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PART I THEORY..................................................

17
1 The Inadequacy of Classical Physics.......................... 19
1.1 The wave nature of hght................................ 19
1.2 The particle nature of light........................... 22
1.3 The behavior of electrons.............................. 26
1.4 The wave theory of matter.............................. 33
1.5 The principle of superposition......................... 38
2 The Physical Content of the Wave Function.................... 44
2.1 The wave function of an electron....................... 44
2.2 The wave function of a photon.......................... 48
2.3 Expectation values, probabilities and superposition.... 50
2.4 rrhe momentum wave function............................ 55
2.5 The momentum operator.................................. 57
2.6 Indeterminacy.......................................... 63
3 General Principles........................................... 76
3.1 Interactions........................................... 76
3.2 The current vector..................................... 78
3.3 Time dependence of expectation values.................. 80
3.4 Hermitian operators.................................... 86
3.5 The indeterminacy relations............................ 91
3.6 Eigenstates............................................ 95
3.7 Superpositions.........................................100
3.8 Summary................................................103
4 Systems in One Dimension.....................................105
4.1 Simple barriers........................................105
4.2 Potential wells........................................112
4.3 Classical considerations on 1/1........................118
4.4 The WKB approximation..................................120
4.5 The connection formulas................................124
4.6 The anharmonic oscillator..............................131
4.7 The double potential well..............................132
4.8 The harmonic oscillator................................139
4.9 Analytical solution....................................139
4.10 Algebraic solution....................................143
5 Hermitian Operators, Symmetry, and Angular Momentum..........151
5.1 The orthogonality theorem..............................151
5.2 Eigenfunction expansions...............................153
5.3 Matrices and the Dirac notation........................156
5.4 Simultaneous observables...............................159
5.5 Transformations as dynamical variables.................162
5.6 Hermitian momenta in curvilinear coordinates...........172
5.7 Angular momentum.......................................173
5.8 The eigenvalues of Lz and L 2..........................179
5.9 Note on infinitesimal transformations..................183
6 Spin and Isospin.............................................186
6.1 The phenomenon of spin.................................186
6.2 Spin in a constant magnetic field......................194
6.3 Magnetic resonance.....................................198
6.4 Addition of two spins..................................201
6.5 Addition of spin and orbital angular momenta...........205
6.6 Isospin................................................212
6.7 Isospin and elementary particles.......................217
7 Systems in Two and Three Dimensions..........................223
7.1 Degeneracy.............................................223
7.2 Systems of several particles...........................233
7.3 The hydrogen atom......................................237
7.4 A singular potential...................................247
7.5 The deuteron...........................................250
7..6 The diatomic molecule.................................259
7.7 Electron in a magnetic field...........................263

7.8 Fields or potentials...................................271


7.9 Superconductivity and quantized flux...................276
8 Approximate Methods of Calculation...........................278
8.1 Introduction...........................................278
8.2 Perturbation theory for stationary states..............278
8.3 First-order perturbations..............................282
8.4 Perturbation of degenerate states......................285
8.5 Calculation of perturbed wave functions................298
8.6 The variation principle................................305
8.7 Perturbation theory for nonstationary states...........310
8.8 Perturbations periodic in time.........................322
8.9 Electric and magnetic moments..........................324
9 The Theory of Scattering.....................................329
9.1 The scattering cross section...........................330
9.2 Coordinate systems.....................................333
9.3 The quantum theory of scattering: I....................339
9.4 The quantum theory of scattering: II...................348
9.5 Formation of cloud chamber tracks......................359
9.6 Low-energy scattering..................................362
9.7 Short-range interactions...............................370
9.8 The Heisenberg..Kramers approach.......................377
9.9 Resonant scattering....................................381
10 Electromagnetic Radiation...................................389
10.1 Interaction with an electromagnetic field.............389
10.2 Dipole radiation......................................393
10.3 Spectral lines........................................397
10.4 Selection rules and forbid den transitions............404
10.5 Photoelectric effect..................................414
11 Systems Containing Identical Particles......................419
11.1 Symmetry and antisymmetry.............................419
11.2 The helium spectrum...................................427
11.3 Antisymmetrical wave functions........................432
11.4 Scattering of identical particles.....................435
11.5 Photon statistics.....................................441
11.6 Neutrons and protons..................................445
Part II APPLICATIONS...........................................447
12 The Theory of Alpha Decay...................................449
12.1 The escape of an alpha particle.......................449
12.2 Evaluation of the formula.............................454
13 Electrons in a Periodic Lattice.............................458
13.1 The periodic potential................................458
13.2 Effective mass........................................463
13.3 Electronic conductivity in solids.....................466
14 The Hydrogen Atom...........................................471
14.1 The wave equation.....................................471
14.2 Solution of the equation..............................473
14.3 The fine structure of hydrogen........................479
14.4 The Zeeman effect.....................................488
15 The Helium Atom.............................................495
15.1 The ground state......................................496
15.2 The lowest excited states.............................505
15.3 Nuclear motion in helium..............................508
16 Interatomic Forces..........................................512
16.1 The hydrogen molecule-ion.............................512
16.2 The mechanics of a molecule...........................521
16.3 Forces in molecules...................................523
16.4 Forces between atoms..................................524
17 The Quark Model of the Baryons..............................529
17..1 Elements of the model................................529
17..2 Classification of baryon states......................532

17.3 The masses of the baryon multiplets...................533


17.4 Magnetic moments......................................537
17.5 Mass differences within a mUltiplet...................538
18 The Neutron-Proton Interaction..............................540
18.1 The bound state.......................................541
18.2 Neutron-proton sea ttering............................542
18.3 Scattering of neutrons by H 2.........................547
18.4 The photodissociation of the deuteron.................551
19 Thermodynamics..............................................558
19.1 Thermodynamical questions.............................558
19.2 Ensembles.............................................559
19.3 The Boltzmann distribution............................567
19.4 Work and heat.........................................578
20 Statistical Quantum Mechan ics..............................583
20.1 The micro canonical ensemble..........................584
20.2 The entropy...........................................588
20.3 Photons and phonons...................................595
20.4 A gas of permanent bosons.............................603
20.5 Liquid helium.........................................610
20.6 A gas of fermions.....................................612
20.7 Electrons in a metal..................................619
APPENDIXES.....................................................629
1. Complex numbers.............................................629
2. Fourier integrals and completeness relations................634