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FactoryextensioninPerivale,WestLondon.
StructuralProblemsandDisasters
Conversionofthreeshopstorestaurant,SouthLondon.
Extensiontobar/restaurant,SouthLondon.
Alterationsandextensionstoshopsandflats,Chelsea,London.
Shopandflatrefurbishment,Kensington,London.
Garageextension,Willesden,London.
Newhouse,Barnet,London.
Conversionofbasementtoflat,Barnet,NorthLondon.
Newhouse,Barnet,London.
ResidentialdevelopmentinHornseyLane,NorthLondon.
Blockof12flats,Islington,London.
Majoralterationstofourstoreydetachedhouse,StJohnsWood.
Domesticextension,Hampstead,London.
Domesticextensionandalterations,NorthLondon.
Majorextensionsandalterationstofourstoreyhouse,NottingHill.
Listedbuildingrestoration,Hampstead,NorthLondon.
Domesticextension,MaidaVale,London.
Refurbishment,extensionandloftconversion,MaidaVale,WestLondon
Domesticextension,Fulham,London.

GlossaryofStructuralEngineeringTerms
Anexplanationofsometermsusedinstructuralengineering,architectureandconstructionintheUK.
Fr.:Frenchequivalentterms,nounsarem(asculine)orf(eminine).
A
C
E
G

B
D
F
H

A:
Access
chamber:

Contact
us
Aleck

Undergroundchamberenablingaccesstodrainsorotherundergroundservices.

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J
L
N
P
R
T
V
Y

Acre:

UnitoflandareaintheImperialsystem4840squareyards,ortheequivalentofarectangular
fieldonechainwideandonefurlonglong,approximately4047squaremetresor0.4047
hectares.

Acrow:

Atelescopicpropmuchusedasatemporarysupportinconstruction.Named
aftertheAmericanmanufacturerwhofirstintroducedthemtotheUK.

top

Additive:
Aggregate:
Air
conditioning:
Aircrete:
Allinballast:
Angle:

Arch:
Architrave:
Arris:
Arrisrail:
Ashlar:
Axedarch:

Chemicalsaddedtocementbasedproducts(concrete,mortar,render,screedetc)toimpart
variousdesirablepropertiessuchastoincreaseorreducecuringtime,increasestrength,
enhanceworkabilityandsoon.Theamountofadditivesshouldbewatchedcarefullysincein
excessorcombinationtheycanhaveundesirableeffects.
Thestonesandsand(coarseandfineaggregaterespectively)usedasafillerinconcrete,asphalt
etc.
Originally,asystembywhichfreshairisdrawnfromoutsidethebuildingandbroughttoan
acceptableconditionintermsoftemperatureandhumiditybeforebeingintroducedintothe
building.Thenameisoftenalsoappliedtochillerswithnoairhandling,dryingorheating
capacity.
Alightweightaeratedcementbasedmaterialfromwhicheasilyhandledhighinsulating
buildingblocksaremade.(Tradename.)
Ballastsuitableformakingintoconcretewithouttheadditionofanyotheraggregate.
Steelangle:asteelsectionwhosecrosssectionisLshaped.Iftheverticalandhorizontallegsof
the'L'arethesamelengthitiscalledanequalangle,ifdifferent,anunequaloroddlegangle.
Anglesarealsoavailableinothermetals.
Anamountofrotation.Themeasurementofanglesusing360degreesinawholecircle,with
eachdegreedividedinto60minutesof60secondseach,isofverygreatantiquity,goingback
totheBabylonianswhousedanumbersystembasedon60sratherthantens.
Abasicformofmasonryconstructiondatingbackmillenia.Brickarchesare
foundspanningoverwindowanddooropeningsinVictorianandolder
buildingstheirdisadvantageisthattheyexerthorizontalthrustattheirbearings,
whichsometimesleadstodistortioninpoorlydesignedormaintainedarches.
Timbermouldingaroundadoorframeorsimilar.
Asharpcorneratthejunctionoftwoplanesorsurfaces.
Timberoftriangularcrosssection(madebycuttingasquaresectiondiagonally),usedforfence
railsandformingfilletsatthejunctionsofflatroofsandwalls.
Smoothsawnstoneworkusedinawall.
Abrickarchinwhichthebricksarecut(traditionallywithanaxe)toawedgeshape.The
mortarjointsareofeventhickness.Asopposedtoarougharch.

B:
Traditionalterracedhousingoriginallycomprisedroomsbetweenthefrontand
rearexternalwalls.When'indoorplumbing'becametherage,extensionswere
Backaddition: builtatthebackofthehousetocontainthebathroom,wc,kitchenandscullery.
Therearwingofahouseisstillcalledthebackaddition,evenifitwasbuiltat
thesametimeastherestofthehouse.
Ballast:
Batten:
Beam:

Benchmark:
Bending
moment:
Berm:
Bessemer
converter:

Mixedsizeaggregate.
Asmalltimbersuchasthoseusedtosupportrooftiles.
Ahorizontalmemberthatcarriesverticalloadsalongitslength.Itwouldtraditionallyhavebeen
timber(thewordoriginallymeaning"treetrunk")butamodernbeammightmoreoftenbe
reinforcedconcreteorsteel.(Fr.poutre,f)
Asteelcomponentdesignedforuseasabeam"UniversalBeam".
Alevellingbasepointofknownlevel.TheOrdnanceSurveyhassetupbenchmarksaroundthe
UK.Contractorsoftenestablish'temporarybenchmarks'('TBM')atconvenientpointsaround
thesite.
Thebendingforcein,forexample,abeam.Theunitsofbendingmomentarethoseofforcex
distance,forexample,kiloNewtonmetres.
Anearthbankleftagainstaretainingwallduringexcavation,untilitispropped.
Akindofsteelmakingplant,nolongerinuse.

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BillofquantitiesAlistofallthequantitiesofeachcomponentandoperationrequiredinaconstructionproject.
TheBOQenablesallthetendererstopriceexactlythesamework,andmakesitsimpletowork
(BOQ):
outthevalueoftheworkdoneatanytimeduringthejob.ForsmalljobsthebenefitofaBOQ
maybeoutweighedbythecostofproducingit.
Alayerofconcretecoveringthegroundsothatsteelreinforcementcanbelaidoutwithout
Blinding:
becomingcontaminated.
Block:

Buildingunitofaregularsizeusuallymadeofsolidoraerated("aircrete")
concrete.

Blockwork:

Builtwithblocks.

Bolt:

Threadedfastenerused(withanutandwashers)forconnectingbuilding
components,particularlysteeland/ortimber.

Bond:

Thearrangementorpatternofbricks(orothermasonryunits)inawall.Eachunitshould
overlaptheunitbelowbyatleastonequarterofaunit'slength,andsufficientbondingbricks
shouldbeprovidedtopreventthewallsplittingapart.CommonbondpatternsareFlemish,
Stretcher,EnglishandEnglishGardenWall.

Bondingplaster:

Aproprietarytypeofplasterwithgoodadhesiveproperties.Itmustbeusedwithcareasitis
hygroscopic,i.e.itwillreadilyabsorbatmosphericorrisingmoisture.

Boxgutter:

Atimbergutterlinedwithleadorsomeotherwaterproofmaterial.(Fr.chneau
(m)encaiss).

Brace,Bracing: Diagonalmembers(orrigidmembranes)providingrigiditytoastructure.

Bressemer,
Atimberlintelflushwiththesurfaceofthebrickworkaboveit.
Bresumeretc.:
Buildingunitofaregularsizeusuallymadeofbakedclay.Canalsobecalciumsilicateor
concrete.ThestandardsizeofmetricbricksintheUKis65x102.5x215mm,designedtobe
usedwitha10mmmortarjoint.Theequivalenttheoreticalsizeofimperialbricks,usedwitha
Brick:
3/ inchjoint,is25/ x43/ x85/ inches.Claybricksareofcourseofgreatantiquityas
8
8
16
8
evidencedbyarchaeologyandthebible.(Fr.brique,f).
Brickguard:
Steelmeshpanelusedonscaffoldingtomakesurethatloosebrickscannotfalloffthescaffold.
Ametalorplasticcomponenttotietogetherthetwoleavesofacavitywall.Oldergalvanized
Bricktie:
tiestendtorustawayandhavetobereplaced.
Bricklayer:
Askilledtradewhichrequiresyearsoftrainingandpractice.(Fr.maon,m).
Brickwork:
Madeofbricks.(Fr.maonnerie,f).
Buckethandle
Recessedinthehalfroundshapeofanoldfashionedmetalbuckethandle.
pointing:
ThefirstBuildingControlwasintroduced,inLondon,aftertheGreatFire(1666)whenDistrict
SurveyorswereengagedtoenforcetheBuildingRegulationswhichpreventedthespreadoffire
fromhousetohousetheRegulationshadexistedbeforebuthadoftenbeenignored.The
Building
systemnowcoversthewholeUKandincludesrulesonmostaspectsofbuildingasitaffects
Control:
publicsafetyandhealth,enforcedbyBuildingControlOfficers.Seelinksfordetails.Nottobe
confusedwithTownPlanning.
Building
Plumbing,electricalwiring,ventilation,gassupplyandothersupportsystemsinabuilding.
services:
C:
Calciumsilicate Smoothbricksmadebycompressingandheatingamixtureofsand,orgroundflint,andlime.
bricks:
Popularinthemid20thcenturybutlessusednow,becauseoftheirtendencytoshrink.
Theriseinthemiddleofaroadwayfordrainage,orthesimilarshapegiventoabeamsothatit
Camber:
willbecomelevelwhenloaded.
Cantilever:
Overhangingbeam,rooforfloor.
Casement:
Awindowwhichishingedratherthansliding.
Castiron:
Abrittlematerialnolongermuchusedinstructuralengineering.
Cavitytie:
Seebricktie.
Awallconsistingoftwoleavesorskinsofmasonry,seperatedbyacavitytoenhancewater
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Cavitywall:

resistanceandthermalinsulation.Aformofwallconstructionknownbutrarelyusedin
Victoriantimesbutwhichcameintocommonuseinthe1930s.(Fr.mur(m)doubleparoi).
Apowderwhichwhenmixedwithwaterformsapastethathardenswithtime.PortlandCement
wasfirstpatentedbyJosephAspinin1824andisknownashydrauliccement,becauseitwill
setunderwater.Cementismixedwithsandtomakemortarorrender,andwithlargerstones
Cement:
addeditisknownasconcrete.Thesandandstonesaretheretoreducetheshrinkagetowhich
Portlandcementissubjectandtoreducetheamountofcementneeded.Therearevarious
grades:theusualoneiscalledOrdinaryPortlandCement(OPC)otherscommonlyusedare
rapidhardeningandsulphateresisting.
Mechanicaldeviceconsistingofarotatingdrumwithfixedpaddlesinside,usedformixing
Cementmixer: cementwithaggregateandwatertoproduceconcrete,mortar,oranyothercementbased
mixture.
Centring:
Chain:
Channel:
Characteristic
strength:
Cill:
Circularhollow
section:
Cladding:
Clamp:

Temporarysupportsusedwhenbuildinganarch.
Surveyors'unitoflengthintheImperialsystem.Gunter'schain,namedafteritsinventor,
comprises22yardsor66feet,approximately20.117metres.Gunter'schainisusefulfor
derivingareasinacres.ThelesserknownEngineer'schain,100feetlong,wasusedfor
measuringlineardistances,alongroadsforexample.
AstructuralsteelcomponentwhichisCshapedincrosssection.
Thestrengthatwhichamembertestedwouldfail,normallywith95%confidence.
Alternativespellingofsill.
Astructuralsteelcomponentintheshapeofaroundtube.

Theseperatelyappliedexteriorfinishofaframedbuilding.
Seecramp.
Theclassicalordersarestylesofbuildingoriginatingfromtheconstructionof
templesinancientGreeceandRome.Ordersaredefinedbytheirvaryingstyles
ofcolumn,althoughtheordersalsoincludeinformationontheproportionsof
Classicalorders
thebuilding.TheGreeksoriginallyhadthreeorders:theDoric,Ionicand
ofarchitecture:
Corinthian.Doricisthesimplest,Ionicmoreelaborate,andCorinthianmore
decorativestill.TheRomansaddedtheTuscanandCompositeorderswhichare
respectivelyplainerandmorehighlydecoratedthantheGreekorders.
Asteelplateoranglewithholesforbolting,forconnectingthecomponentsofasteelframe
Cleat:
together.
Coarse
Anyaggregatelargerthanfineaggregate.Gravel.Availablewithamaximumsizeof10,20or
aggregate:
40mm.
Collar:

Ahorizontaltimberjoiningtwoopposingrafterstogether.

Alegalagreementbetweenadeveloperandabuildingcontractorordesigner,allowingthe
contractorordesignertobemaderesponsibletoathirdparty,suchasafinanceproviderora
purchaser,fortheexecutionoftheirduties.
Commonrafter: Anormalrafter,whichextendsallthewayfromwallplatetoridge,asopposedtoajackrafter.
Collateral
warrantee:

Compasses:

Aninstrumentfordrawingarcsandcircles.Nottobeconfused,incidentally,
withacompass(inthesingular)whichisamagneticinstrumentforfinding
North.

Competent
person:

Personwithsufficientknowledgeofthespecifictaskstobeundertakenandtheriskswhichthe
workwillentail,andwithsufficientexperienceandabilitytoenablethemtocarryouttheir
dutiesinrelationtotheproject,torecognizetheirlimitations,andtotakeappropriateactionin
ordertopreventharmtothosecarryingoutconstructionwork,orthoseaffectedbythework.
(ConstructionDesignandManagmentRegulations2007)

Composite
order:

Oneoftheancientclassicalordersofarchitecture,introducedbytheRomans.
ItscapitalcombinesthevolutescrollsoftheIonicwiththeacanthusfoliageof
theCorinthian.

Compression:

Thepressingforceexperiencedinacolumnorinthetopflangeofabeam.
Thetypeofcomputerprogramwithwhichtechnicaldrawingsareprepared.Themarketleader
Computeraided
design(CAD): isAutoCADbutthereareothers.
Anartificalstonelikesubstanceobtainedbymixinglargeandsmallstonesandsandwith
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cementandenoughwatertopermitfullhydrationandmakethemixworkable.Concrete(like
thestonemineralsfromwhichitismade)isstrongincompressionbutweakintension.Roman
concretewasbased,notonPortlandcement,butona'pozzolanic'mix,madefromvolcanicash
andincorporatinggroundupbricksandtiles.(Fr.beton,m).
Concretepump: Amachinefortransportingconcretedownadeliverypipe.Maybetruckmountedorstatic.
Buildingcontractsmaylegallybeformedverbally.Usuallyhoweverawrittencontractshould
Contract:
beused.Therearevariousstandardformsofcontract,suchasthoseprovidedbytheJoint
ContractsTribunalandthevariousengineeringinstitutions.
ManyformsofbuildingcontractspecifyaContractAdministratortomanagethecontracton
Contract
behalfoftheClient.Itmaybethearchitect,theengineer,oraspecialistsuchasaproject
administrator: manager.TheCA'smaindutyistospecifyhowmuchthecontractorisduetobepaidateach
stage.
Contract
Thecontractdrawings,billofquantities,specifications,andanyotherdocumentsreferredtoin
documents:
thecontract.
Contract
Thedrawingsonwhichthecontractisbased.
drawings:
Coping:
Protectivecappingonthetopofaparapetorfreestandingwall.
Concrete:

Corbel:

ProjectingbrickormasonrycoursesfromNormanFrenchmeaning'crow'after
carvedstoneprojectionsusedinmedievaltimestosupportrooftrusses.

Corinthian
order:

ThemostelaborateanddecoratedofthethreeancientGreekordersof
architecture,itscapitaliscarvedinimitationofthegrowthofacanthusleaves.
AccordingtoRomanwriterVitruvius,ayoungladyofthenobilityinCorinth
died,andhernurseplacedabasketcontainingherbelongingsontopofthe
grave,witharooftileontoptoprotectit.Anacanthusplantgrewrightunder
thebasketanditsshootscurvedandrolledaroundthecornersofthetile.A
passingarchitectnoticedthisandcopieditinstone.

Corrugatediron:
Coupler,
coupling:
Course:
Cramp(also
clamp):
Crane:
Crippled:
Cure:
D:
Dado:
Dampproof
course(DPC):
Dampproof
membrane
(DPM):
Deadload:

(Corrugatedgalvanizediron).Iron(orforthelasthundredyearsatleast,steel)sheetformed
intoaridgedshape,usedforroofingandcladding.
Adeviceformechanicallyjoiningtwolinearcomponentslikepipes,scaffoldtubes,oradrillbit
withanextension.
Alayerofbricksorblocksinawall.
Metalcomponentbuiltintomasonrytojoinittoanothermember,forexampleawindowframe
('framecramp'),ortojointwomasonryunitstogether.
Liftingdevicewhichcanbefixedormobile.
Ofjoists,doubleduptoformatrimmer.(Americanterm.)
Thehardeningofconcreteandothercementproducts.Curingrequiresacertainrangeof
temperature(morethan6Cbutnotenoughtocausethermalstress)andsufficientinternalwater
tocombinewiththecement.
Atimbermouldingfixedtothewallatwaistlevel.
Animpermeablematerialbuiltintoawallnearthegroundtopreventrisingdamp.Types
availableincludeleadbased,bitumenbased,orplasticbased.Twocoursesofimpermeable
engineeringbrickscanalsobeused.TheDPCmustbeatleast150mmabovetheexternal
groundlevel.
Usuallyheavydutypolythene,incorporatedwithinfloorsbuiltonthegroundtopreventrising
damp.
Theweightofthematerialswhichformapermanentpartofthestructure,asopposedto
imposedload.
Softwoodastandardpieceofsoftwoodusedformakingjoinery.

Deal:
Designand
Abuildingcontractinwhichthebuilderisalsoresponsibleforallorsomeofthedesign.
buildcontract:
Evaluationofthedesigntodeterminewhetheritconformswiththedesignbriefandcanbe
Designcheck:
expectedtoprovideasafeengineeredsolution.
Theimprovementoflandinordertomakeuseofit,e.g.bybuildingstructuresonitorby
Development: adaptingexistingstructures.Developmentcaneitherbeforthedeveloper'sownuse,orelse
speculative,i.e.forprofit.
Excavatorswithhydraulictransmissionareubiquitousingroundwork.Thefirsttobeproduced
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Digger:

weremadetheJCBamfordcompany.

District
Surveyor:

BoroughofficersfirstappointedaftertheGreatFireofLondontosupervisetheBuilding
Regulations.NowcombinedwiththeBuildingControlOfficer.

DoricOrder:

ThesimplestoftheancientGreekordersofarchitecture.Thecolumnsconsistof
aplainflutedshaftandasimplecapitaltheremaybenobaseorasimpleround
one.AccordingtoRomanwriterVitruviustheorderoriginatedwithatempleto
JunobuiltbyoneDorus.

Dormer:

Awindowprojectingfromtheslopeofaroof.

Dowel:
Dragonbeam:
Drypack:
Ductwork:
Dumpylevel:

(Concrete)Asteelbarfortransferringloadacrossajoint.(Joinery)Atimbermouldingwitha
circularcrosssection.
Intraditionalpitchedroofconstruction,adiagonaltyingtimberacrossthecornerofahip.
Astrongmixtureofcementandsanddampedwithasmallamountofwater,usedtofillholesin
existingwallsforexampleinunderpinning.
Airhandlingpipesfabricatedfromsheetsteel.
Originallyasimplebutaccurateopticalinstrumentinventedin1832byEnglishcivilengineer
WilliamGravatt.Nowappliedtoanyopticallevellinginstrumentusedbybuilders.

E:
Aconceptusedinthedesignofstructuralmembers.Maybemoreorlessthantheactuallength
Effectivelength: tocompensateforthedegreeofrestraintoftheendsofthemember,amemberwhichismore
rigidlyheldattheendsbeingstronger.
InEnglish,thetermisassociatedwithengines,althoughthisisahistoricalaccident,thefirst
engineershavingbeenmilitaryengineerswhowereresponsiblefor'enginesofwar'suchas
tunnelsandseigetowers.Engineersengagedonpublicworkssuchascanals,highwaysand
railwayscalledthemselves'civilengineers'todistinguishthemselvesfrommilitaryengineers.
Therearenowmanykindsofengineer.TheworditselfisunprotectedintheUK,sothat
Engineer:
anybodycancallthemselvesanengineer,suchasinthejokejobdescriptions'rodentcontrol
engineer'and'domesticengineer'.InFrancetheequivalentword'ingenieur'seemscloserto
wordssignifyingingenuity,andisacontrolleddesignationrequiringitsholdertohave
appropriatequalifications.
Engineering
brick:

Atypeofbrickwhichisparticularlystrongandimpermeable.Thetraditionalproductwasblue
incolourothercoloursandqualitiesareavailable.

Alternaterowsofbricksconsistofallheadersandallstretchers.Traditionally
EnglishBond: consideredtobethestrongestbond,itisoftenfoundinengineeringworkslike
bridgesandretainingwalls.
Mostbrickworkbondsaredesignedsothatonesideofthewallcanbebuilt'fairfaced'(suitable
forviewingasfinishedwork)theotherside,insidethebuilding,willbeplasteredsothe
EnglishGarden
brickworkcanbeleftrough.Gardenwallshoweverwillbeseenfrombothsides,soGarden
WallBond:
Wallbondisdesignedwithaminimumnumberofheaderssothatbothsidescanbebuiltfair
faced.
Externalworks: Thelandscaping,roadsandpathscreatedinthepartsofthesitenotoccupiedbythebuilding.
Extrados:
Theuppersurfaceofanarch.
F:
Falsework:
Temporarystructureusedtosupportapermanentstructurewhileitisnotselfsupporting.
Inroofconstruction,adecorativeboardfixedtotheendsoftherafters.Alsothenameboard
Fascia:
overashopfront.
Aboardwhichisthickeronesidethantheother.Usedforfencing,wheretheyarefixed
Featheredge
verticallyandoverlapping.Sometimesfoundintiledroofs,fixedhorizontally,withthethicker
board:
edgeatthetoptoprovideahangingpointfortiles.
FillerJoist
Anobsoletebutcommonlyfoundformoffloorcomprisingaconcreteslabreinforcedwithsteel
Floor:
Ibeamsknownasrolledsteeljoists.
Fineaggregate: Sandusedinmakingconcrete,mortaretc.
Firring:

Apieceoftimbercutasawedgeandfixedtothetopofajoist.Usedtogiveflatroofsafallfor
drainage,ortolevelupunevenfloors.

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Firstfix:
Flange:
Flashing:
Flatroof:

Electricalandplumbingfirstfixarethefixingofthewiresandpipesinthefabricofthe
building,beforeplastering.Carpentryfirstfixistheprovisionofjoists,studsandrafters.
ThetopandbottomplatesofanIorHbeam,orofachannel.Thetopandbottomflangesofa
beamareusuallyincompressionandtensionrespectively.
Lead(orotherdurablemetalsheets)toprotectjunctionsofroofsandwallsfromwateringress.
(Fr.bande(f)derecouvrement).
Aroofwithaslopeorpitchlessthantendegreesfromthehorizontal.

Themostcommonbondinbrickwork225mmormoreinthickness,itconsists
FlemishBond: ofalternatingheadersandstretchers,witheachheaderbeinginthemiddleofthe
stretchersaboveandbelow.
Thecommontypeofmachinemadeyellow/orangefroggedbrickusedinthesoutheastof
EnglandandLondon.NamedafterFletton,nearPeterborough.
Flintlimebrick: Akindofcalciumsilicatebrick.
Flitchedbeam, Atimberbeamstrengthenedwithoneormoresteelplatesboltedorscrewedtoit,often
Flitch:
sandwichedbetweentimbers.
Channelformedwithmasonryorspeciallymadeblocksorpipesthroughwhichtheproductsof
combustionpasstotheoutside.Untilthemiddle20thcentury,theneedtostackfluesfrom
Flue:
storeytostoreyimposedadisciplineonarchitecturewhichisnowabsent.
Fletton:

Fluid
Mechanics:

Thescienceofthepropertiesandmotionofliquidsandgases.

Flushpointing: Flushwiththesurfaceofthebricks.
Foot:
Force:

Foreman:
Formwork:
Foundation:

UnitoflengthintheImperialsystemonethirdofayard,equalto304.8mm.
Thatwhichcanaccelerateamass.Anexampleofaforceisweight,whichactstoaccelerateany
masstowardsthecentreoftheearth.Structuralengineeringisaboutprovidingstructureswhich
arestrongenoughtoresisttheweightandotherforcesactingonthem.IntheSIsystem,forceis
measuredinNewtons.
Tradesforemen,forexampleforemanplasterer,electrician,areinchargeoftheirtradesmenon
asite.Thegeneralforemanisinchargeofthetradesforemen.Thetermdoesnotspecify
gender.
Amouldintowhichconcreteiscast.
Thepartofabuildingorstructurewhichtransmitsloadstothesoil.Foundationsmaybe
steppedmasonry,massorreinforcedconcrete,orpiled.(Fr.fondation,f).

Frameclampor
Metalcomponentscrewedtothewindowordoorframeandbuiltintothemasonrywall.
cramp:
Frenchman:
Atoolforformingtheshapeofpointing.
Frog:
Furlong:
G:
Gable:
Ganger:

Therecessinamachinemadebrick.
UnitoflengthintheImperialsystemtenchains,or660feet,oneeighthofamile,equalto
201.168metres.

Ginnywheel:
Glassbead:
Gram:
Grating:
Gravel:

Thetriangularwallattheendofabuildingwithpitchedroofs.(Fr.pignon,m).
Theleaderofaworkgang,forexample,aconcretegang.
Ameasuringrule.Also,theheightofbrickwork,specifiedasthenumberofcoursesperfootor
per300mm.InthesouthoftheUKbrickworkgaugeisalmostuniversallyfourcoursesperfoot
orper300mm.
Pulleyusedforhoistingthingsupascaffold.
Mouldingusedtoretainglassinawindowframe.
UnitofmassintheSIsystemofweights.Symbolg.
Ironorplasticprotectionoveragully.
Naturallyoccuringballastorcourseaggregate.

GreenRoof:

Aflatroofcovered(deliberately)withgrowingmaterial.

Groundwork:

Foundations,drainage,levellingandotherbuildingoperationsinvolvingdigging.
Cementmixedwithenoughwatertomakeitrunny,usedtofillagapunderthebaseofasteel

Gauge:

Grout:

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Guarding:
Gully:
Gutter:
H:
Hsection:
Halftimbered:
Hammerbeam
roof:
Handrail:

Hardwood:

column.Alsothefillerbetweenwalltiles.
Protectionagainstpeopleorthingsfallingofftheedgeofstairs,landings,balconiesor
scaffolds.
Acontainerwithwaterinit,tosealtheinlettoadrainandpreventthereleaseofnoxiousgases.
Openchannelforreceivingandcarryingawayrainwater.(Fr.gouttire,f).
AsteelcomponentshapedincrosssectionlikeanH,suchasaUniversalColumn(qv).
Adescriptivetermforatraditionaltimberframedhouse.
Aformofhistoricalrooftruss,usuallycomprisingacentraltrusssectionspanningbetweentwo
cantilevers.
Alengthoftimberormetalathandheightatthesideofastaircaseorlanding.
Timberfromadeciduoustreenotethathardwoodcanbesofterthansoftwood,forexample
balsawoodisahardwoodalthoughveryweakandsoft.Inconstruction,hardwoodmaybeused
inpreferencetomorereadilyavailablesoftwoodbecauseofitshigherstrength,itsgreater
durability,oritssuperiorappearance.Effortsshouldalwaysbemadetoensurethatthetimberis
fromrenewablesources.(Fr.bois(m)feuillu).

Header:
Hearth:

Abrickwhose'head'orshortendisvisibleonthesurfaceofthewall.Seestretcher.
Fireresistingareaofflooradjacenttoanopenfireplace.
ConcretemadewiththistypeofcementhardensfasterthanwithPortlandcement.This
advantageonceledtoHACbeingusedformanufacturingprecastconcreteelements,butithas
Highalumina thedisadvantagethatittendstobecomeweakerovertimeespeciallyinamoistatmosphere.The
cement(HAC): collapseofsomeswimmingpoolroofsinthe1970sledtoHACbeingbannedforstructuraluse.
Itisstillusedfornonstructuralpurposes,forexample,forbeddingsanitarywareonaconcrete
floor.
Highstrength
Usedforconnectingsteelcomponentsinsituationswhereitisnotdesirablefortheconnection
frictiongrip
toslip.
bolt:
Hightensile
Agradeofsteelstrongerthanmildsteel,whichmaybeusedbothinstructuralsteelworkand
steel:
concretereinforcement.
Arooffeatureinwhichtwopitchedroofsmeetatacornertherafterformingsuchajunction.
Hip:
Thehiprafterisnotusuallyaloadbearingmember.(Fr.arte(f)decroupe).
Hippedroof:

Featuringhips.

Hod:
Hodcarrier:
Hoist:

Athreesidedcontainermountedonapole,usedtocarrybricksormortarupaladder.
Bricklayer'slabourer.
Anelevatorforliftinggoodsand,usually,peopleupascaffold.

Hollobolt:

Proprietaryexpandingboltwhichcanbeusedinmakingboltedconnectionsto
hollowsections,andothersituationswherelackofaccesspreventsanutbeing
used.

Hollowsection:

Atubularstructuralsteelmember,eithercircular('CHS'),rectangular('RHS')orsquare('SHS').
Ellipticalhollowsectionsarealsoavailable.

Honeycomb
brickwork:

Builtwithgapsbetweenthebricks,toallowventilation.

Hundredweight:
Hydration:
Hydraulic
cement:
I:
Isection:

IntheUKimperialunitssystem,aweightof112pounds,alsoequivalenttoeightstone,orone
twentiethofaton.
Theprocessbywhichcementhardensbyreactingwithwater.
Cementwhichsetsunderwater,likePortlandcement.

AstructuralsteelsectionshapedlikeanI,suchasaUniversalBeam.
ThetraditionalsystemofweightsandmeasuresusedinEnglishspeakingcountriesuntil
supersededbySIunitsinaprocessoftencalledmetrication,whichtookplaceintheUKinthe
Imperialsystem: early1970s.TheprincipalImperialelementsareyards(withtheirsubdivisionsoffeetand
inches),andpounds(dividedintoouncesandmultipliedintohundredweightsandtons).
Imposedload:
Inch:
Intrados:

Theweightoffurniture,people,storage,andanyothernonpermanentloads.
UnitoflengthintheImperialsystemonetwelfthofafoot,equalto25.4mm.
Theundersideofanarch.
OneoftheancientGreekordersofarchitecture,characterisedbyafluted

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IonicOrder:

columnandacapitalconsistingoffourvolutescrolls.NamedafterIoniain
Greece,whereitwasfirstused.

Iron:
J:
Jackrafter:

Anelement,whichisoneofthemostcommononearth,andtheprincipalcomponentofsteel.

Jetty:
Jiffyhanger:
Joinery:
Jointing:

Arafterthatisshorterthanacommonrafterbecauseitisintersectedbyahiporavalley.
Intraditionaltimberframedbuildings,theprojectionofanupperstoreyoverthe
storeybelow.Thereasonforthisformofconstructionseemsoriginallytohave
beensimplytoincreasethefloorareaoftheupperstoreys.
Aproprietarysteelcomponentwhichenablesajoisttobeconnectedtoanothertimberrunning
atrightangles.
Thefabricatedtimbercomponentsofabuildingsuchasdoors,windowsandstaircases.(Fr.
menuiserie,f).
Theprocessoffinishingthemortarbetweenbricksorothermasonryunitsatthetimeof
building,asopposedtopointingthejointlater.

Joist:

(Timber)Horizontalmemberwhichisoneofagrouprunningparallelandclose
together,supportingafloororflatroof.(Fr.solive,f).

Joisthanger:

Proprietarysteelcomponenttosupporttheendofajoistsothatitdoesnothavetobebuiltinto
thewall.

K:
Kentledge:
Keystone:

Heavyweightsusedtocounterbalancealoadorprovideareaction.
Thecentrestoneofanarch,ifitislargerthantheordinaryvoussoirs.
Inreinforcedconcreteconstruction,aconcreteplugtypically50to100mmhightohelplocate
Kicker:
theformworkforawallorcolumn.
TheprincipleunitofmassintheSIsystemofweightsandmeasures.Equalto1000grams.
Kilogram:
Abbreviationkg.Approximatelyequivalentto2.2046pounds.
OnethousandNewtonstheunitofforceintheSIsystem.Newtonsareverysmall,andthe
KiloNewton:
kiloNewtonisthepracticalunitmostoftenusedbyengineers.Inimperialtermsitis
approximatelyequivalenttotheweightoftwohundredweights.AbbreviationkN.
Kingposttruss: Rooftrusswithacentralverticalmember.
L:
Generallabourer:buildingworkerwithoutanyspecificskill.Specifictradeshavetheirown
Labourer:
labourerssuchasbricklayer's,plasterer's,labourer,whosejobistosetupscaffoldsandcarry
materials.
Generallyhorizontalmembersthatconnnecttogetherandreducetheunsupportedlengthof
Lacing:
compressionmembers.
Laminated
strandlumber Atypeofreconstitutedtimbermadeofseperatedstrandsgluedtogetherunderpressure.
(LSL):
Athinstripofwoodnailedtostudsorjoistsasacarrierforplaster.Earlylathswereriven(split
withablade)inmoremoderntimestheyweresawn.Expandedmetallathing(e.m.l.)isused
Lath:
forthesamepurpose,especiallyforexternalworkwithsandandcementrenderinternally,laths
havebeensupersededbyplasterboard.
Ledger:
Level:
Levelling:
Lewis:
Liftpit:
LimeMortar:
Lintel,lintol:

Inscaffolding,thehorizontalmembersrunningalongthescaffold.Theysupporttransomesor
putlogs.
Horizontaltheinstrumentusedforcheckingwhetherthingsarehorizontal.Levelsonadrawing
areheightsabovearecogniseddatumwhichmighteitherbetheOrdnanceDatumoralocal
datumforthejob,whoselocationandvaluehastobespecifiedonthedrawings.
Findinglevelsduringsurveying,orprovidinglevelsfornewconstruction.
Adeviceconsistingofexpandingwedgesusedforliftingheavystonemasonry.
Everylifthas(bylaw)tohaveaclearspacebelowitslowestlandinglevel,fittedwith
equipmentintendedtobringtoasafehaltaliftwhichhasfailedtostop.Thisoftenrequiresa
liftpit,typically1.2to1.5mdeep.
Thetraditionalformofmortar,itissoftandflexibleandliabletodissolveslowlyinrainwater.
Itisstillavailableforuseinrestorationwork.
Ashortbeamoveradoororwindowopeningmaybesteel,concreteor,traditionally,timber.
Thespellingwithan'o'istraditionallyfavouredbydraughtsmenthe'e'howeverisgiven

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Liveload:
Loadbearing:
Loadfactor:
Londonstock:

authoritybytheKingJamesbible(Exodus12:22etc).(Fr.linteau,m).
Imposedload.
Designedtosupportaloadinadditiontoitsownweight.
Engineersdesignstructurestosupportloadswhicharemorethanthemaximumloadexpected.
Theactualloadsarecalculatedasaccuratelyaspossibleandthenmultipliedbythefactor.
Typicalloadfactorsare1.4fordeadloadsand1.6forimposedloads.
ThestockbricksmadeintheLondonareaforcenturies.

M:
Manhole:

Holeinthegroundtoallowaccesstoundergroundservicesaccesschamber.

Aroofwhichslopessteeply(e.g.15degreesfromthevertical)toallowmorespaceinsidethe
roofspace.NamedafteraFrencharchitect.
Ingeneralusagethisdescribesworkconstructedofstone,buttechnicallythetermmasonryalso
Masonry:
includesbrickworkandblockwork.(Fr.maonnerie,m).
Apropertyofallmatter.Itismeasuredin,forexample,grams.Massisindependentofgravity,
Mass:
unlikeweightwhichdependsongravity.
Unreinforcedconcrete,asoftenusedinfoundationsorotherapplicationswheretheadded
Massconcrete:
strengthofreinforcementisnotrequired.
Maul:
Largewoodenhammerusedinmasonryandpavingwork.
Adocumentwhichshowshowtheconstructionwillbecarriedoutsafely.Undermostformsof
contracttheContractorwillprepareanynecessarymethodstatementsandtheEngineerwill
Method
usuallycheckthem.Methodstatementsarealsosometimesrequiredbyneighbouringowners
statement:
wherepotentiallyhazardousworkisbeingproposed,orbyPlanningauthoritiestoensurethata
proposalisbuildable.
ThebasicunitoflengthintheSIsystemofweightsandmeasures.Multipliedanddividedby
1000togivederivedunitssuchasmillimetresandkilometres.Symbolm.IntheUSAthe
Metre:
spellingmeterisused.Ametreisapproximatelyequivalentto3ft,33/8inches.
TheUKconstructionandengineeringindustrieswereencouragedbytheGovernmenttoadopt
themetricsystemintheearly1970s.Thesystemusedwasandremains(rathershortsightedly)
Metric:
basedonmillimetresratherthanthecentimetresystemtaughtinschoolsintheUKandaround
theworld.SeeSIsystem.
Mansard:

Mews:

Mildsteel:
Mile:
Mix:
Mobilecrane:

InLondonandotherlargecities,thestablesbelongingtolargehouseswould
oftenbeaccessedfromasmallroadrunningalongthebacksoftheproperties,
knownasthemews.Themewspropertiesareoftenseparatedfromtheirmain
houseandconvertedtosoughtafterdwellings.

Structuralsteelworkandreinforcementgenerallycomeintwoqualities:mildsteelandhigh
tensilesteel,thelatterbeingstrongerbutmoreexpensive.
UnitoflengthintheImperialsystem1760yards,equalto1609.344metres.
Theproportionsoftheingredientsofconcrete,mortarandsuchlike.
Versatileliftingdevicesinarangeofsizes,usuallytelescopic.

MockTudor:

Anarchitecturalstylepopularinsuburbandevelopmentinthetwentiesand
thirties,inwhichtraditionalstyleswerecopiedpoorly.

Modulusof
elasticity:

Ameasureoftheamountbywhichsomethingcanbedeformedbyaforceandrecoverwhenthe
forceisremoved.
Shortforbendingmoment.Thebendingforcewhichactson,forexample,abeam,andis
resistedbyanequalinternalresistancemomentwithinthebeam.
Abinderformasonry.ThetraditionalproductwasLimeMortarmodernmortarsrelyupon
cementmixedwithsand,withtheadditionoflimeorplasticizeraddedtomakethemworkable
or'buttery'.(Fr.mortier,m).

Moment:
Mortar:

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Morticeand
tenonjoint:

Atraditionalwayofjoiningtwotimbersatrightangles:theonecominginfromthesideis
reducedtoatenon,whichfitsintothecavityormorticeandissecuredbyglueornailing.
Timber(orothermaterialinimitationoftimber)shapedintoapatternandusedfordecorative
Moulding:
detailssuchasskirting,picturerailandsoon.Traditionalmouldingshapesincludequadrant,
ogee,torus,chamfered,glassbead,halfround,dowelandsoon.
Mouldingpin: Averythinpinornailusedforsecuringmouldings.
N:
Asanoun,ashortbeamintroducedthroughawalltoprovidetemporarysupportwhilethewall
Needle:
isbeingresupported.Asaverb,toinsertsuchbeams.
Thepointnearthemiddleofabeam'scrosssectionwhichexperiencesneithertensionnor
Neutralaxis:
compressionwhenthebeamissubjectedtobending.
Newlyndatum: SeeOrdnancedatum.
TheprincipalSIunitofforce.ItcanbethoughtofasequivalenttotheweightofSirIsaac
Newton:
Newton'sapple.
Node:
Theoreticalpointwheretwoormoremembersareconsideredtobeconnectedtogether.
Noggin(or
Ashortlengthoftimberfixedcrosswaysbetweenjoists,studsorraftersalsotheinfillbetween
nogging,naggin
thestudsofatraditionaltimberframedbuilding.
etc):

Also,thebrickworkorotherinfillbetweenthestudsoftraditionaltimberframedconstruction.
O:
Ordnancedatum ThenationallevelingstandardfortheUK,thebasisforlevellingsetupbytheOrdnance
(OD):
Survey,representingmeansealevelatNewlyn,SWales.
TheorganisationwhichmakesandmaintainsaccuratemapsoftheUnitedKingdom.Themaps
Ordnance
wereoriginallyformilitarypurposesbutarenowusedforlanduseplanninganddevelopment
Survey:
ofland.
Orielwindow: Abaywindowthatprojectsfromthewallanddoesnothaveitsownfoundations.
P:

Padstone:

Ablockofconcreteorstoneusedtospreadtheweightofabeamorjoist,to
avoidcrushingthewalluponwhichitrests.

Parallelflange
Aformofsteelchannel.
channel:
(pronouncedpargeing).Rendering,especially(1)decorativesculpturedrenderingonthe
Pargettingor
outsideofabuilding,foundmainlyinEastAnglia(2)therender(traditionallyconsistingofcow
pargeting:
manure)liningtheinsideofaflue,formedintoacylindricaltubebypullingupanironsphere
onachain.
Anonloadbearingwallbetweenroomsorareasinabuilding.Partitionsmaybeofanymaterial
Partition:
butareoftenstudwork.
Awallsharedbetweentwobuildings.Lawshaveexistedformanyyears,particularlyinLondon
Partywall:
butnowthroughouttheUK,forgoverningthebuilding,alterationandmaintenanceofparty
walls.(Fr.mur(m)mitoyen).
Peashingle:
Shingleconsistingofroundedstonesthatpassthrougha10mmgrid.
Permissible
Stressthatcanbesustainedsafely.CodesofPracticeforstructuraldesignusedtospecify
stress:
permissiblestresseswithwhichtheactualstresswastobecompared.
Perp.:
Theverticalmortarjointbetweentwobricks(bricklayers'slang).
Instructuralengineering,arectangularsteelframeconsistingoftwocolumnsandtwobeams,
Pictureframe:
sometimesusedwhenaloadbearingwallhastoberemoved.
Pier:
Amasonrycolumnajetty.
Afoundationconsistingofadeepcolumnextendingdownintotheground,usedwhenthe
foundationneedstogetsupportfromadeeperandstrongerormorestablelayer.Originally
pilesweretimber(oftenelm)buttheycannowbeconcreteorsteelorevenaluminium.Bored
Pile:
pilesaremadebypouringconcreteintoaholedrilledinthegroundwhereasdrivenpilesare
readymadeanddrivenintotheground.Therearemanyingeniousproprietarypilingsystems
andpilingcanbeusedbothfornewbuildingsandforstrengtheningorstabilisingthe
foundationsofexistingbuildings.Contiguouspilesareusedtoformaretainingwall.
Pilecap:
A(normallyreinforcedconcrete)structuretransferringloadsfromthebuildingintothepiles.
Piledriver:
Machineforhammeringorforcingpilesintotheground.
Pilingrig:
Amachinewhichdrillsaholeinthegroundforacastinsitupile.
Ofroofs,theangleoftheraftersfromthehorizontal.Traditionallythepitchwasexpressedas
Pitch:
thenumberofverticalinchescorrespondingtotwelvehorizontalinches,thusa45degreeroof
wasdescribedasatwelveinchpitch.
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Pitchedroof:
Planning:

Plaster:

Plasterboard:

Plum:
Plumb:
Pointing:
Polingboard:

Onewhoseslopeexceedstendegrees.
Thelegalsystem,operatedandenforcedbylocalauthorities,bymeansofwhichthe
developmentoflandiscontrolledforthepublicgood.NottobeconfusedwithBuilding
Control.
Thematerialwhichisspreadtoleaveasmoothsurfaceonawallorceiling.Themainbinding
materialmaybecement(whenitisknownintheUKasrender),orlime,orgypsum,thelatter
twobeingrestrictedtointernaluseinanycasetherewillbeafillerofsand,orinproprietary
prepackagedplasters,powderedvermiculite.(Fr.pltre,menduit(m)interieur).
Asandwichmadeoftwosheetsofcardboardwithagypsumplasterfilling,typically9mmor
12mmthick.Nailedorscrewedtostuds,joistsorraftersasacarrierforaplasterskimfinish,or
plasterboardswithchamferededgescanbejointedsothattheyactasafinishwithoutbeing
skimmedwithplaster.Plasterboardhelpstoprovidetheresistancetofireofbuildings.(Fr.
placopltre,m,fromatradename).
Alargestoneorpieceofsolidconcreteusedasafillerinmassconcrete.
Verticalorverticality,measuredusingaplumblineorplumbruleorthesedaysaspiritlevel.
Thesurfacetreatmentofthemortarbetweenbricksorothermasonryunits.Therearevarious
stylesofpointing:flush,struckandweathered,recessed,tuck,buckethandleetc.(Fr.
jontoiement,m).
Ashortstrongboardusedinthetemporarytimberingofexcavationsandtunnels.

Portalframe:

Astructuralframeconsistingoftwocolumnsandacrossbeam,withrigid
connections.Oftenusedforsinglestoreywarehousesandworkshops.The
crossbeamisoftenformedastworafterstomakeapitchedroofshape.

Portland
cement:

Ahydrauliccementusedalmostuniversallyformakingconcreteandothercementbased
products.SocalledbecauseconcretemadewithitresembleslimestonefromtheIsleof
Portland.

Poststressed
concrete:

Concretestrengthenedwithsteelwireswhicharestressedaftertheconcretehascured.

Pound:
Poundal:
Precast
concrete:
Prestressed
concrete:
Professional
indemnity:
Progressive
collapse:

Theunitofmassintheimperialsystemofweightsandmeasures.Confusingly,thesameword
isalsousedsometimesforaunitofforce,moreaccuratelycalledapoundforce.TheUK'sunit
ofcurrencycalledapoundwasoriginallythevalueofapoundof'sterling'silver.
Aunitofforceintheimperialsystemofweightsandmeasures.
Concretecomponentsmadeinafactoryoryardandtransportedtothesite.
Concretestrengthenedwithsteelwireswhicharestressedbeforetheconcreteispoured.
Insuranceagainstclaimsagainstaprofessionalpersonorpractice.

Theprocesswhereinthecollapseofpartofabuildingleadstothecollapseofanadjacentpartin
'houseofcards'fashion.
Traditionalinfillbetweentimberfloorjoistsintendedtoenhancetheacousticinsulationofthe
Pugging:
floor.Itmayoccupythewholedepthofthefloororonlypartofit.Materialsusedincludesand,
mortar,concrete,strawandseashells.
Pulverisedfuel Afinewhitepowderresultingfromburningpowderedcoalinpowerstations,whichcanbe
ash:
usedtosupplementcementinmakingconcreteforcivilengineeringworks.

Purlin:

Ahorizontalstructuralmemberwhichsupportsaslopingroofcovering,withor
withoutrafters,andwhichcarriestheroofloadstotheprimaryframing
members.(Fr.,panne,f).

Putlogor
putlock:

Ahorizontalscaffoldmemberoneendofwhichisbuiltintothewall.Putlogscaffoldsarenot
muchusedthesedaysbecausetheycanbedangerous,andbecausetheholeinthewallhastobe
repairedwhenthescaffoldistakendown.

Q:
Quadrant:

Aquarterofacircle.Thenameisalsousedforvariousthingsinthisshape,suchasatimber
moulding,acornerkerbstone,orahistoricnavigationalinstrument.

Queenpost
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truss:

Atrusswithtwopostsdirectlysupportingthepurlins.

Quoin:
R:

Theexternalcornerwheretwobrickwallsmeet.

Rafter:

Slopingstructuralmembersupportingaroof.(Fr.chevron,m).

Readymixed
Mixedinabatchingplantanddeliveredinreadymixtrucks.
concrete:
Recessed
Flatpointingsetbackfromthesurfaceofthebricks.
pointing:
Rectangular
Astructuralsteelcomponentintheshapeofasteeltubewitharectangularcrosssection.
hollowsection:
Concretereinforcedwithsteelbarstomakeaversatilestructuralmaterialwhichisverystrong
Reinforced
inbending,shear,tensionandcompression,unlikeplainconcretewhichisstrongonlyin
concrete:
compression.
(Alsoknownasrebar).Steelbarsforreinforcingconcrete.Theyarebentinto
Reinforcement: specialshapesaccordingtotheEngineer'sbendingschedule,andfittedintothe
correctpositionbyaskilledoperativecalledasteelfixer.
Render:

Cementbasedwallplaster.
Retainssoilononeside.Maybemadeofmasonry,reinforcedconcrete,orvariousother
Retainingwall:
traditionalorproprietarystructuralsystems.
Apercentagewithheldfromacontractor'spaymentuntilanagreedtimeaftertheworkis
Retention:
complete.
Thetopofapitchedroof,whereroofplanesthatslopeinoppositedirectionsmeet.(Fr.fate,
Ridge:
m).
Ridgeboard:

Athintimberusedtoalignthetopsoftherafters.Inmostroofstheridgeboard
isnotaloadbearingmember.(Fr.planche(f)fatire).

Ridgetile:
Riser:

Acurvedtilewhichcoverstheridgeonapitchedroof.
Verticalboardrisingfromthebackofonetreadofastaircasetothefrontofthenext.
Watersoakingupthroughthewallsofthebuilding.Maybepreventedbytheuseofadamp
Risingdamp:
proofcourseinthewalls.
BeforestructuralsteelIandHsectionsbecameavailableengineersmadeup
sectionsbyjoiningnarrowplatestogetherusingsteelrivetswithaheadformed
byhammeringwhileredhot.Rivetsarenolongerusedforconnectingstructural
Rivet:
steelworkintheUK,withfabricationsmostlyreplacedbyreadymadesections,
andwithboltingandweldingavailablewhicharebothfasterandsaferfor
connections.Thepresenceofrivetsinanexistingstructurecanhelpindatingit,
andusuallyindicatessteelworkdatingtobeforeaboutthe1950s.
OneofarangeofIandHshapedsteelmembers.Onlysmallsizesofjoistarestillproduced,
RolledsteeljoistmostofthelargersizeshavingbeenreplacedbyUniversalBeamandUniversalColumn
(RSJ):
sections.RSJswereoriginallydevisedforuseinfillerjoistconstruction.
Rougharch:

Abrickarchinwhichthebricksarerectangularandthearchshapeisformedbymeansofthe
mortarjointsbeingwedgeshaped.(cf'axedarch').

S:
Aggregateconsistingofmineralparticleswhosesizeisgenerallylessthan5mmfineaggregate.
MerchantsintheUKsupplysoftsandandcoarseorfinesharpsand.
Sandlimebrick:Akindofcalciumsilicatebrick.
Thetraditionaltypeofwindowwhichopensbyslidingupanddown.Theframeiscalledabox
frame,becausethesidemembersarehollowwoodenboxesinsidewhichthecounterweights
Sashwindow: slideupanddown.Thebiggestproblemswiththemarethatoverzealouspaintingleavesthem
jammedshut,andthesashcordshavefrequentlytobereplaced.Modernversionsareavailable
incorporatingdraughtproofingandspringsinsteadofweights.
Aframeworkfortemporaryaccesstobuildingworks.Thetraditionalwayto
buildascaffoldintheUKusedtobewithtimberpolesconnectedtogetherwith
wirebonds.Standardised115/16inch(49mm)steeltubewithproprietarysteel
Sand:

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Scaffold:

connectorscameintowidespreaduseafterthesecondworldwar,basedonwar
surplustubingthathadbeenusedinbeachdefenses.Variousproprietary
scaffoldingsystemsarealsoavailableandmaycostless,but"tubeandfittings"
scaffoldinghastheadvantageofflexibility.(Fr.chafaudage,m).

Scaffoldboard: Timberboardsusedtomakewalkwaysonascaffold.
Thecrosssectionaldimensionsofalengthoftimbertheprincipaldimensionsofashaped
Scantling:
stoneapieceoftimberofaspecificsize.
Scarf:

Screed:
Screw:
Secantpiles:
Secondfix:
Services:
Settingout:
Settlement:
Shake:
Sharpsand:
Shearorshear
force:
Sheerlegs:
Shingle:
Shuttering:
Sill:
Simply
supported:
Skirting:
Sleeperwall:
Soaker:
Soffite:

Atraditionalwoodworkingjointforextendingthelengthofatimber.
Atemporaryrail,installedataspecificlevel,toenableconcretetobefinishedatthecorrect
level.Alsosandandcement,mixedratherdry,laidona(usuallyconcrete)floorandscreeded
andtrowelledtomakeasmoothsurface.(Fr.chape,f).
Threadedfastener.
Contiguouspileswhereeachpilecutsintotheonebefore,tomakeamoreorlesswaterproof
retainingwall.
(Seefirstfix).Workwhichtakesplaceafterplastering,forexample,fixinglightswitches,
skirtings.
See:Buildingservices.
Theprocessofmakingsurethatabuildingorstructureisbuiltinthecorrectpositionandthe
rightsize.
Thesmalldownwardsmovementoffoundationswhentheweightofthebuildingcomesonto
them,duetocompressionofthesoil.Tendstobenegligibleinclaysoilbutcanbesignificantin
sand.(Fr.tassement,m).
Adefectoftimber:damagecausedbyroughhandling.
Sandwhich,unlikesoftsand,doesnotincludefinesiltorclayparticles,makingitmoresuitable
foruseinconcreteandscreed.
Theforcewhichtendstomakethetopandbottomflangesorfibresofabeammoveparallelto
oneanother.Thewebofthebeamresiststheshearforce,whichisatitsgreatestattheendsof
thebeamnexttowhereitrestsonitssupports.
Aliftingdeviceusingtwotimberpolesfixedtogetheratthetop.
Aggregateconsistingofstoneswhosesizeisbetween5and10mm.Also,awoodenrooftile.
Formwork.
Projectingmouldingatthebottomofawindowordoor.(Alsospelledcill).
Describesabeamwhichrestsonasupportateachend,thatis,itisnotsupportedatmorethan
twopoints,isnotheldrigidlybythesupports,anddoesnotformpartofalargerframework.
Timberorothermouldingaroundthebaseofawall.
Supportsatimbergroundfloor,andisoftenbuiltinhoneycombbrickworktoallowventilation
ofthespaceunderthefloor.
Ametalsheetbentatarightangle,partofthewaterproofflashingofthejunctionofatiledor
slatedroofabuttingawall.
Theundersideofabuildingcomponentsuchasalintelorbeam.Aboardfittedtotheunderside
oftheendsofraftersorflatroofjoists.

Sandwhichincludesfinesiltorclayparticles,whichmakeitmoresuitableformakingmortar
orrenderthansharpsand.
Timberfromaconiferoustree,i.e.mostofthetimberusedinconstruction.Softwoodtimber
Softwood:
comesinavarietyofgrades,themostcommonforstructuralusebeingclassesC16(forgeneral
use)andC24(strongertimberwithfewerknotsanddefects).(Fr.bois(m)resineux).
Inengineering,thesoilisallthesolidmaterialsbelowtheearth'ssurface,includingrock,sand,
Soil:
clayandsoon.
SoilMechanics: Thescienceofthestrengthofsoil.
Soldier:
Averticalmemberinaretainingwall,especiallyintemporaryworks.
Soleplate:
Atimberplacedonthefloorasthebaseforapartition.
Special(brick): Abrickspeciallymadeinanonstandardshape.
Special
Defined,inthePartyWallact,asfoundationsincorporatingsteel.
foundations:
Spinewallor Intraditionaldomesticconstruction,aloadbearingpartitionbetweenthefrontandrearrooms
partition:
ofthehouse.Itsupportstheupperfloorsand,usually,theroof.
Asteelworkconnectionforjoining(forexample)twolengthsofcolumntoformalonger
Softsand:

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Splice:
Springing:
Square:
Squarehollow
section:
Squint:
Stanchion:
Standard:
Steel:
Steelangle:
Steelfixer:
Stepped
flashing:
Stockbrick:

Strain:
Strap:
Stress:

Stressgraded:

column.Beamscanalsobespliced,butthesplicemustnot,ifpossible,beinthemiddleofthe
beamwherethebendingmomentisgreatest.
Themasonrysupportinganarch.
Rectangular,oratarightanglethetoolusedforcheckingrectangularity.
Astructuralsteelsectionintheshapeofasquaretube.
Aspecialbrickforuseonacornerwhichisnotarightangle.
Steelcolumn.
Averticaltubeinscaffolding.
Ametalbasedoniron,withtheadditionofcarefullydefinedquantitiesofcarbonandother
elementstoproduceametalwithspecificqualities.Structuralsteelisusedforsteelframesand
isweldableandeasilycutandshaped.Steelreinforcement(qv)isdesignedtobecutandbentto
shape.ModernsteelusedatesfromtheinventionoftheBessemerconverter,andthemodern
productdiffersfromtheoldertypesofsteelfromwhichweaponsweremade.(Fr.acier,m)
Astructuralsteelcomponent,thecrosssectionofwhichisLshaped.
Aworkerwhospecialisesinplacingreinforcementforreinforcedconcrete.
Metalflashingcutinasteppedpatterntowaterproofthejunctionofatiledorslatedroofwitha
brickwall.
Thetraditionalhandmadebrickwithoutafrog,madebymouldingclayina
woodenmouldor'stock'.

Theamountbywhichsomethinghaschangedlength,measuredasapercentageofitsoriginal
length.
Acomponent,usuallysteel,installedtoensurethatwallsareconnectedtoandrestrainedby
floors.
Forcedividedbyarea,measuredin(forexample)Newtonspersquaremillimetre,orpoundsper
squarefoot.
(Oftimber)testedandmarkedwithastrengthgrade.Thetwogradesof
softwoodmostusedinconstructionareC16orGeneralStructuralgrade,and
C24orSpecialStructuralgrade.

Stretcher:

Abrickwhoselongestsideisvisibleonthesurfaceofthewall.Seeheader.
Abrickworkbondconsistingonlyofstretchers,suitableforhalfbrickthickwallsandcavity
Stretcherbond:
walls.
Stringer:
Angledstructuralbeamsupportingthetreadsandrisersofastaircase.
Strike:
Dismantle(scaffoldorfalsework).
Struckand
Finishedwithaslopingsurface,recessedslightlyatthetopandprotrudingslightlyatthebottom
weathered
ofthejoint.
pointing:
Abranchofengineeringdealingwithstructures,suchasbuildingsandbridges.IntheUK
Structural
structuralengineersbecamedistinguishedfromCivilEngineerswhentheystartedtospecialise
Engineering:
inthenewstructuralmaterialreinforcedconcreteintheearly20thcentury,althoughtheysoon
begantoworkinallstructuralmaterials.
Glassusedinsituationswhereitwillormaysupportmorethanjustitsownweight.Glass
Structuralglass:
balustrades,stairsandfloorpanelsarebecomingcommon.
Structural
Aframeofsteelsectionssupportingotherpartsofthestructure.
steelwork:
Stucco:
Renderingshapedandpaintedtoresembleashlarstonework.
Stud:
Studwork:

Atimberpostinastudworkpartitionorintraditionaltimberframed
construction.Therearealsosteelstudsmadeoflightweightgalvanizedsteel.
Atypeofpartitionformedfromstudsatcloseintervals,traditionallycladwithlathandplaster,

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nowwithplasterboard.
Adownwardsmovement,especiallyamovementoffoundations.Thetermismostoftenusedto
Subsidence:
describethemovementoffoundationsonclaysoil,whenthesoilshrinksduetobecomingdrier.
(Fr.affaissement,m).
Sulphatesinsoilorgroundwatercandamagecementbasedblocks,mortarorconcrete.Special
Sulphate/sulfate:sulphateresistingcementcanbeusedtoresistit.Sulphatesinthegroundareoftenaresultof
industrialpollution.
Systeme
international
(S.I.):
T:
Temporary
benchmark:
Temporary
works:

Thesystemofunits,basedonthemetre,kilogramandsecond,usedbyengineersintheUKand
elsewhere.Themetreandkilogramaredividedandmultipliedby1000tomakelargerand
smallerunits.Manythinkitisanoddsystemwhichisbasedonaunit,thekilogram,whichis
itselfamultipleofanotherunit,being1000grams.

Alevellingbasepointofknownlevel.Seebenchmark.
Proppingorshoringtoenablethepermanentworkstobecarriedout.

Tile:

Apullingforce,suchasthatexperiencedbyacable,orinthebottomflangeofabeamwitha
loadonit.
Anopticalinstrumentusedbylandsurveyorsforsurveyingandbyengineersandbuildersfor
settingoutlinesandanglesontheground.
Anymemberwhichprovidesatensileforcetotietwoothermemberstogether,especially,the
bottomhorizontalmemberofarooftruss,and(inasteelframedstructure)steelbeamswhose
mainfunctionistotiecolumnstogether.
Ceramicunitforwalldecorationorroofweathering.

Timber:
Timber
connector:

Woodsuitableforuseinconstruction.IntheUKitisusuallysoftwood.(Frbois,m).
Variouskindsofsteelfixingsdesignedtomakehighstrengthconnectionsintimber
construction.

Tension:
Theodolite:
Tie:

Constructioninwhichthemainloadbearingelementsaretimber.Traditional
Timberframed: timberframedor'halftimbered'housesareoneexamplemoderntimber
framingusestimberloadbearingpanelsmadeofstudworkcladwithplywood.
Ton:
Tonne:
Topplate:
Towercrane:
Townplanning
ortownand
country
planning:
Trade:
Tread:
Transome:
Tree
preservation
order:

Unitofmassorweightintheimperialsystemofweights.TheUKor'long'tonisequalto20
hundredweights,2240pounds,or1016kg.IntheUSa'shortton'of2000poundsisused.
UnitofmassintheSIsystem.Equalto1000kilograms.
Ahorizontaltimberontopofapartitiontoreceivethefloororrooftimbers.
Acranewiththejibmountedatthetopofatower,togiveclearanceoverobstructions.They
maybestaticortracked,witharigidor'luffing'(verticallyhinged)jib.Theyareusually
electricallyoperated.
Theoriginalnameofthedisciplineandprocesswhichisthesedaysgenerallyknownsimplyas
planning.
Thevarioustypesofconstructionworkers:electricians,carpenters,joinersandsuchlike.
Asinglestepofastaircase.
Acomponentofscaffolding:ahorizontaltubesupportingtheboards.Alsoahorizontalmember
injoinery,forexamplethepartoftheframebetweenanupperandlowerwindow.
Anorderunderplanningregulations,protectingatreeorgroupoftreesfromdamage.

Ajoistwhichcarriesextraloads,forexample,thoseduetoanopeningorapartition.Trimmers
shouldbestrongerthanthenormaljoists.Traditionallytheywerethicker,thesedaysextra
strengthisachievedbyboltingtwoormoretimberstogether.
Anarrangementofsteelortimbercomponentsdesignedtospanacrossalargedistanceto
Truss:
supportaroof,floororbridge.
Woodentrusses,usuallytriangularinshape,spanningbetweentheexternal
wallsat600mmcentresorthereaboutstoformaroof.Theyarecheapandeasy
Trussedrafters: tousefornewroofsanddonotrequireinternalsupportfrombeamsor
partitions,buttheirdisadvantageisthattheyrestricttheuseoftheloftspace
morethanconventional'cuttimber'roofs.
Trimmer:

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Adifficultandexpensiveformofpointing.Thejointisflushpointedwithmortarcolouredto
Tuckpointing: matchthebricks,andaverythinfalsejointiscutintothemortarandpointedinlimeputtyofa
contrastingcolour.Verydifficulttogetdonetodaytheartisnearlylost.

Tuscanorder:

Theplainestofthefiveclassicalordersofarchitecture,similartotheDoricbut
withaplainratherthanflutedshaft.

Tusktenon
joint:

Traditionaltimberconnection,typicallyusedtoconnecttrimmersarounda
hearth.Thetenonextendsthroughthemainjoistandisfittedwithawooden
wedgetostopthejointfromopeningup.Inmodernconstructionasteelbracket
wouldbeusedinstead,unlessonewererestoringahistoricalbuilding.

U:
Makingexistingfoundationsdeeper(byextendingthemdownwards).Usuallydonewithmass
concretebutotherhighandlowtechmethodsareavailable.
AstandardisedsteelcomponentwhichisIshapedincrosssection.Over70differentsizesare
availableintwomainsteelgrades.TheUniversalBeamandUniversalColumnwereintroduced
UniversalBeam:inthelate1950sandwerebasedonAmericanpatterns,androlledinnew'universal'rolling
mills.TheyreplacedarangeofsectionswhichhadbeendevelopedbyvariousUK
manufacturersovertheprecedingcentury.
Underpinning:

Universal
Column:

AstandardisedsteelcomponentwhichisHshapedincrosssection.About30
differentsizesareavailableintheUK,intwomainsteelgrades.Thesame
commentsapplyastoUniversalBeamabove.

V:
Valley:
Valuation:
Vanityunit:
Variation:

Themeetingoftworoofplanesataninternalangletherafterwhichformsthejunction.
BuildingworkisvaluedmonthlybytheQuantitySurveyororContractAdministrator.
Washbasinbuiltintothetopofacupboard.
AchangetothebuildingcontractduetoaninstructionissuedbytheContractAdministrator.

Vault:
Vermiculated:
Vermiculite:
Vierendeel
girder:
Voussoir:
W:
Waling:
Wane:
Web:
Weight:
Welding:
Windload:
Withes:
Woodscrew:
Y:
Yard:
Young's
modulus:

Anancientformofconstructionconsistingofmasonryformedinanarched
shape.
Ofstonework:carvedinarandompatternfancifullycomparablewiththeappearanceofworms.
Anexpandedmineralusedaslightweightaggregateinconcreteandotherfillingapplications.
Atypeoftrussconsistingofverticalandhorizontalmembersarrangedlikealadderonitsside.
Oneofthestonesorbricksforminganarch.
Horizontalsteelortimbermemberinaretainingwall,especiallyintemporaryworks.
Adefectoftimber.Thetimbersectionistoosmallbecauseitwascuttooclosetotheedgeof
thetrunk.
ThemiddleplateofanIbeam,Hbeamorchannel.Thewebconnectsthetwoflanges,and
resistsshearforces.
Aforceresultingfromtheeffectofgravityonamass.
Atechniqueforjoiningsteelcomponentsbythedepositionofsmalldropsofmoltensteelwhich
bondstotheparentmetal.
EngineershavemadegreateffortstounderstandwindloadingsincetheTayBridgedisasterin
1879.
(Pronouncedwhiffs)Theusuallyhalfbrickthickdividersbetweenfluesinachimney.
Threadedfastenerforuseinwood.
TheprincipalunitoflengthintheImperialsystemthreefeet,equalto914.4mm.
Ameasureoftheelasticityofamaterial.Definedasstressdividedbystrainseemodulusof
elasticity.

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