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Topic

SVA

Stop Signs
S & V must agree in number

SVA

A long, complex subject or great


distance between S & V
A plural subject made up of
singular nouns that are
connected by and

SVA

Pseudo-plural singular subject

SVA

a collective noun
A subject in the form of
Verb+ing or to+verb

SVA

SVA

SVA
SVA

an X of Y subject
the verb comes before the
subject

SVA

Or, Either Or, & Neither .. Nor

SVA
SVA

Indefinite pronouns that end


with -one, -body, -thing
(someone, nobody, anything)
SANAM pronouns - Some, Any
None, All, More/Most

SVA

Each, Every

SVA

The number of..

What to check
correct verb is used

Good Example
John is a tall man

Bad Example
The kids plays football

S&V

In the waning days of the


emperor's life, the conquest of
new lands on the borders of the
empire was considered vital

The tidal forces to which an


object falling into a black
hole is subjected is sufficient
to tear the object apart

the verb is plural


Nouns that end with -s: news, thesis, crisis.
Collective nouns: audience, committee,
family, team. POLICE is an exception its
actually plural

John and Jane are lovers


John and Jane is lovers
Mathematics is a mandatory highschool subject
The news are very interesting
The police are looking for the
criminal.

The audience enjoy the


show bening played.

the subject is always singular

Swimming is very healthy

Swimming are very healthy

Verbs must agree with the X part of the


subject

Three members of an organization


are waiting outside

S&V

There are boys in the playground

A test of 150 questions are


long
There are a boy in the
playground

Verbs must agree with the noun nearest to


the verb

The verb is singular


the of pharse which usually follows the
pronoun
singular verb for a subject following
Each/Every

singular verb only

Neither the coach nor the players Neither the players nor the
are going to the game
coach are going to the game

everybody loves dogs


Some of the money was stolen
from the vault.
Every dog HAS paws

everybody love dogs


Some of the documents was
stolen from me.
Each of these shirts are
pretty

the number of companies


The number of hardworking
which are affected by
students in this class is quite large software piracy is huge.

In the Senate, the majority


A number of students in the class have coalesced into a unifed
are hard workers.
voting block
Having good friends IS a
Whatever they want to do
wonderful thing
are fine with me

SVA

quantites or parts: A number of,


half of,the majority of

the noun in the of-prepositional phrase

SVA

subject pharses and clauses

always singular

Parallelism

A list of 3 items or more,


separated by commas and
and/or before the last item

all item must belong to the same part of


speech

Jane likes skiing, watching movies


and reading books, magazines
and dictionaries

Jane likes skiing, watching


movies, reading books,
magazines and dictionaries

Parallelism

A list of 3 items or more,


separated by commas and
and/or before the last item

if the list items are verbs, all verbs should be


conjugated or unconjungated, if the verbs are
unconjugated, they must be of the same type
(to verb, verb+ing, or V3)

I like to eat, to swim and to run

I like to eat, to swim and


running

Parallelism

Not only A but Also B, (n)either


A (n) B, A is/means B, A rather
than B, A and/or/but B

I want to retire to a place where I


can relax AND where the taxes are Ralph likes both those who
A and B must be of the same part of speech
low
are popular AND who are not

Parallelism

Not only A but Also B, (n)either


A (n) B, A is/means B, A rather
than B, A and/or/but B, So much
A as B

. According to one expert,


. According to one expert, the
the cause of genetic
cause of genetic irregularities in irregularities in many breeds
many breeds of dog is not so
of dog is not as much their
much that dogs are being bred for
being bred for looks or
looks or to meet other narrow
meeting other narrow
criteria as that the breeds have
criteria as much as that the
relatively few
breeds have relatively few

Parallelism

Not only A but Also B, (n)either


A (n) B, A is/means B, A rather
than B, A and/or/but B

Pronouns

Pronouns

A and B must be logically parallel

Either/Neither cannot be followed by nor/or, He met them Either at the park or He met them at the park but
Not only/but also cannot be alone
at the train station
also at the train station
Bill Clinton is a former
Every pronoun in the underlined
a pronoun must agree with the noun to
Bill Clinton is a former president. president. She is no longer a
part of the sentence or after it which it refers in number, gender and person
He is no longer a president.
president.
New papers incorporating tiny
cellulose fibers, which allegedly
Check for ambiguity for every
if the pronoun can refer to more than one
give these materials the strength
John told the boy that he
pronoun
antecedent and it is a logical one.
of cast iron.
was quick.

Pronouns

The word/term it is

a word/term should refer to something, to


describe something, or to mean something

Pronouns

the pronoun it refering to a verb

use the pharse to do so or doing so instead

Pronouns

the pronoun one


It - referring to a singular nonhuman noun / as a subject
replacement

one agrees only with itself

The word precipatioation does


not only mean rain. It also refers
to snow and hail.
John is playing tennis. He enjoys
doing so.
One must work hard for one to
succeed

it may switch roles between answer choices as a pronoun or as a subject

The baby is asleep. It was tired


after eating.

This, That, These and Those

That/those indicating a new copy must be


modfied

Her Company is outperforming


THAT OF her competitor
Her Company is
outperforming THOSE OF
her competitors

Pronouns

Pronouns

The word precipaitation is


not only rain. It is also snow
and hail.
John is playing tennis. He
enjoys it.
One must work hard for him
to succeed
The baby is asleep.she was
tired after eating.

Pronouns

That/Those

That/those must agree in number with the


previous version.

Her Company is outperforming


THE COMPANIES OF her
competitors

Pronouns

This/These

do not use this or these in place of nouns,


and unless modified That or those also.

Her products are unusual; many


consider THEM unique

Her products are unusual;


many consider THESE unique

the entity that is singular mus be one of


something plural

Able to synthesize chemical


energy or obtain it from an
external source in both the
presence and the absence of
oxygen, kingdom Eubacteria is the
only one of the six-kingdom
classification systems who
displays the full range of
metabolic diversity

A noun and its modifier should touch each


other

Bursting with fascination, the


professor read the old book
Resigned to the bad news, the
office workers made no
commotion

Able to synthesize chemical


energy or obtain it from an
external source in both the
presence and the absence of
oxygen, kingdom Eubacteria
is the only one of the sixkingdom classification
system who displays the full
range of metabolic diversity
Bursting with fascination,
the old book was read by
the professor
Resigned to the bad news,
there was no commotion in
the office

Pronouns

Modifiers

Modifiers

one of
verb+ing or V3, at the beginning
of the sentence, and separated the modifier must appear immediately before
by a comma
or after the noun it describes

Noun modifier

Modifiers

Which,That,Who,Whose,Whom,
Where,When

Modifiers

Who/Whom

clauses led by the pronoun that cannot


modify people
Who is used as the subject of the verb,
whereas whom is used as the object

That/Whom

That or Whom can be dropped when the


modified noun is the object of the clause

Modifiers

Modifiers

Where

Modifiers

When

Modifiers

Modifiers

Modifiers

That Which

That/Which

The scientists WHO made the


The scientists THAT made
discovery were rewarded
the discovery were rewarded
The security guard WHOM we met The security guard WHO we
was nice
met was nice
The movie (THAT) we watched last
Friday was scary

where can modify a noun place but not a


"metaphorical" one (condition,situation) use we had an arrangement IN WHICH
in which instead
he cooked and I cleaned
when can modify a noun event or time, you
I went to the park when the
can also use in which instead.
clouds became dark.

That which is always incorrect

Financial success often results


from certain decisions made by
check if the modifying clause is essential or individuals, specifically, decisions
not. When the clause is not essential it will be that differ from those made by
usually separated by commas
the majority of the market.

We had an arrangement
WHERE he cooked and I
cleaned

the growth of the global


economy between 1990 and
2000 exceeds that which
had been for 10,000 years
from the beginning of
agriculture to 1950
Financial success often
results from certain
decisions made by
individuals, specifically,
decisions which differ from
those made by the majority
of the market.

Recently documented
examples of neurogenesis,
Recently documented examples of the production of new brain
neurogenesis, the production of
cells, include. the brain
new brain cells, include. brain
growth in mice when placed
growth in mice that are placed in in a stimulating environment
a stimulating environment or an or the increase in canaries'
when + PAST PARTICIPLE refers to the subject increase in neurons in canaries
neurons when they learn
When + PAST PARTICIPLE vs. That of the sentence. Check if it is a logical one.
that learn new songs.
new songs.

Modifiers

Modifiers

Which vs. the -Ing form

Adjective/Adverb (-ly)

Modifiers

Verb/infinitive - Adverb Verb/infinitive

Modifiers

Resulting from

Modifiers

Comma + Noun (, Noun)

must modify the immediately preceding noun


only, it cannot modify the action of an entire
clause. To modify a clause use the -ing form.
Adjective must modify only noun or
pronouns. Adverbs modify anything but noun
and pronouns. (pay attention to the -ly added
in answer choices)

Crime has recently decreased in


our negihborhood, leading to a
rise in propery values

the textbook's chapter on


genetics is surprisingly
tentative, which leads one
to doubt the author's
scholarship in that particular
area.

James Joyce is Max's supposed


irish ancestor

James Joyce is Max's


supposedly irish ancestor

Although his early critics had


viewed Christopher
Although his early critics had
Marlowe as a talented and
viewed Christopher Marlowe as a
brilliant writer and had
talented and brilliant writer and often compared his plays to
had often compared his plays to those of Shakespeare, until
the adverb can only modify one
those of Shakespeare, it was not almost 1950, modern critics
verb/infinitive, if it logically can modify both
until almost 1950 that modern
and biographers did not
sourronding verbs/infinitives than it is
critics and biographers seriously begin seriously to consider
ambigous and should be placed where it is
began considering the literary
the literary merits of his
not.
merits of his works.
works.
creatures of the seabed
were suffering from
dwindling food supplies,
possibly resulting from
the flooding resulting from the
increasing sea surface
abnormally strong storms had
temperatures during the
'resulting from' after a comma is generally
left six inches of standing water in
same period.
considered unacceptable
the street.

is the noun abstract or not. Abstract noun is


allowed to stand for the ENTIRE IDEA OF THE
PRECEDING CLAUSE. while concreate nouns
usually stands for the DIRECTLY PRECEDING
NOUN.

the coach tried to put 5 receivers


on the line , a strategy that
failed. OR i went to the bar with
john smith , a consultant in los
angeles.

one goal of semiconductor


research is to develop a
silicon chip that can transmit
and receive light signals
directly , which may one day
lead to smaller, faster
semiconductors.

Modifiers

's or s'

Tenses

Present Simple - the first Verb is


in V1

If the object is a concrete noun - something


tangible, can be sensed with one of the five
senses
action that occurs in a certain
frequency/facts & generalizations/"eternal"
states

The dog's hair is curly.

The festival's week actually


lasted more than seven days.

it rains here all the time

The earth is revolving


around the sun

Tenses

Present Progressive - am/is/are


+ Verb+ing
actions that are in progress at present
Past Simple - the first Verb is in describe historical facts/actions that occurred
V2
at a specific point in the past
an action that was in progress: at a certain
Past Progressive - was/were +
point the past/when another action
Verb+ing
occurred/took place

last night at ten I was training

Sandy is playing soccer


yesterday

Tenses

Verbs that express general state:


know or signify
these verbs are not using the progressive form

The inscription SIGNIFIES the


emperor's birth

The inscription is signifying


the emperor's birth

John has had his tonsils removed


The child DREW a square in the
sand, but the ocean HAS ERASED
it.

they had known each other


since 1987
The child HAS DRAWN a
square in the sand, but the
ocean HAS ERASED it.

Tenses
Tenses

Tenses

Tenses

Present Perfect - has/have + V3

actions that occurred at [an unknown or


unspecified time/several times] in the past

Present Perfect - has/have + V3

actions that began in the past and are still


relevant/in progress at present

Tenses

Within the past [some time


frame]

Tenses

Past perfect - had + V3

I am eating my dinner now


John missed the bus to work
yesterday

Quentin IS MEETING Harvey


for lunch tomorrow
John had met Jane in 2005

An examination of scandals
An examination of scandals within within the past few years
the past few years involving
involving insider
insider
trading reveals that most
trading reveals that most accused
accused employees had
employees have chosen to leave
chosen to leave their jobs
their jobs
preemptively rather than
Indicates an action that started in the past preemptively rather than face the face the embarrassment of
and continues in the present, hence the verb
embarrassment of being fired.
being fired.
should be in the present perfect.
actions that had been completed before [a
certain point in time/another action] in the John had moved to Seattle before
John moved to Seattle
past
he met Jane
before he met Jane

Tenses

Tenses

Tenses

Tenses

Tenses

Tenses

Tenses

Comparisons

Comparisons

Comparisons

if the reporting verb is in the past tense,


reported Speech with reporting present -> past, past -> past perfect, future -> Jane said that she would arrive at Jane said that she will arrive
verb in Past tense
conditional
noon
at noon
PRRR IS MAD propose/recommend/require/re
The law mandates that a
quest/insist/suggest/mandate/as
The law mandates that a person person will be tried by a jury
k/demand that
the next verb must be in its base form
be tried by a jury of one's peers
of one's peers

if/unless

if/unless

if/unless should never be followed by will or


would

was is never used in the condition part; use


were instead

IF you study diligently, you will


score highly

IF you will study diligently,


you will score highly

IF she ate pizza tomorrow, then


she would become ill

students will take ethics only


if it would be taught as a
separate, required course

Conditional 1 - future situations;


IF john drops the pen, it will land IF Sophie will eat pizza, then
the result is realistic or possible condition in present, result in future/present
on the floor
she will become ill
Conditional 2-hypothetical
situations; the result is
unrealistic because the
condition in past simple, result in future
IF john owned a dog, it would be IF john owned a dog, it will
condition is never fulfilled
past (conditional)
a Labrador
be a Labrador
Conditional 3-situations that
could have happened but did
condition in past perfect, result in future
If john had met Jane 5 years ago, If john had met Jane 5 years
not; result is "too late"
past perfect (conditional perfect)
she would have married him
ago, she would marry him

Like,Unlike,Than,As

Like/Unlike

As

1. The comparison uses equality/inequality


words 2. The things being compared are
logically comparable and grammatically
parallel 3. Preferably there is a conjugated
verb in the second part of the comparison.
Comparing the essence of two nouns, must
always be followed by a noun, the section
beginning with like/unlike must never
include a conjugated verb.
comparing verbs (actions), the section
beginning with as must always include a
conjugated verb

Jane is a better painter than John Jane is a better painter than


is.
John's paintings.

Like skiing, snowboarding is a


winter sport.

Like skiing is, snowboarding


is a winter sport

As John once did, Jane is now


starting her training

As John, Jane is now starting


her training

Comparisons

Comparisons

As/Like

That/It

Comparisons

Greater / Higher

Comparisons

Superlatives - most

Redundancy

or not after whether/ if without


a condition and result

When comparing two clauses use as

if you want to compare one thing to another


use that, and if you want to compare
something to itself, use it

In even upper middle-class


Amercan homes during the Great
Depression, the potato was the
staple of the family diet, just as it
had once been in relatively welloff English households during the
Industrial Revolution.

The seat of chair A is more worn


than that of chair B / The seat of
chair A is more worn than it was
last week

In even upper middle-class


Amercan homes during the
Great Depression, the
potato was the staple of the
family diet, just like it once
had been in relatively welloff English households
during the Industrial
Revolution.
Between 1990 and 2000 the
growth of the global
economy was more than
that (it did) during 10,000
years, from when agriculture
began to 1950

Although, according to
several studies, the costs of
Although, according to several
treating acute otitis media
studies, the costs of treating acute (AOM) episodes amounted
otitis media (AOM) episodes
to higher than 2 percent of
amounted to greater than 2
the estimated $3 billion the
percent of the estimated $3
nation spent on illness last
billion the nation spent on illness year, doctors say that these
When describing the magnitude of a
last year, doctors say that these
costs can be mitigated if
quantity, use great and greater; one such
costs can be mitigated if parents
parents take preventative
magnitude includes the portion of a whole, a take preventative measures for
measures for their children.
percent.
their children.
the most adjective or the adjective-est. ,
include a definition of the group being
Jane is the most pleasant person
Jane is the most pleasant
compared
in town
person
Jane is not sure if John is
answer choice that uses whether (preferred
Jane is not sure whether John is
making dinner tonight or
to if) without the or not
making dinner tonight.
not.

Redundancy

Though/Although/Even
though/Despite/In spite of...
later followed by
but/yet/however/still/neverthel two opposition conjunctions when referring
ess
to the same relation is redundant

John is tall, nevertheless he is


shorter than jack

Redundancy

Because/Since/Due to/As later


using both a reason conjunction and a
followed by
conclusion conjunction referring to the same
so/therefore/thus/consequently
relation.

Since Jane cannot fly, she takes


the train

using both the reason and "is because" is


redudndant. The correct sentence will use
only one of these two expressions
it is redundant to use both annual and a year
- should always be corrected

The reason Airline X is closing


down after 30 years is that it
cannot afford to upgrade its
planes to meet the new safety
regulations.
John's annual salary is ten
thousand dollars.

Since Jane cannot fly, so she


takes the train
The reason Airline X is
closing down after 30 years
is because it cannot afford
to upgrade its planes to
meet the new safety
regulations.
John annual salary is ten
thousand dollars a year.

John is so scared of spiders that


he freezes when he sees one.

John is scared of spiders to


such a large degree that he
freezes when he sees one

Although John is tall,


nevertheless he is shorter
than jack

Redundancy

The reason .. Is because

Redundancy

annual + year

Redundancy

to such a large degree / to a


large enough degree

should be replaced with so

Redundancy

x or (even) more than x

should be replaced by the expression at least


- should always be corrected

I want to lose at least ten pounds

I want to lose ten or even


more than ten pounds

Redundancy

amount to a sum

should be amount to

the annual fees amount to ten


million dollars

the annual fees amount to a


sum of ten million dollars

John does not know anything

John does not know nothing

John won the running


competition twice.

John won the running


competition two times.

John like collecting stamps and


model trains

John like collecting stamps


as well as model trains

Maybe I will go to the park.

Perhaps I will go to the park

Redundancy

Redundancy

more than one negation word

one/two/three/four times

Redundancy

as well as

Redundancy

Maybe

two or more negation words: no,notneither,never,none-nothing,nobody,no onehardly,seldom,rarely,scarcely,barely


use
once,double,twice,triple,thrice,quadruple
instead

use and instead - should always be corrected


Maybe is a forbidden word, use perhaps,
possibly or probably

Odds & Ends

Many/Much, Few/Less,
Number/Amount, More/Great

Odds & Ends

relating 2 things or more

Odds & Ends

Odds & Ends

Odds & Ends

Odds & Ends

rate / height

Odds & Ends

THE

Odds & Ends

a comma followed by a
FANBOYS - For And Nor But Or
Yet So

is the noun countable or not (Countable/Non There were fewer Numidian kings
Countable)
than roman emperors
I mediated a dispute among
Maya, Logan and Kalen
Earl walked to school; he later ate
his lunch
Post MBA compensation for
1. separate an aooisutuve from items in a
investment bankers tend to surge
list. 2. Restate or explain an earlier part of the far ahead of that for management
sentence. 3. Unlike the colon (:) the dash
consultants - by tens, if not
does not need to be immediately preceded hundereds , of thousnds of dollars
by the part needing explanation
a year
provides further explanation for what comes
before it. The words preceding the colon can I love listening to many kinds of
stand alone as a sentence.
music: classical, rock and pop.
2 things - between, 3 or more - among
connects 2 closely related statements. Each
must be able to stand alone.

There were less Numidian


kings than roman emperors
I mediated a dispute
between Maya, Logan and
Kalen
Earl walked to school, he
later ate his lunch

I love listening to: classical,


rock, rap and pop music.

To meet the rising


marketing demand for fish
To meet the rising marketing
and seafood, suppliers are
demand for fish and seafood,
growing fish twice as fast
suppliers are growing fish twice as as their natural growth
rate can't be fast the rate can be high, the
fast as they grow naturally,
rate, cutting their feed
increase itself can be fast. similarly,a height
cutting their feed allotment by allotment by nearly half
can't be tall (a person can be tall, or a height
nearly half and raising them on and raising them on special
diets.
can be greater than...) .
special diets.

the cannot be followed by a list of items

I never read this book, but I read


the other books on the shelf.

I never read this book, but I


read the other books on the
shelf, such as "Right Hand,
Left Hand" and "The Rise
and Fall of the Third Reich."

the "FANBOYS" can only connect two


indepdent clauses

the shipping company was


understaffed last holiday season,
and it decided to hire more
employees

the shipping company was


understaffed last holiday
season, it decided to hire
more employees