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1 CHAPTER 3: DESIGN REQUIREMENTS


3.1 Structural Concrete Design
At first, the general planning is carried out by the architect to set out the
layout of the building floors based on customer's needs. Only then, the
structural engineer determines the most appropriate structural system to
ensure strength, serviceability and economy of the building. This is done
through the following steps.
1. Setting out the building structural system/systems.
2. Evaluating the external loads on the members. These loads include own
weights of the members, which are estimated at the start, in addition to other
loads that the members are intended to support. Own weights of the members
are to be checked later once the design process is done.
3. Carrying out the structural analysis using computer or manual calculations
to determine the internal forces. The analysis is done using manually or using
computer software.
4. Determination of member dimensions and required reinforcement.

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5. Preparation of structural drawings.

3.2 Types of Concrete Design


Concrete design can be classified into three main categories; plain concrete
design, reinforced concrete design, and prestressed concrete design.
3.2.1 Plain Concrete Design
With the advent of reinforced concrete, plain concrete is hardly used as a
structural material. It is mainly used for nonstructural members. This is due
to the low strength of concrete in tension which results in large sections,
especially, when required to resist tensile stresses resulting from direct
tension or bending.
3.2.2 Reinforced Concrete Design
The compressive strength of concrete is high while its tensile strength is
low. To alleviate the situation, high tensile strength reinforcement in the
form of steel bars is added in the tension regions to enhance the capacity of
concrete members as shown in Figure 1.1. The reinforcement is usually
placed in the forms before casting the concrete. Once hardened, the
resulting composite material is called reinforced concrete.

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Figure 1.1: Mechanics of reinforced concrete: (a) beam and loads;


(b) a plain concrete beam; (c) a reinforced concrete beam
1.1.1 Prestressed Concrete Design
Since the strength of reinforced concrete can be enhanced by the
elimination of cracking, prestressing is used to produce compressive
stresses in tension regions. Prestress is applied to a concrete member by
high-strength steel tendons in the forms of bars, wires, or cables that are
first tensioned and then anchored to the member. When the tendons are
tensioned before the concrete is cast around them, the concrete member is
called pre-tensioned. When the tendons are passed through ducts and
tensioned after the concrete has hardened and gained enough strength, the
concrete member is called post-tensioned.

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When compared to classical reinforced concrete design, prestressed


concrete design produces lighter sections, thus allowing the economic use
of much longer spans.

1.2 Design Versus Analysis


It involves the determination of the type of structural system to be used, the
cross sectional dimensions, and the required reinforcement. The designed
structure should be able to resist all forces expected to act during the life
span of the structure safely and without excessive deformation or cracking.
1.2.1 Analysis
It involves the determination of the capacity of a section of known
dimensions, material properties and steel reinforcement, if any to external
forces and moments.

1.3 Limit States of Reinforced Concrete Design


When a structural element becomes unfit for its intended use, it is said to
have reached a limit state. The limit states are classified into three groups:
1.3.1 Ultimate Limit States
These involve structural collapse of some structural elements or the
structure altogether. These limit states should be prevented as they tend to
cause loss of life and property. Elastic instability, rupture, progressive
collapse, and fatigue are forms of these limit states.
1.3.2 Service Limit States
These involve the disruption of the functional use of the structure, not its
collapse. A higher probability of occurrence can be tolerated than in case of
an ultimate limit state since there is less danger of loss of life. Excessive
deflections, immoderate crack widths, and annoying vibrations are forms of
these limit states.

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1.3.3 Special Limit States


These involve damage or failure due to abnormal conditions such as
collapse in severe earthquakes, damage due to explosions, fires, or
deterioration of the structure and its main structural elements.
Generally, for buildings, a limit state design is carried out first in order to
proportion the elements, and second a serviceability limit state is conducted
to check whether these elements satisfy those serviceability limit states.

1.4 Design and Building Codes


A code is a set of technical specifications that control the design and
construction of a certain type of structures. Theoretical research,
experiments, and past experience help in the process of setting these
specifications. The purpose of such code is to set minimum requirements
necessary for designing safe and sound structures. It also helps to provide
protection for the public from dangers resulting from the use of inadequate
design and construction techniques.
There are two types of codes; the first is called structural code, and the
second is called building code. A structural code is a code that involves the
design of a certain type of structures (reinforced concrete, structural steel,
etc.). The structural code that will be used extensively throughout this
textbook is The American Concrete Institute (ACI 318-08), which is one of
the most solid codes due to its continuing modification, improvement, and
revision to incorporate the latest advancements in the field of reinforced
concrete design and construction. Supplements containing such revisions
are made on yearly basis. Every three or six years, a comprehensive code
edition is made, combining all revisions made since the last comprehensive
edition.
A building code, on the other side, is a code that reflects local conditions
such as earthquakes, winds, snow, and tornadoes in the specifications.
Usually the building code which describes the prevailing conditions in a

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certain city or state, is used in addition to the main structural or national


code. Prior to the year 2000, there were three model codes: the Uniform
Building Code (UBC), the Standard Building Code (SBC) and the Basic
Building Code (BBC). In 2000, these three codes were replaced by the
International Building Code (IBC) , which is updated every three years.

1.5 Design Methods


Two methods of design for reinforced concrete have been dominant. The
Working Stress method was the principal method used from the early 1900s
until the early 1960s. Since the publication of the 1963 edition of the ACI
Code, there has been a rapid transition to Ultimate Strength Design.
Ultimate Strength Design is identified in the code as the Strength Design
Method. The 1956 ACI Code (ACI 318-56) was the first code edition which
officially recognized and permitted the Ultimate Strength Design method
and included it in an appendix. The 1963 ACI Code (ACI 318-63) dealt with
both methods equally. The 1971 ACI Code (ACI 318-71) was based fully on
the strength approach for proportioning reinforced concrete members,
except for a small section dedicated to what is called the Alternate Design
Method. In the 1977 ACI Code (ACI 318-77) the Alternate Design Method
was demoted to Appendix B. It has been preserved in all editions of the
code since 1977, including the 1999 edition mentioned in Appendix A. In
the 2002 code edition, the so called Alternate Design Method was taken
out.
1.5.1 The Strength Design Method
At the present time, the strength design method is the method adopted by
most prestigious design codes; including the 2008 version of the ACI
building code (ACI 318-08). In this method, elements are designed so that
the internal forces produced by factored loads do not exceed the
corresponding strength capacities and allow for some capacity reduction.
The factored loads are obtained by multiplying the working loads (service

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loads) by factors usually greater than unity. The favored mode of failure is
the one that ensures a controlled local failure of members in a ductile rather
than brittle manner.
1.5.1.1 Shortcomings:
1. The use of elastic methods of analysis to determine the internal forces
in the members, which are associated with the factored loads, is
inconsistent. This is due to the fact that when the ultimate load is
approached, steel and concrete are no longer behaving elastically, a
basic requirement of the validity of the elastic methods of design.
2. Regardless of the method of design used, structures are expected to
behave elastically or nearly under normal working loads. Under this
condition, the strength method can not be used and the working stress
analysis should be made to determine the deformations and crack
widths.
1.5.2 The Working-Stress Design Method
Before the introduction of the strength-design method in the ACI building
code in 1956, the working stress design method was used in design. This
method is based on the condition that the stresses caused by service loads
without load factors are not to exceed the allowable stresses which are
taken as a fraction of the ultimate stresses of the materials, fc for concrete
and f y for steel. In this method, linear elastic relationship between stress
and strain is assumed for both concrete and steel reinforcement. The
working stress-design method will generally result in designs that are more
conservative than those based on the strength design method. Now only the
design of sanitary structures holding fluids is based on the working-stress
design method since keeping stresses low is a logical way to limit cracking
and prevent leakage.

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1.5.2.1 Shortcomings
1. No way to account for degrees of uncertainty of various types of
loads. Dead loads, for example, can be predicted more accurately
than live loads which are usually variant and harder to predict.
2. Experimental investigations showed that analysis according to the
working-stress design method does not predict actual behavior,
especially, at high stresses.
3. The elastic theory does not allow for prediction of the ductility of a
structural member. Consideration of ductility, however, is of a vital
importance in the field of design for most dynamic effects.
4. The working stress design method does not make allowances for
varying quality control, standard of construction and variations
indicating the magnitude of damage that may be caused by possible
failure of a particular element.
5. It has been confirmed by tests that the working stress design method
does not give correct information with respect to the actual factor of
safety against failure of reinforced concrete members. The factor of
safety is defined as the ratio between the load that would cause the
total collapse to that used as the service or working load. It has been
found that the value of this factor is far different from the ratio of the
strength to the so-called working stress.

1.6 Loads on Structures


All structural elements must be designed for all loads anticipated to act
during the life span of such elements. These loads should not cause the
structural elements to fail or deflect excessively under working conditions.
Therefore, the designer must use the available codes to estimate these loads
if such estimates are available. If not, the designer must use his own
judgment to make these estimates which are needed for the analysis process

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before embarking on the design process. The most important load types are
listed below.
1.6.1 Dead Load (D.L)
The dead load is usually a load of permanent status, such as the own weight
of the structure, its partitions, flooring and roofing. The exact value of the
dead load is not known until the structural members have been
proportioned. Once this is done, this load is calculated and used with other
loads to design these members. Only then, the assumed loads are compared
with the actual ones, if the difference is substantial such as in long spans,
modifications of the assumed values are necessary to guarantee economy
on one extreme and adequacy on the other.
1.6.2 Live Load (L.L)
The live load is a moving or movable type of load such as occupants,
furniture, etc. Live loads used in designing buildings are usually specified
by local building codes. Live loads depend on the intended use of the
structure and the number of occupants at a particular time. The structural
engineer must use a good judgment if the expected live load is not specified
by the local code, or if he expects a larger value than the one specified by
the code. Live loads are arranged in such a way to give maximum values
for the internal forces. Table 1.1 shows typical live load values used by the
ASCE 7-05.
Table 1.1: Typical live loads specified in ASCE 7-05
Apartment Buildings:
Residential areas and corridors
Public rooms and corridors
Office Buildings:
Lobbies and first-floor corridors
Offices
Corridors above first floor
File and computer rooms
Schools:
Classrooms

200 kg/m2
480 kg/m2
480 kg/m2
240 kg/m2
380 kg/m2
400 kg/m2
195 kg/m2

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Corridors above first floor


First-floor corridors
Stairs and Exit Ways:
Storage Warehouses:
Light
Heavy
Garages (cars):
Retail Stores:
Firest floor
Upper floors
Wholesale, all Floors

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385 kg/m2
480 kg/m2
480 kg/m2
600 kg/m2
1200 kg/m2
200 kg/m2
480 kg/m2
360 kg/m2
600 kg/m2

1.6.3 Wind Load (W.L)


The wind load is a lateral load produced by wind pressure and gusts. It is a
type of dynamic load that is considered static to simplify analysis. The
magnitude of this force depends on the shape of the building, its height, the
velocity of the wind and the type of terrain in which the building exists.
Usually this load is considered to act in combination with dead and live
loads.
1.6.4 Earthquake Load (E.L)
The earthquake load, which is also called seismic load, is a lateral load
caused by ground motions resulting from earthquakes. The magnitude of
such a load depends on the mass of the structure and the acceleration
caused by the earthquake.
The provisions of the ACI Code provide enough ductility to allow concrete
structures to stand earthquakes in low seismic risk regions. In moderate to
high-risk regions, special arrangements and detailing are needed to
guarantee ductility.

1.7 Safety Provisions


Safety is required to insure that the structure can sustain all expected loads
during its construction stage and its life span with an appropriate factor of

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safety. The factor of safety is used to account for the following


uncertainties:

Real Loads may differ from assumed design loads, or distributed


differently.

Material strengths could be smaller than those used in the design.

Executed dimensions or reinforcement are less than those specified


by the designer.

Assumptions and simplifications are made during analysis or


design.

The factor of safety should account for the expected type of failure and its
consequences and for the importance of the member in terms of structural
integrity.
The ACI strength design method, , involves a two-way safety measure. The
first of which involves using load factors, usually greater than unity to
increase the service loads. The magnitude of such a load factor depends on
the accuracy of determining the type of load under consideration. The
second safety measure specified by the ACI Code involves a strength
reduction factor multiplied by the nominal (theoretical) strength to obtain
design strength. The magnitude of such a reduction factor is usually smaller
than unity. The load factors and the strength reduction factors will be
discussed in detail in the following section.
1.7.1 Load Factors
These load factors are required for possible overloading resulting from;

Magnitudes of loads may vary from those assumed in design.


Uncertainties involved in determination of internal force.

In the ACI 318-2002 Code, the load combination and strength reduction
factors of the 1999 code were revised and moved to Appendix C, and
remains in the ACI 318 08 code edition.

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According to ACI 9.2.1, required strength U shall be at least equal to the


effects of factored loads in Eqs. (1.1) through (1.7).
The effect of one or more loads not acting simultaneously is to be
investigated.
a- Dead load and fluid load Combination:
U = 1.4 (D + F )

(1.1)

b- Dead load, fluid load, temperature load, live load, soil load, roof load,
snow load, and rain load combination:
U = 1.2 (D + F + T ) +1.6 (L + H ) + 0.5 Lr
U = 1.2 (D + F + T ) +1.6 (L + H ) + 0.5 S

(1.2)

U = 1.2 (D + F + T ) +1.6 (L + H ) + 0.5 R


c- Dead load, roof live load, live load, rain load, wind load, and snow load
combination:
U = 1.2 D +1.6 Lr +1.0 L
U = 1.2 D +1.6 S +1.0 L
U = 1.2 D +1.6 R +1.0 L
U = 1.2 D +1.6 Lr + 0.8W

(1.3)

U = 1.2 D +1.6 S + 0.8W


U = 1.2 D + 1.6 R + 0.8W
d- Dead Load, wind load, live load, roof live load, snow load, and rain
load combination:
U = 1.2 D +1.6W + 1.0 L + 0.5 Lr
U = 1.2 D +1.6W + 1.0 L + 0.5 S
U = 1.2 D + 1.6W + 1.0 L + 0.5 R

(1.4)

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e- Dead Load, earthquake load, live load, and snow load combination:
U = 1.2 D + 1.0 E + 1.0 L + 0.2 S

(1.5)

f- Dead Load, wind load, and soil load combination:


U = 0.9 D + 1.6 W + 1.6 H

(1.6)

g- Dead Load, earthquake load, and soil load combination:


U = 0.9 D +1.0 E +1.6 H

(1.7)

Where
U = Required strength to resist factored loads, or internal forces
D = Dead loads, or related internal forces
F = Fluid loads, or related internal forces
T = Cumulative effects of temperature, creep, shrinkage, and differential
settlement
L = Live loads, or related internal forces
H = Soil pressure, or related internal forces
Lr = Roof live loads, or related internal forces
S = Snow loads, or related internal forces
R = Rain loads, or related internal forces
W = Wind loads, or related internal forces
E = Earthquake loads, or related internal forces
Regarding the above given equations, the following important notes are
also given in ACI 9.2.1 and 9.2.2
a- The live load factor on L on Eqs. (1.3), (1.4) and (1.5) is permitted to
be reduced to 0.5 except for garages, areas of public assembly, and all
areas where the live load is greater than 485 kg / m2 .

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b- Where the wind load W has not been reduced by a directionality


factor, it is permitted to use 1.3W instead of 1.6W in Eqs. (1.4) and
(1.6).
c- Where earthquake load E is based on service level forces, 1.4 E is to
be used in place of 1.0 E in Eqs. (1.5) and (1.7).
d- The load factor on H shall be set equal to zero in Eqs. (1.6) and (1.7)
if the structural action due to H counteracts that due to W or E .
Where lateral earth pressure provides resistance to actions from other
forces it shall not be included in H but shall be included in the design
resistance.
e- If the live load is applied rapidly, as may be the case for parking
structures, loading docks, warehouse floors, elevator shafts, etc.,
impact effects should be considered. In all equations, substitute
(L + impact) for L when impact should be considered.
For many members, the loads considered are dead, live, wind and
earthquake.
Where the F, H, R, S , Lr and T loads are not considered equations (1.1)
through (1.7) simplify to those given in Table (1.2) below.
Table 1.2: Required Strength for simplified load combinations
Loads

Required Strength

Dead (D) and Live (L)

Dead (D), Live (L) and wind


(W)

Dead

(D),

Live

(L)

and

Equation NO.

1.4 D

(1.1)

1.2 D + 1.6 L

(1.2)

1.2 D + 1.0 L

(1.3)

1.2 D + 0.8 W

(1.3)

1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L

(1.4)

0.9 D + 1.6 W

(1.6)

1.2 D + 1.0 L + 1.0 E

(1.5)

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0.9 D + 1.0 E

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(1.7)

1.7.2 Strength Reduction Factors


According to the ACI Code 9.3.1, the nominal (theoretical) strength is
multiplied by a strength reduction factor to obtain the design strength.
Design strength Required strength
The reasons for using the strength reduction factors include:

Allow for the probability of under-strength due to variations in


material strengths and dimensions.
Allow for inaccuracies in the design equations.
Reflect the degree of ductility and required reliability of the member
under the load effects being considered.
Reflect the importance of the member in the structure.

In the ACI 318-2002 Code, the strength reduction factors were adjusted to
be compatible with model building code.
According to ACI 9.3.2 strength reduction factors are given as follows:
a- For tension-controlled sections ... = 0.90
b- For compression-controlled sections,
Members with spiral reinforcement .. = 0.75
Other reinforced members .... = 0.65
c- For shear and torsion .. = 0.75
d- For bearing on concrete ... = 0.65
e- Post-tensioned anchorage zones .. = 0.85
f- Strut and tie models . = 0.75

An example of showing the importance of a member in a structure is that


columns have smaller strength reduction factors, thus larger safety

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measures than beams. This is due to the importance of columns when


paying attention to their extensive type of failure which differs from the
localized type of failure encountered in beams. Moreover, columns are less
ductile than beams, thus requiring a larger factor of safety.
In ACI 10.3.4, sections are called tension-controlled when the net tensile
strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or greater than 0.005 when the
concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.003, as shown in
Fig. 1.2.a.
In ACI 10.3.3, sections are called compression-controlled when the net
tensile strain in the extreme tension steel is equal to or less than y
(permitted to be taken as 0.002 for reinforcement with f y = 4200 kg / cm2 )
when the concrete in compression reaches its crushing strain of 0.003, as
shown in Fig. 1.2.c.
There is a transition region between tension-controlled and compressioncontrolled sections, shown in Fig. 1.2.b.

(a)

(b)

Figure 1.2: Classification of sections for

(c)
f y = 4200 kg / cm2 ; (a)

Tension-controlled section; (b) Section in transition between tension


and compression; (c) compression-controlled section.

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Example (1.1):
For frame ABCD shown in Figure 1.2.a, determine the axial forces for
which member AB should be designed for the following service loads are
applied:
a dead load of 1 t/m on member BC;
a live load 2.5 t/m on member BC;
a horizontal wind load of 5 tons at joint C, which may act to the
right or left on member AB and CD, respectively.

Figure 1.2.a: Frame


Solution:
The frame is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design
software for the following load combinations.
Combination (1): D + L, based on Eq. (1.2)
wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2 (1) + 1.6 (2.5) = 5.2 ton/m
F AB = 5.2 (10 / 2) = 26.0 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.b.
Combination (2): D + W, based on Eq. (1.3)
U = 1.2 D + 0.8W
Wind acts to the right
F AB = 4.0 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.c.

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Wind acts to the left


F AB = 8.0 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.d.
Combination (3): D + L + W, based on Eq. (1.4)
U = 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L
Wind acts to the right
F AB = 14.5 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.e.
Wind acts to the left
F AB = 22.5 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.f.
Combination (4): D + W, based on Eq. (1.6)
U = 0.9 D + 1.60 W
Wind acts to the right
F AB = 0.50 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.g.
Wind acts to the left
F AB = 8.50 tons (comp.) , as shown in Figure 1.2.h.
Studying the four combinations, member AB should be designed for an
axial compression load of 26.0 tons.

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Figure 1.2: (continued); Frame and loading combinations, (b) D+L


combination; (c) D+W combination (Right); (d) D+W combination
(Left); (e) D+L+W combination (Right); (f) D+L+W combination
(Left); (g) D+W combination (Right); (h) D+W combination (Left);

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Example (1.2):
The beam shown in Figure 1.3.a carries a uniformly distributed service
dead load of 3 t/m, and a service live load of 1.5 t/m. Determine the
maximum positive and negative bending moments for which beam ABC .
Solution:

Figure 1.3.a: Beam ABC


The Beam is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design
software for the following loading cases.
Maximum negative moment:
This case is evaluated by fully loading the two spans by dead and live
loads.
wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2(3) + 1.6(1.5) = 6.0 ton / m
The maximum negative moment is given as.
M ve (max .) =18.75 t.m , as shown in Figure 1.3.c.
Maximum positive moment:
This case is evaluated by fully loading one of the two spans by dead and
live loads while loading the other span by dead load only.
For the span loaded with dead and live loads,
wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2 (3) + 1.6 (1.5) = 6.0 t/m
For the other span, wu = 1.20 D = 1.2 (3) = 3.6 t/m
The maximum positive moment is given as.
M + ve (max) =12.0 t.m , as shown in Figure 1.3.e.

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(b)

(c)

(d)

(d)
Figure 1.3 : (continued); (b) loads causing maximum negative moment at
point B; (c) corresponding bending moment diagram; (d) loads causing
maximum positive moment in span BC; (e) corresponding bending
moment diagram.

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Example (1.3):
For frame ABCD shown in Figure 1.4, determine maximum positive and
negative bending moments for which member BC should be designed for
when the following service loads are acting:
a dead load of 4 t/m on member BC;
a live load 3 t/m on member BC;
a horizontal wind load of 1 tons at joint C, which may act to the
right or left on member AB and CD, respectively.

Figure 1.4.a: Frame


Solution
The frame is analyzed using SAP 2000 structural analysis and design
software for the following load combinations.
Combination (1): D + L load
wu = 1.20 D + 1.60 L = 1.2 (4) + 1.6 (3) = 9.6 ton/m

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Figure 1.4.b: Dead and live loads


Combination (2): D + W load (on members CD and AB)
U = 1.2 D + 0.8W
wu (vertical ) = 1.2 D = 1.2 (4) = 4.8 ton/m
wu (horizontal ) = 0.8W = 0.8 (1) = 0.8 ton/m

Figure 1.4.c: Dead and wind loads (on member CD)

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Figure 1.4.d: Dead and wind loads (on member AB)


Combination (3): D + L + W load (on members CD and AB)
U = 1.2 D + 1.6 W + 1.0 L
wu (vertical ) = 1.2 D + 1.0 L = 1.2 (4) + 1(3) = 7.8 ton/m
wu (horizontal ) = 0.8W = 0.8 (1) ) = 0.8 ton/m

Figure 1.4.e: Dead, Live and wind loads (on member CD)

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Figure 1.4.f: Dead, Live and wind loads (on member AB)
Combination (4): D + W Load (on members CD and AB)
U = 0.9 D + 1.60 W
wu (vertical ) = 0.9 D = 0.9 (4) = 3.6 ton/m
wu (horizontal ) = 1.6 W = 1.6 (1) ) = 1.6 ton/m

Figure 1.4.g: Dead and wind loads (on member CD)

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Figure 1.4.h: Dead and wind loads


Based on the results obtained from the four combinations, member BC
should be designed for a maximum negative bending moment of 252.57
ton.m and a maximum positive bending moment of 227.43 ton.m

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1.8 Problems
P1.10.1 The beam shown in Figure P1.10.1 carries a uniformly distributed
service dead load of 2.5 t/m, and a service live load of 2.0 t/m. Determine
the maximum positive and negative bending moments for which beam ABC
should be designed for.

Figure P1.10.1

P1.10.2 For frame ABCD shown in Figure P1.10.2, determine the axial
forces for which the member CD should be designed for when the
following service loads are applied:
a dead load of 1.5 t/m on member BC;
a live load 2.0 t/m on member BC;
a horizontal wind load of 8 tons at joint C, which may act either to
the right or left.

Figure P1.10.2

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DESIGN REQUIREMENTS

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P1.10.3 The multi-story frame shown in Figure P1.10.3 carries the


following loads:
two 5-ton service concentrated live loads applied at points G and
H;
a service dead load of 3 t/m and a service live load of 2 t/m on
member CD;
a service dead load of 5 t/m and a service live load of 1.5 t/m on
member BE.
Determine the maximum positive and negative bending moments for
which member BE should be designed for.

Figure P1.10.3