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Thermodynamics and Propulsion
Thermodynamics and Propulsion

3.3 The Carnot Cycle

A Carnot cycle is shown in Figure 3.4. It has four processes. There are two adiabatic reversible legs and two isothermal reversible legs. We can construct a Carnot cycle with many different systems, but the concepts can be shown using a familiar working fluid, the ideal gas. The system can be regarded as a chamber enclosed by a piston and filled with this ideal gas.

chamber enclosed by a piston and filled with this ideal gas. Figure 3.4: Carnot cycle --

Figure 3.4: Carnot cycle -- thermodynamic diagram on left and schematic of the different stages in the cycle for a system composed of an ideal gas on the right

The four processes in the Carnot cycle are:

1. The system is at temperature

. It is brought in contact with a heat reservoir, which is just a

liquid or solid mass of large enough extent such that its temperature does not change appreciably when some amount of heat is transferred to the system. In other words, the heat reservoir is a constant temperature source (or receiver) of heat. The system then undergoes an isothermal expansion from

to

, the system is thermally insulated (removed from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let

(removed from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let at state , with heat absorbed

at state

from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let at state , with heat absorbed .
from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let at state , with heat absorbed .

from contact with the heat reservoir) and then let at state , with heat absorbed .

, with heat absorbed

heat reservoir) and then let at state , with heat absorbed . 2. At state expand

heat reservoir) and then let at state , with heat absorbed . 2. At state expand

.

2. At state

expand to

part of the cycle, )

. During this expansion the temperature decreases to

) . During this expansion the temperature decreases to . The heat exchanged during this .
) . During this expansion the temperature decreases to . The heat exchanged during this .

. The heat exchanged during this

temperature decreases to . The heat exchanged during this . It is then 3. At state

. It is then

3. At state

the system is brought in contact with a heat reservoir at temperatureto . The heat exchanged during this . It is then 3. At state compressed to

compressed to state

with a heat reservoir at temperature compressed to state , rejecting heat in the process. 4.

, rejecting heat

at temperature compressed to state , rejecting heat in the process. 4. Finally, the system is

in the process.

4. Finally, the system is compressed adiabatically back to the initial state

system is compressed adiabatically back to the initial state . The heat exchange . The thermal

. The heat exchange

adiabatically back to the initial state . The heat exchange . The thermal efficiency of the

.

The thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by the definition

thermal efficiency of the cycle is given by the definition (3 4) Generated b y www.PDFonFl

(3

4)

In this equation, there is a sign convention implied. The quantities

of the heat absorbed and rejected. The quantities

heat received by the system. In this example, the former is negative and the latter is positive. The heat absorbed and rejected by the system takes place during isothermal processes and we already know what their values are from Eq. (3.1):

,and we already know what their values are from Eq. (3.1) : as defined are the

we already know what their values are from Eq. (3.1) : , as defined are the

as defined are the magnitudes

are from Eq. (3.1) : , as defined are the magnitudes , on the other hand

,

are from Eq. (3.1) : , as defined are the magnitudes , on the other hand

on the other hand are defined with reference to

magnitudes , on the other hand are defined with reference to The efficiency can now be
magnitudes , on the other hand are defined with reference to The efficiency can now be

The efficiency can now be written in terms of the volumes at the different states as

written in terms of the volumes at the different states as (3 5) The path from

(3

5)

The path from states

process we know that -

. Along curve

to and from to
to
and from
to

are both adiabatic and reversible. For a reversible adiabatic

both adiabatic and reversible. For a reversible adiabatic . Thus, . Using the ideal gas equation
both adiabatic and reversible. For a reversible adiabatic . Thus, . Using the ideal gas equation

. Thus,

. Using the ideal gas equation of state, we have

. Along the curve

-
-

,

ideal gas equation of state, we have . Along the curve - , , therefore, Comparing
ideal gas equation of state, we have . Along the curve - , , therefore, Comparing
ideal gas equation of state, we have . Along the curve - , , therefore, Comparing

, therefore,

of state, we have . Along the curve - , , therefore, Comparing the expression for

Comparing the expression for thermal efficiency Eq. (3.4) with Eq. (3.5) shows two consequences. First, the heats received and rejected are related to the temperatures of the isothermal parts of the cycle by

to the temperatures of the isothermal parts of the cycle by (3 6) Second, the efficiency

(3

6)

Second, the efficiency of a Carnot cycle is given compactly by

the efficiency of a Carnot cycle is given compactly by (3 7) The efficiency can be

(3

7)

The efficiency can be 100% only if the temperature at which the heat is rejected is zero. The heat and work transfers to and from the system are shown schematically in Figure 3.5.

Muddy Points

Since

Muddy Points Since Figure 3.5: Work and heat transfers in a Carnot cycle between two heat
Muddy Points Since Figure 3.5: Work and heat transfers in a Carnot cycle between two heat

Figure 3.5: Work and heat transfers in a Carnot cycle between two heat reservoirs

, looking at the

-
-

graph, does that mean the farther apart the

looking at the - graph, does that mean the farther apart the , isotherms are, the

,

at the - graph, does that mean the farther apart the , isotherms are, the greater

isotherms

are, the greater efficiency? And that if they were very close, it would be very inefficient? (MP 3.2)

In the Carnot cycle, why are we only dealing with volume changes and not pressure changes on the adiabats and isotherms? (MP 3.3)

Is there a physical application for the Carnot cycle? Can we design a Carnot engine for a propulsion device? (MP 3.4)

How do we know which cycles to use as models for real processes? (MP 3.5)

which cycles to use as models for real processes? (MP 3.5) Next: 3.4 Refri g erators