL, we have come up with a final volume of 31.1 mL NaOH until the solution turns into faint pink
color which is an indication of neutralization.
After obtaining the equivalence point of both antacid tablets done in separate trials, we now
computed for the weight of HCl that has reacted with the antacid tablet. This can be calculated by using
the formula.
of HCl = MWHCl [ (Vol. in literHCl) (molarityHCl) (Vol. in literNaOH) (molarityNaOH),
whereas the calculated Molecular weight of HCl is 36.46 g/mol. For the first trial, by using the data given,
we have obtain that 0.043 g of HCl reacted with the antacid tablets. In comparison with the second trial,
the weight of HCl that has reacted with the antacid table is 0.069 grams. And to compute for the efficiency
of the antacid tablet, we divided the weight of the HCl by the grams of the antacid tablet. For the first trial,
the result was 0.0732 and for the second trial 0.1184. This means that in terms of greater effect, the
second tablet of antacid was better because in the first place as to the results of the experiment, it only
uses 31.1 mL of NaOH to titrate the mixture and the resulting efficiency of the neutralization effect was of
greater amount in comparison with the first tablet.

REFERENCES
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(1) Samonte J.L, Figueroa L.V General Chemistry Laboratory Manual 4 Edition, C&E Publishing Inc.,
2014.
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(2) Chang R., Chemistry. 6 Edition NY: WBC Mc Graw Hill, 1996
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(3) Zumdahl, S. S. (1997). Chemistry, (4 Edition) Boston, NY: Houghton Mifflin Company.