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Chapter 2

Metal Cutting Principle

Manufacturing Technology -1
Dishank Upadhyay
Academic Associate

Content

Classification Of Manufacturing Processes


Cutting Parameters
Cutting Tool Geometry
Tool materials and cutting Fluids
Power requirement of machining
Smoothness and accuracy of machined
surface

2.1 Classification of manufacturing processes

2.1.1 Classification of machining

2.1.2 Classification of metal working process


Metal Working

Chip Forming
Process
(Metal Cutting)

Chip Less Process


(Metal Forming)

Generation of
cylindrical and
conical surfaces of
revolution

Continuos contact
cutting

Parallel to the axis


of rotation

Non Parallel to the


axis of rotation

External (Turning,
necking, screwing,
grooving)

Straight but
intersecting
(Plating,surfacing,
taper turning)

Internal (Boring,
threading ,
Grooving)

Complex shapes
(Copying, contour
forming)

Generation of straight
cut plane surfaces
with or w/o rotation
of work piece

Intermittent
Contact Cutting

Sizable Chips
(Milling)

Cutter Axis
perpendicular to
generates surface
(Surface grindin,
face milling)

Ground Chips
(Filling,Grindings)

Cutter Axis
perpendicular to
generates surface
(Surface grindin,
face milling)

Job Held, Cutter


reciprocates
(Shaping,Broading,Slot
ting,Key
Seating,Sawing)

Tool held, job


moves (Planning)

Continuous contact
(Rolling,Spinning
etc)

Job & tool Moves


(Gear cutting)

Intermittent
Contact
(Forging,Stamping
etc)

2.2 Cutting Parameters


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Material Machinability
Cutting tool material
Cutting speed/Spindle speed
Depth of cut
Feed rate
Tool Geometry
Coolant
Machine/Spindle power
Rigidity of machine

2.2.1 Material Machinability


Decides how easy or difficult is to cut
Hardness is one factor that has strong influence on
machinability.
Strong the material = hard to machine
Soft the material = easy to machine
It is true at some extent, Ductility also plays the vital role in
deciding the machinability.

2.2.2 Cutting tool material


Tools hardness, strength, wear resistance and thermal stability
are the characteristics that decides how fast the tool can cut
efficiently.
In metal cutting HSS & Carbide are two major tool materials
widely used.
Ceramic & CBN(Cubic Boron nitride) are other tools used for
machining very tough & hard material.

2.2.3 Cutting Speed / Spindle speed


Cutting Speed: Relative speed at which the tool passes
through the work material and removes the material.
Unit: m/min or inch/min (British)
Cutting speed higher = Better the productivity

Spindle Speed: Delivered based on the cutting speed and the


work diameter cut(In case of turning & Boring) or tool dia (in
case of milling & drilling)
Cutting Speed (N) =
Unit: RPM

()
()

2.2.4 Depth of cut

It Indicates how much the tool digs into the component (in mm) to remove
material for the current pass.

2.2.5 Feed rate

The relative speed at which the tool is linearly traverse over the work-piece
to remove the material.

Unit: mm/rev (Lathe)

2.2.6 Tool Geometry

For the tool to effectively dig into the component to remove material most
efficiently without rubbing,.

The cutting tool tip is normally ground to different angles.

2.2.7 Coolant

To take away the heat produced in cutting and also to act as a lubricant.

To reduce wear, tear etc.

2.2.8 Machine / Spindle power

In the metal-cutting machine, adequate power should be available to


provide the drives to the spindles and also to provide feed movement to the
tool to remove the material.

The power required for cutting is based on the metal removal rate.

2.2.9 Rigidity of machine

The rigidity of the machine is based on the design and construction of the
machine, the age and extent of usage of the machine, the types of bearings
used, the type of construction of slide ways, and the type of drive provided
to the slides. All play a role in the machining of components and getting the
desired accuracy, finish, and speed of production.

2.3 Cutting tool

Types of cutting tools


Types of cutting
Types of chip formed
Chip breakers
Cutting tools nomenclature
Tool life & wear
Cutting tool materials

2.3.1 Types of Cutting tools


1. Single point cutting tool
2. Multipoint cutting tool

Videos
Depth of cut
Coolant
Single point cutting tool

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