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1.INTRODUCTION:

India is one of the leading developing country in the world community today. But, the main obstacle it is facing is its large population. Now a days communication has been one of the most important aspect where our country is concentrating to work in, for its development, where mass transportation plays a vital role as we always have to think about moving of a large population in a very denser area. That’s why our Government is planning to implement the new technologies in mass public transportation.

1.1: THE

URBAN

TRANSPORT

TECHNOLOGY

FOR

THE

NEW

MILLENIUM

The most precious asset in growing urban areas is the land. Allocation to residential and commercial purposes put heavy pressures on land for public use like parks and open spaces apart from very important and critical roadways. Hardly 6% to a maximum of 18% of land in cities form roadways. The roadways once laid- almost remain constant – at best- and may effectively reduce by uncontrolled encroachments. The physical constraint of road area being constant, as population increases, naturally loads on roads increase.

as population increases, naturally loads on roads increase. As more and more people from different habitats
as population increases, naturally loads on roads increase. As more and more people from different habitats

As more and more people from different habitats try to converge on to the central business district, the road has no capacity to handle and congestions

erupt. Roads take one exactly to the point where one wants to go. But the capacity is limited in terms of passengers per hour that can be handled. Even if one considers only buses, need to maintain the braking distances between two buses and the space

maintained between them affects speed as well as limits per lane what capacity can be achieved. When mass transit , that too at higher speed is required, rail based systems only can handle.

1.2: Requirements of an ideal urban transport system:

Heavy concentrations of residential units coupled with required movement to work places or to market places demand transportation of people. Roads are to cater for the same. But roads have a limitation- the area available remains constant, once the development is completed, and old cities in particular throw up the problems of mismatch of designed capacity versus the increasing pressure of populations.

Let us examine the various modes of transport that population uses in a city and their capacities and limitations, to evolve requirements of urban transport solution in a holistic manner. Currently available solutions are either elevated railway or underground railway if mass transportation is required:

Elevated railway technically cannot reach truly congested central busy roads where the mass transport is needed. It is also too invasive and may require dislocation of some portions of habitat as well as introduces noise pollution. Underground railway is less invasive on surface but still poses technically challenging risks of fires and evacuations. It also has to address concerns for foundations of heritage buildings. If road vehicles are involved, in inter-modal transfers, it becomes weak link in the chain of transport between walking and railway. Both modes suffer from derailments and capsizing killing commuters.

Surface railway is impossible to lay in an existing city. But even to lay the same in a new development, one should keep in mind what happens after 50 years of laying the same. We have living example of our own suburban system.

The city remains divided by the corridor and it is an eternal noise polluter in the heart of city day in and day out. Sudden disgorging of heavy loads of commuters at stations create need less congestion on the roads, reducing quality of life. Almost close to 2000 persons die annually- because of trespassing or falling from trains in our present system- whatever be the excuse and justification for accepting the same. In addition vulnerable to minor vandalism by urchins, but resulting in grievous injuries like losing sight for the commuters. Again this mode cannot follow roads, so the weak link of road

vehicles

transfers. Derailments, collisions and capsizing concerns remain with loss of life for all the above mentioned three systems. The infrastructure created for urban transport is hardly utilized to 30 to 40% capacity because of directional as well as inevitable peaks for limited hours in a day. It has no other use and just idles.

has

to

be

brought

in for inter-modal

1.3: An ideal solution is one which:

1.

follows the existing roads- but does not take road space- and be as flexible as a bus

2.

Have rail based mass transit capacity, same as existing rail metro

3.

Does not divide city while providing integration along its alignment

4.

Be derailment and collision proof- with NO CAPSIZING of coaches- so that there can never be loss of life

5.

Be free from vandalism

6.

Noise free and pollution-free

7.

Non-invasive -requiring the least amount of scarce land space- and not come in the way of development.

Sky Bus technology as offered by Konkan Railway meets the above requirements, and helps us re-define the thinking and planning for urban transport.

1.4: SKYBUS METRO:

All administrations are in search of an economically viable solution to the transportation problem, which is also environmental friendly. The present conventional capital-intensive technologies are proving to be financially unviable and require heavy subsidy, which is not practical.

The new technological solution, in terms of Sky Bus Metro is based on the concept of Sky Wheels presented in 1989 at World Congress for Railway research. This innovative alternative transportation solution completely eliminates any possibility of vandalism, derailments and virtually maintenance- free.

of vandalism, derailments and virtually maintenance- free. Sky Bus Metro is the new rail based mass

Sky Bus Metro is the new rail based mass transit system that re-defines urban transport solution making the existing elevated and underground metros obsolete! Sky Bus Technology Launched 15th Oct.2003 Life size Prototype at Margao, Goa by Shri Nitish Kumar ji, Hon'ble Minister of Railways, India.

2. The Inventor and developer of Skybus:

“ Every human born on the planet earth is entitled as birth right, practically free food, shelter, travel and communication; this is my belief and conviction. To achieve this mission, we must aggressively apply science and technology to progressively reduce the cost of infrastructure while improving continuously the quality of life.”

“ My life and activities have been guided by this mission.”

My life and activities have been guided by this mission.” Er. B. RajaramB.E., M.Tech., F.I.E IRSE(retd.,)

Er. B. RajaramB.E., M.Tech., F.I.E IRSE(retd.,)

email: director@atrilab.com

Mr. B. Rajaram (born 1945) is a First Class First with Distinction Engineering graduate and an M.Tech from IIT/Kharagpur. Having served a decade in railway open line in various capacities, another decade in Railway research at RDSO & IIT, worked abroad as consultant till 1990.

He was involved with the Konkan railway project from the beginning of construction (1990) as a Chief Engineer, Director (Projects) and finally as the Managing Director(1998 to Jan, 2005)

His inventions cover railway technologies, world’s first Intelligent Anti- collision Devices Network,"RAKSHA KAVACH" (already under implementation over 2500km of route on Indian Railways), Sky Bus Metro (concept first presented in Bologna University Italy, by him in 1989)

In November 2007, he was given the responsibility as Member of the Empowered Board, ITER/India, Dept of Atomic Energy, Government of India, to deliver world's first fusion reactor in France as part of International effort involving USA, Russia,EU, Japan, S. Korea and India.

3.DESCRIPTION:

Heavy 52/60 kg /m rails placed at standard gauge floating in elastic medium and damped by inertia of measured mass held in a 8 mX 2m box enclosure, supported over a 1m dia. columns spaced at 15 m and located at 15 m distance from each other, in the divider space in between lanes on a road- way, at a height of 8m above road surface- provides the support and guidance for powered bogies which can run at 100 kmph, with the coach shells suspended below , carry passengers in air conditioned comfort, can follow existing road routes, while existing traffic on roads continue.

road routes, while existing traffic on roads continue. The fixed structure at 8 m height above
road routes, while existing traffic on roads continue. The fixed structure at 8 m height above

The fixed structure at 8 m height above road level is aesthetically pleasing and there is no concern of claustrophobic feeling for road users. Aesthetic and eco-friendly, the Sky Bus can never derail, capsize nor collide- by design as well as by construction, hence is safer than existing rail-based system. With no signalling and having no points and crossings, it is a unique

mass-transit system, which can be put up within two years in any crowded & congested city. Sky Bus metro falls under tramway category, under Art 366(20) of Constitution of India, since it operates along existing roadways and within municipal limits, hence excluded from Indian railway act.

4. Technologies 4.1: THE SYSTEM:

Well proven rail guided bogie system commonly used for normal railway system. Proven 3 phase asynchronous AC electrical motive unit-well proven and widely

adopted abroad

Light weight coaches called “Sky Buses” which are suspended from Bogies and

Travel below rail guides.

as

well

as

in

India.

Bogies and Travel below rail guides. as well as in India. Pre-fabricated latest construction technologies, which
Bogies and Travel below rail guides. as well as in India. Pre-fabricated latest construction technologies, which

Pre-fabricated latest construction technologies, which save time and money resulting in easy execution of the project in busy urban areas without disturbing the existing traffic pattern. These structural engineering methods are well proven which do not have any project execution risk attached.

Information technology tools for economic communications and control.

The project will be of world class standard and will place India in the forefront of providing the much needed alternative transportation solution, which is a financially viable, environmental friendly, synergising well proven existing cutting edge technology.

4.2: DESIGN LOADS :

The sky bus metro is designed considering various parameters to make it the mode of mass transportation of the next generation. Passenger’s safety, environment safety, low cost of production, noise less movement and economic running are few most important parameters, based upon which this is designed.

important parameters, based upon which this is designed. ∑ Max axles load 12 tones. ∑ Weight

Max axles load 12 tones.

Weight of

- Bogie-2 axle motor: 5 t

- Tare weight of coach: 6.5 t

- Weight of equipment: 2t

- Passenger load: 9 t

- Total for a bogie: 24 t

- Axle load: 12t

5. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SKYBUS : Standard Railway coach running on railway track… The under-frame
5. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SKYBUS : Standard Railway coach running on railway track… The under-frame

5. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF SKYBUS:

Standard Railway coach running on railway track…

SKYBUS : Standard Railway coach running on railway track… The under-frame with standard railway wheel-set running

The under-frame with standard railway wheel-set running on railway track

with standard railway wheel-set running on railway track The under-frame remains same, railway wheels run on

The under-frame remains same, railway wheels run on the same track, the coach is firmly attached to the under-frame positively .

remains same, railway wheels run on the same track, the coach is firmly attached to the

The under-frame with wheels and railway traction motors & railway track enclosed in the concrete box- travel on the railway track , carrying the coach below outside the concrete box- now the coach and the track are positively held together- cannot escape from rails!

are positively held together- cannot escape from rails! 6. THE COMPONENTS OF SKY BUS : The

6. THE COMPONENTS OF SKY BUS:

The system Sky Bus Metro consists of several conventional and some new proven technologies, which makes the Sky bus more efficient. These are designed so that to keep the sky bus moving without any defect and to give the passengers the ultimate comfort along with other luxurious facilities which they can not get in the local buses or in trains.

The various important components of this system are given bellow with their real views;

The sky way

Sky bogies

Sky coaches

Sky stations

Traverser arrangements

( THE SKY WAY ) ( SKY COACHES ) ( SKY BOGIE ) ( SKY

( THE SKY WAY )

( THE SKY WAY ) ( SKY COACHES ) ( SKY BOGIE ) ( SKY STATION)

( SKY COACHES )

( THE SKY WAY ) ( SKY COACHES ) ( SKY BOGIE ) ( SKY STATION)

( SKY BOGIE )

( THE SKY WAY ) ( SKY COACHES ) ( SKY BOGIE ) ( SKY STATION)

( SKY STATION)

( THE SKY WAY ) ( SKY COACHES ) ( SKY BOGIE ) ( SKY STATION)

( TRAVERSER ARRANGEMENTS)

6.1: SKY WAY

In the middle of roadway pile foundations support 1 m diameter column approximately 8 m high, and space at 15 m all along the roadway

The sky way consists of a concrete box structure carried over a series of piers at a height of 9 m to 10 m above existing road level. Two rails fixed with appropriate fastenings within the concrete box support and guide the sky bogie.

There are no points & crossings.

6.2 : SKY BOGIE

Standard two axle bogies used in metros for speed of 100 kmph are used (but can have higher speeds,if required up to 160 kmph)-of standard guage

Linear induction motor technology is incorporated-with 4th rail driving

which is above the bogie/or 3 Ph AC motors with regenerative power capability.

Third rail is used for current collection

Braking-bogie mounted

Regenerative

Disc brakes

Emergency mechanical brakes

6.3: Sky Coaches

Double walled light shells with wide large windows are suspended from the sky bogies

Controlled banking on curves- even 100m radius curves can be handled.

Air conditioned and with automatic doors

be handled. ∑ Air conditioned and with automatic doors ∑ Audio visual information to passengers ∑

Audio visual information to passengers

Special 4m wide sliding doors for quick entry and exit of passengers

Each pair carries 300 persons and service every two is possible.

6.4: Sky station

persons and service every two is possible. 6.4: Sky station ∑ Unlike conventional mass transit systems,
persons and service every two is possible. 6.4: Sky station ∑ Unlike conventional mass transit systems,

Unlike conventional mass transit systems, Sky Bus needs smaller stations

Service is every 2 minutes that is virtually no waiting time for passengers

Totally automated without drivers or guards-and access control is also electronic by prepaid cards being swiped in

Stations act as only access facility, and not as passenger holding area

6.5: Traverser:

There are no points and crossings. The traverser is the system which automatically shifts the sky bus units for balancing the loads/ changing routes too as well as shift units to depot lines etc. Proven technologies and a very simple solution by merely re-engineering the components constitute Sky Bus:

lines etc. Proven technologies and a very simple solution by merely re-engineering the components constitute Sky
lines etc. Proven technologies and a very simple solution by merely re-engineering the components constitute Sky
lines etc. Proven technologies and a very simple solution by merely re-engineering the components constitute Sky
lines etc. Proven technologies and a very simple solution by merely re-engineering the components constitute Sky

7: Salient Features

Standard Gauge Rail tracks

60 kg rails fitted with double elastic fastenings, with Standard Gauge on sleepers designed & tested for 20 t axle load norms forming maintenance

free

tracks`

Driving bogies:

100 kmph standard gauge 12 ton/14 ton axle load powered bogies -same as used in metro rails with 4x110/115 Kw asynchronous 3 ph AC motors with power-regeneration and capable of peak 1.3m/sec/sec acceleration

Braking:

Electrical re-generative braking, coupled with compressed air disk mechanical brakes and emergency/ idling mechanical brakes for stabling.

Crushing load for underframe:

Underframe- fit to take crushloads of regular main line coaches- more than

70t

Train unit:

Each train unit 20m long with two driving bogies- the coach divided into

2x9.5

m

long

buses

connected

through

vestibuled

door

Capacity of 20m long train unit:

Each Skybus unit 20m long having two compartments( 3.25m x 9.5m) of 9.5 m , can carry almost 400 persons at 7 persons/sq.m density peak.

The 20 m units can be attached to form persons

a

3 unit,

Signal & train control:

60m long train of 1200 capacity

Simple three aspect signal system driven by line of sight by motorman, with additional unique safety layer of Raksha Kavach, capable of providing 40 sec headway- but planned 60 sec.

Route Capacity:

A Skybus route can thus be designed even at 60 sec headway, to carry

20,000 to 70,000 passengers per hour per direction

in

peak

period.

Security and safety:

Continuous computerised central monitoring & control with provision

of audio/visual access for each coach for security. Distributed intelligence

systems

protection against swinging under wind loads/emergecy localised control/ prevent over-loading/ emergency evacuation guidance.

with

redundancy

to

provide

Track changes and reversals at terminals:

The reversal for the Skybuses at terminal points, to change tracks or go to

depots

happens

through

traversers-

mechanical

auto

driven

systems

capable

of

handling

60m

consists

of

Skybus

units.

Stations-elegant and small:

Stations are 60m long to handle three units of Skybus, covering next 25 years of requirements-though initially only 20m length is needed.

Easy Access:

Access is from existing footpaths, climb limited to 6 m for passengers- within 500 to 600m from wherever you are on the road having Skybus route.

Turning radius & gradient:

Can be designed for 20m radius of turning radius, and vertical lift, if needed- thus we can avoid totally demolition of any built up urban property, if needed.

On line maintenance of rolling stock and tracks:

Maintenance is through continuous monitoring of vibration signatures, and directed by need automatically by computerised systems- much more advanced than existing manual inspections only and periodic checks. All the sub-systems /elements are to existing UIC/Indian Railway codal practices applicable to railway transport.

Cargo handling capability:

Cargo of standard containers are automatically delivered and cleared into and out of city.

Safety Certification for Public carriage:

Will carry international class safety certification by renowned world class safety certifiers.

Guaranteed against derailments and capsizing- making it a unique railway,

where coaches can never escape the tracks.

Terminal concept:

Current concept of a railway terminal replaced in this "grid" system, by a multi point distributed discharge and access- almost eliminating inter- modal transfers. Each station designed for handling whatever commuters can arrive on a 4m wide foot-path- with waiting time less than one minute.

Land requirements for route, stations and at depots:

All along the route the alignment is typically located on the median ( 1.2m diameter columns at about 20m spacing) of the road, needing right of way at 6.5m above the road, the fixed structure carrying railway tracks located at about 11m- thus avoiding claustrophobic effect for road users. Typical road widths normally of 10m all along and at station locations 20m width for 60m length desirable. Depots will be outside the urban areas, needing about 25 hectares land for services for every 10 km route.

Stations are located with access from existing footpaths, and over and above existing roadways, none of them longer than 60m to cater to next 100 years of requirements of city- practically requiring little land.

Power requirements:

Typically for tropical climate conditions, for a module of 10 km route, 15 MW power needed covering traction and all services including comfort air- conditioning loads at stations.

Quality of service and pricing:

With access within 500 to 700m walking distance, air-condition travel at 100 kmph , service available at less than a minute during peak hours, priced at Re 1.50 per km falling to Re 1 for regular travels with lead of more than 7km can be provided.(typical) (year 2005)- if ridership per a 10 km route is a little more than 3 lacs per day.

Typical costing ( Year 2005-06) For typical installation to handle 40,000 passengers peak load per hour, on a double line, the cost on turn key basis will be Rs 55 to 60cr per km, and construction period less than 3 years, for a minimum module of 10 km route.

8. Advantages:

Fast Transportation

Every minute passengers to get Air Conditioned 100 km/hr speed travel facility, covering distances at more than 45 km/hr. Average speed at just 50 paise per km.

No Land Acquisition Problems

In this new technology of `Sky Wheels’, almost no land acquisition will be required, except for providing for right of way on existing roadways.

Only at terminal points, minimum amount of land of the order of 2000 to

4000 sq.m of area will be

required

That too at places away from the urban center.

No demolition

Of structures or gardens. No environmental hazards.

No Vandalism

Not vulnerable to persons throwing stones and track is inaccessible.

Fire Protection

Fastest evacuation in case of fire as compared to underground metros.

No capsizing

If at all derails, cannot fall down coach keeps hanging. Hence no capsizing takes place as compared to railways and underground metros.

No Deaths

Due to trespassing/falling off from train- In normal metros like Mumbai daily 2 to 3 deaths occur on the system with total casualties reaching almost 2000 per year.

Deep Penetration

Sky Bus follows existing busy roads, thus reaches the very heart of the city decongesting the roads. This is not possible in case of Normal Railway.

Low Capital cost

Almost 50% of elevated systems & 25% of underground metro for same performance standards

Lowest Operational cost.

Maintenance free tracks, no signals & points & crossings to maintain.

No interference with normal road traffic

Does not require road over /under bridges.

Fast Clearance

Since the system involves guide ways in the sky, which does not fall into an exact definition of Railway, the number of agencies involved in clearing and executing the project will be minimum and only one authority at state level will be created for implementing the project.

Capacity

Can handle 18 000 to 80 000 pphpd (Persons per hour per direction) and can still cater to growing needs. >

Flyover

It can be built on roads with Fly over. It is not an impediment.

Fast Execution

From the date financial closure is achieved, the Project can be completed and commissioned within 100 weeks i.e. about 24 months.

No Pollution

Aesthetically pleasing & no noise pollution.

No Force Major

Insulated against floods, rains and obstruction on track.

No traffic Jams

You reach your destination fast.

No waiting

There is a Sky Bus every 1-minute or even 40 seconds, if admrisrtation like.

Low Travel cost

At 50 paise per km, Air-conditioned travel is affordable.

Comfort

∑ All Sky Buses are Air-conditioned giving you excellent comfort of traveling. Tourism ∑ Enjoy
∑ All
Sky
Buses
are Air-conditioned
giving
you
excellent
comfort
of
traveling.
Tourism
∑ Enjoy the bird’s eye view of your city.
Easy Access
∑ User needs to walk maximum 500 meter distance to board the Sky-Bus.
Amenity
∑ Senior citizens and differently enabled persons have lift facility.
Luxury
∑ Clean and comfortable cafes, business centers, restaurants and
communication facilities with health parks made available on Sky-Top,
thus adding to urban space.

9.SKY BUS IN NEAR FUTURE:

After the successful test run of the sky bus in its test track in Madgaon , Goa , The Indian Railway has recognized its work efficiency and found it as the future of mass communication in the urban areas. The Skybus has proved its effectiveness in various sectors in all the tests it has gone through. Hence the. Skybus has proposed by the Railway department in following cities of India:

10.SAFETY MEASURES IN SKYBUS SYSTEM:

Compared to conventional railway systems, the centre of gravity of the mass being carried on the wheels is brought down to be closer to the wheel support- hence dynamic safety is many time improved In conventional railway wind can topple the trains.In Sky Bus wind cannot topple- there is positive link between the rail guidance system and the Bus Coaches- with 400% safety factor built into multiple suspenders. The railway bogies in conventional system have propensity to lose control on derailment, but additional safety in Sky Bus bogie is that we have derailment arresters, which prevents the wheel from jumping off the rails. So we are ensuring that there is no derailment.

derailment arresters, which prevents the wheel from jumping off the rails. So we are ensuring that

RAKSHA KABACH (ACD)

The chances of collision between two skybuses is nearly zero. Because the well tested anti collision device developed by Er.B.Rajaram called as “RAKSHA KABACH” will be there in each sky bus bogiee. In normal railway systems, when collision takes place,derailment also occurs, and carriages capsize killing people. But in Sky Bus no collision can take place between the coaches- even after the 3 levels of braking fail and the Sky Bus units hit each other in a collision, the Sky Coaches in which people are travelling, will only swing to and fro- but will not collide with each other nor capsize.

and fro- but will not collide with each other nor capsize. EMERGENCY EXIT SYSTEM But, if

EMERGENCY EXIT SYSTEM But, if there will be any problem occurs in the skybus during its running and it has to be stoped between two sky station, then there are the safety air bags are provided with each coaches for emergency exit of the passengers in the mid way.

Technology Partners Following companies are participants in development of SKY-BUS, Goa.

in development of SKY-BUS, Goa. Bharat Earth Movers Ltd. K i n e c o P

Kineco Pvt. Ltd.

Movers Ltd. K i n e c o P v t . L t d .
e c o P v t . L t d . Bajaj Electricals Ltd. A. Mohan

LARSEN & TOUBRO Ltd.

L A R S E N & T O U B R O L t d
T O U B R O L t d . Zygox Software Pvt. Ltd. Technocrats Security
Software Pvt. Ltd. Technocrats Security Systems Pvt. Ltd. Paresh Construction & Foundations Pvt. Ltd. Engineers
Engineers & Contractors Chartered Eng.
Engineers
&
Contractors
Chartered
Eng.
Contractors Chartered Eng. U.A.N. Raju Construction Ltd. S a k u r a S i g

Sakura Signs Pvt. Ltd.

a k u r a S i g n s P v t . L t

TATA SSL

i g n s P v t . L t d . T A T A

HILTI

P v t . L t d . T A T A S S L H

V.G. Gokhale

A S S L H I L T I V . G . G o k
I V . G . G o k h a l e Patil Group of Campanies
o k h a l e Patil Group of Campanies Rex Polyextrusion Ltd. Fedders Lloyd Corporation
o k h a l e Patil Group of Campanies Rex Polyextrusion Ltd. Fedders Lloyd Corporation

Picture Gallery of Skybus

During Construction Pictures

During Construction Pictures
During Construction Pictures
During Construction Pictures
During Construction Pictures
During Construction Pictures
During Construction Pictures

CONCLUSION

The Skybus is the technology breakthrough that India has achieved. Skybus is an improved railway technology, eliminating the problems of existing metro rail systems,like, derailments collisions, and capsizing crushing people. Old conventional railwaymen, who remained basically operating and maintenance experts, may take a little time to appreciate, but the fact remains Skybus is an improved railway technology eliminating their fears of derailments and capsizing from which they suffered for decades! Financially Skybus Metro makes urban transport a dream come true for administrators- virtually free gift to people without Government funding! What needs to be done is to eliminate the doubting Thomas in our minds, and adopt the Skybus, if we want to really solve the urban transport crisis!.

The Sky Bus metro is one single technology which can change the face of our cities, take out almost 10 million road vehicles in the cities and make the cities liveable, improving quality of life and attract and sustain economic activity to generate wealth.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rail International -Brussels May 1983:- A simple approach to study rail wheel interaction - Author- B Rajaram

Rail International -Brussels April 1984:- A New Theory of Rail Wheel Interaction - Author- B Rajaram