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DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

21

3.1 Structural Concrete Design

At first, the general planning is carried out by the architect to set out the

layout of the building floors based on customer's needs. Only then, the

structural engineer determines the most appropriate structural system to

ensure strength, serviceability and economy of the building. This is done

through the following steps.

1. Setting out the building structural system/systems.

2. Evaluating the external loads on the members. These loads include own

weights of the members, which are estimated at the start, in addition to other

loads that the members are intended to support. Own weights of the members

are to be checked later once the design process is done.

3. Carrying out the structural analysis using computer or manual calculations

to determine the internal forces. The analysis is done using manually or using

computer software.

4. Determination of member dimensions and required reinforcement.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

22

Concrete design can be classified into three main categories; plain concrete

design, reinforced concrete design, and prestressed concrete design.

3.2.1 Plain Concrete Design

With the advent of reinforced concrete, plain concrete is hardly used as a

structural material. It is mainly used for nonstructural members. This is due

to the low strength of concrete in tension which results in large sections,

especially, when required to resist tensile stresses resulting from direct

tension or bending.

3.2.2 Reinforced Concrete Design

The compressive strength of concrete is high while its tensile strength is

low. To alleviate the situation, high tensile strength reinforcement in the

form of steel bars is added in the tension regions to enhance the capacity of

concrete members as shown in Figure 1.1. The reinforcement is usually

placed in the forms before casting the concrete. Once hardened, the

resulting composite material is called reinforced concrete.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

23

(b) a plain concrete beam; (c) a reinforced concrete beam

1.1.1 Prestressed Concrete Design

Since the strength of reinforced concrete can be enhanced by the

elimination of cracking, prestressing is used to produce compressive

stresses in tension regions. Prestress is applied to a concrete member by

high-strength steel tendons in the forms of bars, wires, or cables that are

first tensioned and then anchored to the member. When the tendons are

tensioned before the concrete is cast around them, the concrete member is

called pre-tensioned. When the tendons are passed through ducts and

tensioned after the concrete has hardened and gained enough strength, the

concrete member is called post-tensioned.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

24

concrete design produces lighter sections, thus allowing the economic use

of much longer spans.

It involves the determination of the type of structural system to be used, the

cross sectional dimensions, and the required reinforcement. The designed

structure should be able to resist all forces expected to act during the life

span of the structure safely and without excessive deformation or cracking.

1.2.1 Analysis

It involves the determination of the capacity of a section of known

dimensions, material properties and steel reinforcement, if any to external

forces and moments.

When a structural element becomes unfit for its intended use, it is said to

have reached a limit state. The limit states are classified into three groups:

1.3.1 Ultimate Limit States

These involve structural collapse of some structural elements or the

structure altogether. These limit states should be prevented as they tend to

cause loss of life and property. Elastic instability, rupture, progressive

collapse, and fatigue are forms of these limit states.

1.3.2 Service Limit States

These involve the disruption of the functional use of the structure, not its

collapse. A higher probability of occurrence can be tolerated than in case of

an ultimate limit state since there is less danger of loss of life. Excessive

deflections, immoderate crack widths, and annoying vibrations are forms of

these limit states.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

25

These involve damage or failure due to abnormal conditions such as

collapse in severe earthquakes, damage due to explosions, fires, or

deterioration of the structure and its main structural elements.

Generally, for buildings, a limit state design is carried out first in order to

proportion the elements, and second a serviceability limit state is conducted

to check whether these elements satisfy those serviceability limit states.

A code is a set of technical specifications that control the design and

construction of a certain type of structures. Theoretical research,

experiments, and past experience help in the process of setting these

specifications. The purpose of such code is to set minimum requirements

necessary for designing safe and sound structures. It also helps to provide

protection for the public from dangers resulting from the use of inadequate

design and construction techniques.

There are two types of codes; the first is called structural code, and the

second is called building code. A structural code is a code that involves the

design of a certain type of structures (reinforced concrete, structural steel,

etc.). The structural code that will be used extensively throughout this

textbook is The American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-08), which is one of

the most solid codes due to its continuing modification, improvement, and

revision to incorporate the latest advancements in the field of reinforced

concrete design and construction. Supplements containing such revisions

are made on yearly basis. Every three or six years, a comprehensive code

edition is made, combining all revisions made since the last comprehensive

edition.

A building code, on the other side, is a code that reflects local conditions

such as earthquakes, winds, snow, and tornadoes in the specifications.

Usually the building code which describes the prevailing conditions in a

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

26

code. Prior to the year 2000, there were three model codes: the Uniform

Building Code (UBC), the Standard Building Code (SBC) and the Basic

Building Code (BBC). In 2000, these three codes were replaced by the

International Building Code (IBC) , which is updated every three years.

Two methods of design for reinforced concrete have been dominant. The

Working Stress method was the principal method used from the early 1900s

until the early 1960s. Since the publication of the 1963 edition of the ACI

Code, there has been a rapid transition to Ultimate Strength Design.

Ultimate Strength Design is identified in the code as the Strength Design

Method. The 1956 ACI Code (ACI 318-56) was the first code edition which

officially recognized and permitted the Ultimate Strength Design method

and included it in an appendix. The 1963 ACI Code (ACI 318-63) dealt with

both methods equally. The 1971 ACI Code (ACI 318-71) was based fully on

the strength approach for proportioning reinforced concrete members,

except for a small section dedicated to what is called the Alternate Design

Method. In the 1977 ACI Code (ACI 318-77) the Alternate Design Method

was demoted to Appendix B. It has been preserved in all editions of the

code since 1977, including the 1999 edition mentioned in Appendix A. In

the 2002 code edition, the so called Alternate Design Method was taken

out.

1.5.1 The Strength Design Method

At the present time, the strength design method is the method adopted by

most prestigious design codes; including the 2008 version of the ACI

building code (ACI 318-08). In this method, elements are designed so that

the internal forces produced by factored loads do not exceed the

corresponding strength capacities and allow for some capacity reduction.

The factored loads are obtained by multiplying the working loads (service

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

27

loads) by factors usually greater than unity. The favored mode of failure is

the one that ensures a controlled local failure of members in a ductile rather

than brittle manner.

1.5.1.1 Shortcomings:

1. The use of elastic methods of analysis to determine the internal forces

in the members, which are associated with the factored loads, is

inconsistent. This is due to the fact that when the ultimate load is

approached, steel and concrete are no longer behaving elastically, a

basic requirement of the validity of the elastic methods of design.

2. Regardless of the method of design used, structures are expected to

behave elastically or nearly under normal working loads. Under this

condition, the strength method can not be used and the working stress

analysis should be made to determine the deformations and crack

widths.

1.5.2 The Working-Stress Design Method

Before the introduction of the strength-design method in the ACI building

code in 1956, the working stress design method was used in design. This

method is based on the condition that the stresses caused by service loads

without load factors are not to exceed the allowable stresses which are

taken as a fraction of the ultimate stresses of the materials, fc for concrete

and f y for steel. In this method, linear elastic relationship between stress

and strain is assumed for both concrete and steel reinforcement. The

working stress-design method will generally result in designs that are more

conservative than those based on the strength design method. Now only the

design of sanitary structures holding fluids is based on the working-stress

design method since keeping stresses low is a logical way to limit cracking

and prevent leakage.

CHAPTER THREE

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28

1.5.2.1 Shortcomings

1. No way to account for degrees of uncertainty of various types of

loads. Dead loads, for example, can be predicted more accurately

than live loads which are usually variant and harder to predict.

2. Experimental investigations showed that analysis according to the

working-stress design method does not predict actual behavior,

especially, at high stresses.

3. The elastic theory does not allow for prediction of the ductility of a

structural member. Consideration of ductility, however, is of a vital

importance in the field of design for most dynamic effects.

4. The working stress design method does not make allowances for

varying quality control, standard of construction and variations

indicating the magnitude of damage that may be caused by possible

failure of a particular element.

5. It has been confirmed by tests that the working stress design method

does not give correct information with respect to the actual factor of

safety against failure of reinforced concrete members. The factor of

safety is defined as the ratio between the load that would cause the

total collapse to that used as the service or working load. It has been

found that the value of this factor is far different from the ratio of the

strength to the so-called working stress.

All structural elements must be designed for all loads anticipated to act

during the life span of such elements. These loads should not cause the

structural elements to fail or deflect excessively under working conditions.

Therefore, the designer must use the available codes to estimate these loads

if such estimates are available. If not, the designer must use his own

judgment to make these estimates which are needed for the analysis process

CHAPTER THREE

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29

before embarking on the design process. The most important load types are

listed below.

1.6.1 Dead Load (D.L)

The dead load is usually a load of permanent status, such as the own weight

of the structure, its partitions, flooring and roofing. The exact value of the

dead load is not known until the structural members have been

proportioned. Once this is done, this load is calculated and used with other

loads to design these members. Only then, the assumed loads are compared

with the actual ones, if the difference is substantial such as in long spans,

modifications of the assumed values are necessary to guarantee economy

on one extreme and adequacy on the other.

1.6.2 Live Load (L.L)

The live load is a moving or movable type of load such as occupants,

furniture, etc. Live loads used in designing buildings are usually specified

by local building codes. Live loads depend on the intended use of the

structure and the number of occupants at a particular time. The structural

engineer must use a good judgment if the expected live load is not specified

by the local code, or if he expects a larger value than the one specified by

the code. Live loads are arranged in such a way to give maximum values

for the internal forces. Table 1.1 shows typical live load values used by the

ASCE 7-05.

Table 1.1: Typical live loads specified in ASCE 7-05

Apartment Buildings:

Residential areas and corridors

Public rooms and corridors

Office Buildings:

Lobbies and first-floor corridors

Offices

Corridors above first floor

File and computer rooms

Schools:

Classrooms

200 kg/m2

480 kg/m2

480 kg/m2

240 kg/m2

380 kg/m2

400 kg/m2

195 kg/m2

CHAPTER THREE

First-floor corridors

Stairs and Exit Ways:

Storage Warehouses:

Light

Heavy

Garages (cars):

Retail Stores:

Firest floor

Upper floors

Wholesale, all Floors

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

30

385 kg/m2

480 kg/m2

480 kg/m2

600 kg/m2

1200 kg/m2

200 kg/m2

480 kg/m2

360 kg/m2

600 kg/m2

The wind load is a lateral load produced by wind pressure and gusts. It is a

type of dynamic load that is considered static to simplify analysis. The

magnitude of this force depends on the shape of the building, its height, the

velocity of the wind and the type of terrain in which the building exists.

Usually this load is considered to act in combination with dead and live

loads.

1.6.4 Earthquake Load (E.L)

The earthquake load, which is also called seismic load, is a lateral load

caused by ground motions resulting from earthquakes. The magnitude of

such a load depends on the mass of the structure and the acceleration

caused by the earthquake.

The provisions of the ACI Code provide enough ductility to allow concrete

structures to stand earthquakes in low seismic risk regions. In moderate to

high-risk regions, special arrangements and detailing are needed to

guarantee ductility.

Safety is required to insure that the structure can sustain all expected loads

during its construction stage and its life span with an appropriate factor of

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

31

uncertainties:

differently.

by the designer.

design.

The factor of safety should account for the expected type of failure and its

consequences and for the importance of the member in terms of structural

integrity.

The ACI strength design method, , involves a two-way safety measure. The

first of which involves using load factors, usually greater than unity to

increase the service loads. The magnitude of such a load factor depends on

the accuracy of determining the type of load under consideration. The

second safety measure specified by the ACI Code involves a strength

reduction factor multiplied by the nominal (theoretical) strength to obtain

design strength. The magnitude of such a reduction factor is usually smaller

than unity. The load factors and the strength reduction factors will be

discussed in detail in the following section.

1.7.1 Load Factors

These load factors are required for possible overloading resulting from;

Uncertainties involved in determination of internal force.

In the ACI 318-2002 Code, the load combination and strength reduction

factors of the 1999 code were revised and moved to Appendix C, and

remains in the ACI 318 08 code edition.

CHAPTER THREE

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32

effects of factored loads in Eqs. (1.1) through (1.7).

The effect of one or more loads not acting simultaneously is to be

investigated.

a- Dead load and fluid load Combination:

U = 1.4 (D + F )

(1.1)

b- Dead load, fluid load, temperature load, live load, soil load, roof load,

snow load, and rain load combination:

U = 1.2 (D + F + T ) +1.6 (L + H ) + 0.5 Lr

U = 1.2 (D + F + T ) +1.6 (L + H ) + 0.5 S

(1.2)

c- Dead load, roof live load, live load, rain load, wind load, and snow load

combination:

U = 1.2 D +1.6 Lr +1.0 L

U = 1.2 D +1.6 S +1.0 L

U = 1.2 D +1.6 R +1.0 L

U = 1.2 D +1.6 Lr + 0.8W

(1.3)

U = 1.2 D + 1.6 R + 0.8W

d- Dead Load, wind load, live load, roof live load, snow load, and rain

load combination:

U = 1.2 D +1.6W + 1.0 L + 0.5 Lr

U = 1.2 D +1.6W + 1.0 L + 0.5 S

U = 1.2 D + 1.6W + 1.0 L + 0.5 R

(1.4)

CHAPTER THREE

33

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

e- Dead Load, earthquake load, live load, and snow load combination:

U = 1.2 D + 1.0 E + 1.0 L + 0.2 S

(1.5)

U = 0.9 D + 1.6 W + 1.6 H

(1.6)

U = 0.9 D +1.0 E +1.6 H

(1.7)

Where

U = Required strength to resist factored loads, or internal forces

D = Dead loads, or related internal forces

F = Fluid loads, or related internal forces

T = Cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, and differential

settlement

L = Live loads, or related internal forces

H = Soil pressure, or related internal forces

Lr = Roof live loads, or related internal forces

S = Snow loads, or related internal forces

R = Rain loads, or related internal forces

W = Wind loads, or related internal forces

E = Earthquake loads, or related internal forces

Regarding the above given equations, the following important notes are

also given in ACI 9.2.1 and 9.2.2

a- The live load factor on L on Eqs. (1.3), (1.4) and (1.5) is permitted to

be reduced to 0.5 except for garages, areas of public assembly, and all

areas where the live load is greater than 485 kg / m2 .

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

34

factor, it is permitted to use 1.3W instead of 1.6W in Eqs. (1.4) and

(1.6).

c- Where earthquake load E is based on service level forces, 1.4 E is to

be used in place of 1.0 E in Eqs. (1.5) and (1.7).

d- The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in Eqs. (1.6) and (1.7)

if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E .

Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance to actions from other

forces it shall not be included in H but shall be included in the design

resistance.

e- If the live load is applied rapidly, as may be the case for parking

structures, loading docks, warehouse floors, elevator shafts, etc.,

impact effects should be considered. In all equations, substitute

(L + impact) for L when impact should be considered.

For many members, the loads considered are dead, live, wind and

earthquake.

Where the F, H, R, S , Lr and T loads are not considered equations (1.1)

through (1.7) simplify to those given in Table (1.2) below.

Table 1.2: Required Strength for simplified load combinations

Loads

Required Strength

(W)

Dead

(D),

Live

(L)

and

Equation NO.

1.4 D

(1.1)

1.2 D + 1.6 L

(1.2)

1.2 D + 1.0 L

(1.3)

1.2 D + 0.8 W

(1.3)

(1.4)

0.9 D + 1.6 W

(1.6)

(1.5)

CHAPTER THREE

Earthquake (E)

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

0.9 D + 1.0 E

35

(1.7)

According to the ACI Code 9.3.1, the nominal (theoretical) strength is

multiplied by a strength reduction factor to obtain the design strength.

Design strength Required strength

The reasons for using the strength reduction factors include:

material strengths and dimensions.

Allow for inaccuracies in the design equations.

Reflect the degree of ductility and required reliability of the member

under the load effects being considered.

Reflect the importance of the member in the structure.

In the ACI 318-2002 Code, the strength reduction factors were adjusted to

be compatible with model building code.

According to ACI 9.3.2 strength reduction factors are given as follows:

a- For tension-controlled sections ... = 0.90

b- For compression-controlled sections,

Members with spiral reinforcement .. = 0.75

Other reinforced members .... = 0.65

c- For shear and torsion .. = 0.75

d- For bearing on concrete ... = 0.65

e- Post-tensioned anchorage zones .. = 0.85

f- Strut and tie models . = 0.75

columns have smaller strength reduction factors, thus larger safety

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

36

paying attention to their extensive type of failure which differs from the

localized type of failure encountered in beams. Moreover, columns are less

ductile than beams, thus requiring a larger factor of safety.

In ACI 10.3.4, sections are called tension-controlled when the net tensile

strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005 when the

concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.003, as shown in

Fig. 1.2.a.

In ACI 10.3.3, sections are called compression-controlled when the net

tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or less than y

(permitted to be taken as 0.002 for reinforcement with f y = 4200 kg / cm2 )

when the concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.003, as

shown in Fig. 1.2.c.

There is a transition region between tension-controlled and compressioncontrolled sections, shown in Fig. 1.2.b.

(a)

(b)

(c)

f y = 4200 kg / cm2 ; (a)

and compression; (c) compression-controlled section.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

37

Example (1.1):

For frame ABCD shown in Figure 1.2.a, determine the axial forces for

which member AB should be designed for the following service loads are

applied:

a dead load of 1 t/m on member BC;

a live load 2.5 t/m on member BC;

a horizontal wind load of 5 tons at joint C, which may act to the

right or left on member AB and CD, respectively.

Solution:

The frame is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design

software for the following load combinations.

Combination (1): D + L, based on Eq. (1.2)

wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2 (1) + 1.6 (2.5) = 5.2 ton/m

F AB = 5.2 (10 / 2) = 26.0 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.b.

Combination (2): D + W, based on Eq. (1.3)

U = 1.2 D + 0.8W

Wind acts to the right

F AB = 4.0 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.c.

CHAPTER THREE

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38

F AB = 8.0 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.d.

Combination (3): D + L + W, based on Eq. (1.4)

U = 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L

Wind acts to the right

F AB = 14.5 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.e.

Wind acts to the left

F AB = 22.5 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.f.

Combination (4): D + W, based on Eq. (1.6)

U = 0.9 D + 1.60 W

Wind acts to the right

F AB = 0.50 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.g.

Wind acts to the left

F AB = 8.50 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.h.

Studying the four combinations, member AB should be designed for an

axial compression load of 26.0 tons.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

39

combination; (c) D+W combination (Right); (d) D+W combination

(Left); (e) D+L+W combination (Right); (f) D+L+W combination

(Left); (g) D+W combination (Right); (h) D+W combination (Left);

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

40

Example (1.2):

The beam shown in Figure 1.3.a carries a uniformly distributed service

dead load of 3 t/m, and a service live load of 1.5 t/m. Determine the

maximum positive and negative bending moments for which beam ABC .

Solution:

The Beam is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design

software for the following loading cases.

Maximum negative moment:

This case is evaluated by fully loading the two spans by dead and live

loads.

wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2(3) + 1.6(1.5) = 6.0 ton / m

The maximum negative moment is given as.

M ve (max .) =18.75 t.m , as shown in Figure 1.3.c.

Maximum positive moment:

This case is evaluated by fully loading one of the two spans by dead and

live loads while loading the other span by dead load only.

For the span loaded with dead and live loads,

wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2 (3) + 1.6 (1.5) = 6.0 t/m

For the other span, wu = 1.20 D = 1.2 (3) = 3.6 t/m

The maximum positive moment is given as.

M + ve (max) =12.0 t.m , as shown in Figure 1.3.e.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

41

(b)

(c)

(d)

(d)

Figure 1.3 : (continued); (b) loads causing maximum negative moment at

point B; (c) corresponding bending moment diagram; (d) loads causing

maximum positive moment in span BC; (e) corresponding bending

moment diagram.

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

42

Example (1.3):

For frame ABCD shown in Figure 1.4, determine maximum positive and

negative bending moments for which member BC should be designed for

when the following service loads are acting:

a dead load of 4 t/m on member BC;

a live load 3 t/m on member BC;

a horizontal wind load of 1 tons at joint C, which may act to the

right or left on member AB and CD, respectively.

Solution

The frame is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design

software for the following load combinations.

Combination (1): D + L load

wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2 (4) + 1.6 (3) = 9.6 ton/m

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Combination (2): D + W load (on members CD and AB)

U = 1.2 D + 0.8W

wu (vertical ) = 1.2 D = 1.2 (4) = 4.8 ton/m

wu (horizontal ) = 0.8W = 0.8 (1) = 0.8 ton/m

43

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Combination (3): D + L + W load (on members CD and AB)

U = 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L

wu (vertical ) = 1.2 D + 1.0 L = 1.2 (4) + 1(3) = 7.8 ton/m

wu (horizontal ) = 0.8W = 0.8 (1) ) = 0.8 ton/m

Figure 1.4.e: Dead, Live and wind loads (on member CD)

44

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

Figure 1.4.f: Dead, Live and wind loads (on member AB)

Combination (4): D + W Load (on members CD and AB)

U = 0.9 D + 1.60 W

wu (vertical ) = 0.9 D = 0.9 (4) = 3.6 ton/m

wu (horizontal ) = 1.6 W = 1.6 (1) ) = 1.6 ton/m

45

CHAPTER THREE

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46

Based on the results obtained from the four combinations, member BC

should be designed for a maximum negative bending moment of 252.57

ton.m and a maximum positive bending moment of 227.43 ton.m

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

47

1.8 Problems

P1.10.1 The beam shown in Figure P1.10.1 carries a uniformly distributed

service dead load of 2.5 t/m, and a service live load of 2.0 t/m. Determine

the maximum positive and negative bending moments for which beam ABC

should be designed for.

Figure P1.10.1

P1.10.2 For frame ABCD shown in Figure P1.10.2, determine the axial

forces for which the member CD should be designed for when the

following service loads are applied:

a dead load of 1.5 t/m on member BC;

a live load 2.0 t/m on member BC;

a horizontal wind load of 8 tons at joint C, which may act either to

the right or left.

Figure P1.10.2

CHAPTER THREE

DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

48

following loads:

two 5-ton service concentrated live loads applied at points G and

H;

a service dead load of 3 t/m and a service live load of 2 t/m on

member CD;

a service dead load of 5 t/m and a service live load of 1.5 t/m on

member BE.

Determine the maximum positive and negative bending moments for

which member BE should be designed for.

Figure P1.10.3

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