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IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation

Design and Optimization of A Novel Dual-Band Circularly


Polarized Microstrip Antenna

Journal:

AP0909-0890

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Manuscript ID:

Transactions on Antennas and Propagation

Proposed Manuscript Type:

Date Submitted by the


Author:
Complete List of Authors:

Full Paper
03-Sep-2009

Key Words :

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Gaffar, Md.; Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology,


EEE
Choudhury, Sajid; Bangladesh University of Engineering &
Technology, EEE
Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Bangladesh University of Engineering &
Technology, EEE
Matin, Md.; Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology,
EEE
Microstrip antennas, Finite element methods, Genetic algorithms,
Moment methods

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IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation


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Design and Optimization of A Novel Dual-Band


Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna
Md. Gaffar, Sajid Muhaimin Choudhury, Mohammad Asif Zaman, and Md. Abdul Matin, Member, IEEE

AbstractA novel design of dual band circularly polarized


patch antenna is presented in this paper. It is theoretically
analyzed with simulation and optimized by an evolutionary
based optimization scheme Genetic Algorithm (GA) which is
capable of producing an antenna design that has a low VSWR,
low cross-polarization, large impedance and Axial Ratio (AR)
bandwidth but small in dimension. Hybrid FEM/MoM model is
used to simulate the proposed antenna in which 1.54% simulated
Axial Ratio bandwidth is obtained. Also, both the effectiveness
of the optimization methodology and the proposed antenna
configuration have been justified through comparison results.

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Index TermsMicrostrip Antenna, Hybrid FEM/MoM, Genetic Algorithm.

I. I NTRODUCTION

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RUNCATED microstrip antenna is small, light weight,


low-cost and can produce circular polarization (CP).
They have found widespread application in satellite and wireless mobile communication systems [1]-[2]. Several circularly
polarized microstrip antennas have been investigated for two
decades [2]-[3]. According to Sharma and Gupta [4], a number
of different structures have been proposed to improve the performance of circularly polarized antennas (Diagonal-fed nearly
square, Corner-truncated square and Diagonal-slot Square
[5]) that exhibit narrow AR bandwidth and have stringent
manufacturing tolerances. To enhance bandwidth (impedance,
AR, receive power [6]), gain, miniaturization, multi-band
and the improvement of manufacturing tolerance, researchers
have devised several methods such as stacked structure [7],
using closely spaced parasitic patches [8], lossy dielectric
material or resistor [9], shorting pins [10], different shape with
various slotted patches [11], photonic band gap structure (DGS
and CMRC) [12], Dielectric superstrate with meta-materials
(high permittivity) etc. K.L. Wong et al. [13] presented an
experimental study of a new kind of circularly polarized
slotted square microstrip antenna with a dimension: 30mm
30mm, a resonant frequency of orthogonal modes at 1849MHz
and an AR bandwidth 24MHz (1.3%) which was larger than
conventional ones [4]. C.Y. Huang et al. [14] presented a
similar antenna with higher gain using high permittivity (r =
79) ceramic superstrates, with dimension 26.2mm 26.2mm,
resonant frequency 2697MHz, AR bandwidth 1.4% and 30%
- reduced shape than conventional ones [4]. A combined type
of CP antenna was presented by W.S. Chen et al. [15], with
dimension 28mm 28mm, resonant frequency 1970MHz,

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Proposed Microstrip antenna

better AR bandwidth and 36% size reduction than the proposed


structure by Gupta and Sharma [4].
In this paper, a novel dual band circularly polarized unequal
T-slotted microstrip antenna with dimension 25mm 25mm
has been presented for dual band operation. It has resonant frequency at 2069.2MHz and 2210.3MHz with impedance bandwidth 45MHz (2.2%) and AR bandwidth 32MHz (1.54%).
Its dimension is 42% smaller than the proposed structure by
Gupta and Sharma [4]. A hybrid FEM/MoM technique is
applied to analyze proposed CP microstrip antenna.

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This work was supported by Bangladesh University of Engineering and


Technology(BUET) .
Md. Gaffar, Mohammad Asif Zaman, Sajid Muhaimin Choudhury and Md.
Abdul Matin are with the Dept. of EEE, BUET.

Fig. 1.

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II. M ETHOD OF A NALYSIS AND S IMULATION


Microstip antenna consists of a radiating patch (lossy metal),
metal ground and a substrate between them. To excite the patch
metal, a probe-feed coaxial cable is used. An incident wave
(E inc , H inc ) or an impressed current source J int impinges
from the coaxial cable to the patch. The field equation is
modeled by using FEM to solve the weak form of the vector
wave equation as follows [18],
Z
E(r)
.( f (r)) + jw0 r E(r).f (r)]dV
[(
jw0 r
V
Z
Z
= (
n H(r)).f (r)dS
J int (r).f (r)dV
(1)
S

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Where [C] and [D] are the coefficient matrices, and [F i ] is the
excitation term. Equations (2) and (3) forms a coupled system.
There are different solution methods to solve the couple system
[19]. Applying the outward-looking solution method in this
study, Js in equation (2) can be substituted as follows:





Gii
Gis
Ei
gi
=
Gsi Gss Hss C 1 D
Es
gs Hss C 1 F i
(4)
Iterative solvers can be used to solve equation (4).
The FEM and MoM equation are coupled by enforcing the
continuity of the tangential fields on the boundary; such as
for PEC boundary condition n
E= 0 must be enforced.

Fig. 2.

The probe model represents the feed as a current filament


along the center conductor of the coaxial cable. An impressed
current source along the z-axis can be expressed as

Tetrahedral Meshing on the proposed antenna

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Where S is the surface enclosing volume V; f(r) is the testing


function. The electric field can be approximated by using the
tetrahedral element w(r) shown in Figure-2.
E(r)

M
X

(Ei )k wk (r) +

N
X

n=1

k=1

(Es )n wn (r)

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Where Ei and Es are sets of unknown for the electric field


within volume V and on surface S. M and N are the number
of basis function within volume and surface. The tangential
magnetic field can be expanded using triangular basis function
fn (r),
N
X
n
H(r)
(Js )n fn (r)

J int = I1 (x xf )(y yf )Z
Where (xf , yf ) represents feed point (6, 0), I1 denotes
the electric current magnitude, and (x) is the Dirac delta
function.
The FEM/MoM method can be used to analyze the scattering
parameters (S-parameters) of a two-port electromagnetic
system. The characteristic impedance of Port 1 and Port 2
are Zc1 and Zc2 respectively. In this study, both Port 1 and
Port 2 are matched at resonant frequencies. The Port 1 is
driven by a current source Is with source impedance Zs and
terminated at Port 2 by a load Z2 . Thus we can calculate the
S11 value as follows:

n=1

unknowns for the equivalent electric


A Galerkin method can be used to
as follows [19],


 



0
0
0
gi
=
+
0 Hss
Js
gs
(2)
Where Gii , Gis , Gsi , Gss and Hss are unknown coefficient
matrices. gi and gs are source terms.
The exterior electric field can be shown as EFIE [20],

S11 =

(Zs + Zc1 )V1 Zc1 Zs Is


Zc1 Zs Is + (Zs Zc1 )V1

Where V1 and V2 are the port voltages.

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Where Js is a set of
current on surface S.
discretize equation (1)

 
Gii Gis
Ei
Gsi Gss
Es

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In this study, Figure-1 shows the proposed single-feed


square microstrip antenna for compact CP operation. The
square microstrip patch has equal side length L (25mm)
and is printed on a substrate FR4 (r = 4.4) of thickness t
(1.6mm). T-slots
are of unequal length a (5.5mm), b (6.5mm)
and M=N=8 2mm but they have equal width w (1mm).
E(r)
They are inserted at the four patch corners with an angle =
= E inc (r)+
2
45 about the x-axis. The truncated corners are of equal

Z 
0
0
0
M (r ) G0 (r, r )
side length S (5mm). The single probe feed is place at point
dS 0
0 0
0
0
0
+j

.J(r
)
G
(r,
r
)
0
x (6mm) on the x-axis for RHCP operation.
k0
S
Where J(r) and M(r) ,in the above equation, are the equivalent To achieve reduced-size and dual band CP operation [16],
surface electric and magnetic currents which can be approxi- slots and truncated corner is used. Due to slots, the equivalent
excited patch surface current path is lengthened. Thus it
mated as follows:
reduces the resonant frequency of the patch. From Figure-3,
N
X
impedance bandwidth are 32MHz at 2069.2MHz and 45MHz
J(r) = n
H(r)
(Js )n fn (r)
at 2210.3MHz (measured at below -10dB RL). A number
n=1
of reasonable meshing and iterations have been carried out
N
X
to find out the nearly accurate resonant frequency. RHCP
M (r) = E(r) n

(Es )n fn (r)
operation can be seen in Figure-4 which is also normalized
n=1
with the maximum gain value and Figure-5 shows axial
After discretizing EFIE, the MoM matrix equation is in the
ratio bandwidth 32MHz at 2233MHz. As simulation only
following form:
approximates the real antenna, a shift of axial ratio bandwidth
[C][Js ] = [D][Es ] [F i ]
(3) center frequency is observed. AR bandwidth at 2069.3MHz
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IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation


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Fig. 3.

Return Loss (dB) Vs Frequency

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Fig. 5.

Axial Ratio (db) Vs Frequency

{sl |l = 1, 2, 3, ......, Nx }. In design problems, the Cost function describes the important features that measure the system
performance to be either maximized or minimized. For the
advantage of simultaneous optimization, antenna parameters
which are inter-related each other can be optimized efficiently.
In general, GAs dont operate directly on the parameter
vector s but on a symbolic representation p of s, known as
chromosome. A chromosome is a collection of genes which
decode to sl , and is symbolically denoted as

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Fig. 4.

Gain InputRHCP (dB) and Gain InputLHCP (dB) Vs Theta

p = {gi |i = 1, 2, 3....Ngl }

Where Ngl is the genetic length and there is a corresponding


between the sl and gl given GAs dont work on a single
chromosome at a time, but on a whole population (P) of Npop
chromosomes for improving objective function values.

On

P = {pk |k = 1, 2, 3, , Npop }

is lower than 32MHz which is not shown.


Because of slot-loading, a new excited mode denoted as
T M0 (1< 2) can be excited near the fundamental mode
of T M10 . These two modes, T M0 and T M10 are of the
same polarization plane and similar radiation characteristics.
As unequal T-slot is embedded at the corners, its output
gain differs at these two resonant frequency. And using a
single probe-feed at the x-axis or y-axis of the antenna, both
perturbed T M10 and T M0 modes can be split into two
near degenerate modes for dual band CP operation [21]. To
improve our initial design, Genetic Algorithm optimization
method has been implemented.
III. O PTIMIZATION

where genes relates to the variables that are given in the TableII. For each gene, 7 bit is required to encode GA variables.
A random selection of different behavior is taken as sample.
As the position of feed shifts to higher position along the
x-axis, it comes near the edge of the T-slot. It causes more
cross polarization which decreases the cost function. Same
happens when truncated portion or length of T-slot is large
enough to come near to the edge of feed position. For this
reason, at higher iteration number the cost function decreases
from higher value to lower value shown in Figure-6. For a
given population P k = {pki , i = 1, 2, 3, , Npop }, a single
GA iteration starts by evaluating the vector F k = {fik : i =
1, 2, 3 Npop } of cost function values fik associated with
chromosomes pki . Cost function can be shown as follows for
low cross-polarization:

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n
X
Genetic algorithms (GA) are on the rise in electromagnetics
1
)
+
Wi ARi }
F
=
M
inimization
of
{W

(
1
as design tools and problem solvers because of their versatility
V SW R
i=2
and ability to optimize in complex multivariate search [22]1+
, ARi is the ith axial value at elevation
where VSWR= 1
[25].
By definition, GAs are methods for seeking extrema of a angle i , n is the number of elevation angles required. Where
given objective function or cost function f (s) where s = W1 and Wi are the weight coefficients for the cost function
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TABLE I
O PTIMIZATION S ETUP DATA

TABLE II
O PTIMIZATION DATA

Maximum number of generation


Parents: number of individuals
Mating pool: number of individuals
Children: number of individuals
Pareto front: number of survivors
Next generation: number of individuals
Simulated binary crossover: crossover probability
Polynomial mutation: mutation probability

1000
30
30
30
10
30
0.65
0.008

that were optimized according to the target objectives set by


the antenna designers. Wi is the primary values that were
considered to have a rescannable wide elevation variation axial
ratio.
Genetic Algorithm then applies the genetic operators of selection, crossover and mutation to P k to produce P k+1 .
With the creation of P 0 , the population enters the main GA
loop which is iterated on each successive population P k .
Generic manipulation of P k begins with the selection of best
chromosomes on the basis of Cost function values F k . There
are some common process of selection, i.e, Roulette-wheel
selection, Ranking selection, Stochastic binary tournament
selection. For our design, we use Stochastic binary tournament
selection because binary tournament selection generally works
faster than Routelle-wheel selection, and it avoids convergence
trouble [26]. It chooses pairs of chromosomes from P k and
k
until it is replete.
places the better one in Pselected
Selection is followed by crossover, which serves to hybridize
k
),
design traits by creating a new population Pck = C(Pselected
C( ) denotes as a crossover function.Thus it can be stated as
below,

Variables

Range of Optimization

Optimized Value

Truncated portion(S)

2.5mm to 7.5mm

4.95mm

Length of T-slot at +45 (a)

3.5mm to 10.5mm

4.01mm

Length of T-slot at 45 (b)

3mm to 9mm

4.7mm

Width of T-slot at 45 (W)

0.5mm to 1.5mm

0.954mm

Substrate thickness(t)

0.8mm to 2.4mm

1.4mm

Position of feed on x-axis(x)

3mm to 9mm

5.24mm

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vi

Re

Npop /2
k
C(Pselected
)=

C[ch(pkselected ), ch(pkselected )]

According to the rule,



p1 , p2
C(p1, p2) =
p1 , p2

of resonant frequency shift about 200MHz (shown in Figure-7)


. Crossover probability was taken higher (65%) as possible for
high comparison and mutation probability (0.8%) was taken
as low as possible for higher accuracy (shown in Table-I).
Resonant frequencies have shifted towards the lower frequency
region (shown in Figure-7) and Normalized InputGain (dB)
is shown in Figure-8. Both impedance and AR bandwidth
become same as before because of small change in structure
and conditions applied. At iteration 17 shown in Figure-6, Cost
function maximizes, i.e, it optimizes the proposed antenna
with minimum cross polarization. Variables at iteration 17 are
shown in Table-II.

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where the operator ch(p) chooses a random chromosome


from P and the operator C maps a pair of chromosomes,
Crossover is the main search tool of the GA since it combines
chromosomes which contain genetic information which is
known to be useful.

p2 = {g2j , j = 1, 2, 3, , Ngl }

Cost Vs Iteration in Genetic Algorithm

On

i=1

p1 = {g1j , j = 1, 2, 3, , Ngl }

Fig. 6.

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IV. CONCLUSION

An approach to model CP microstip antenna using hywith probability Pcross


brid FEM/MoM method along with evolutionary optimization
with probability 1 Pcross
scheme Genetic Algorithm has been presented. FEM is used
to model the details of the structure and feed. MoM is used to
where the hybrids p1 and p2 are given by
provide a radiation boundary condition to terminate the FEM
p1 = g11 , g12 , g13 , , g1k , g2(k+1) , , g2Ngl
mesh. The excitation of a pair of two near degenerate resonant
modes for dual band CP operation is achieved by inserting
p2 = g21 , g22 , g23 , , g2k , g1(k+1) , , g1Ngl
T-slot and corner truncated portion. While comparing with
the conventional microstrip antenna [4], the proposed compact
Initial setup is one of the most important parts of GA dual band CP design results in a large antenna size reduction
optimization. To minimize the shift of resonant frequencies (about 42%), better impedance and AR bandwidth (1.54%)
from 2063.2MHz and 2210.3MHz, we have selected the opti- and a relaxed manufacturing tolerance due to the increase of
mization range with some conditions [27]-[31]. The conditions required perturbation area. Therefore, the proposed antenna
are AR and impedance bandwidth restrictions, maximum shift is essentially attractive for wireless applications in multipath
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Fig. 7.

Return Loss (dB) Vs Freq (GHz) after optimization

Fig. 8.

Normalized InputGain (dB) Vs Theta after optimization

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Re
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environment. It is also well suited to compact and low-cost


active circuit applications at microwave frequencies and RF
front-end antenna integration.

On

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Md. Gaffar is a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering


and Electronics from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. His
research interests include Microwave Engineering,
Solid State Devices, Antennas and Propagation and
Applications of Meta-materials.

Md. Asif Zaman is a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering


and Electronics from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh. His
research interests include Microwave Engineering,
Antennas and Propagation.

Sajid Muhaimin Choudhury is a B.Sc. in Electrical Engineering and Electronics from Bangladesh
University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka,
Bangladesh. His research interests include Microwave Engineering, Antennas and Propagation.

Dr. M. A. Matin is a Professor of Electrical Engineering and Electronics from Bangladesh University
of Engineering and Technology (BUET), Dhaka,
Bangladesh. He received his B.Sc. degree in Electrical engineering from BUET in 1971. He received
his M.E. degree in Electrical Communications from
Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan in 1977. Then he
received his PhD from Tohoku University in 1981.
He is a Life Fellow of the Institute of Engineering
of Bangladesh (IEB). His research interests include
Microwave Engineering, Antennas and Propagation,
Applied Electro-Magnetics, Wireless and Mobile Communication.

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