Flow Assurance

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Flow Assurance

© All Rights Reserved

- Flow Assurance Technology Options Pipe Sizing for Deep Water Long Distance Oil Gas Transport (1)
- Flow Assurance in Oil & Gas Pipelines
- Flow Assurance Book
- Flow Assurance by WorleyParsons
- Flow Assurance Guide
- Flow Assurance
- IFP Flow Assurance
- Advanced Flow Assurance
- Chevron OLGA User Meeting
- Flow Assurance and Sour Gas
- flow assurance
- L02 - FLOW ASSURANCE
- Kupe Flow Assurance
- Flow Assurance Studies
- Flow Assurance Presentation - Rune Time 2
- Flow Assurance
- PVT _ Flow Assurance
- Flow Assurance Introduction
- Flow Assurance
- Flow Assurance Ref

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FLOW MEASUREMENT

and/or gas flow.

flow

o The accuracy of flow measurement will vary from instrument

to instrument and the desired accuracy will vary from

application to application.

o Measuring flow is one of the most important aspects of

process control.

o It is one of the most frequently measured process variables.

variables

o Flow tends to be the most difficult variable to measure.

o No single flow meter can cover all flow measurement

applications.

applications

The major factors affecting the flow of fluids through pipes

are:

1)The velocity of the fluid: is defined as the fluid speed in the

direction of flow. Fluid velocity depends on the head pressure

that

h is

i fforcing

i

the

h fluid

fl id through

h

h the

h pipe.

i

G

Greater

the

h h

head

d

pressures, faster the fluid flow rate.

2)Pipe size: The larger the pipe, the greater the potential flow

rate

3)Pipe Friction: reduces the flow rate through the pipe. Flow rate

of the fluid is slower near walls of the pipe than at the centre.

)

viscosity:

y its p

physical

y

resistance to flow. Higher

g

the

4)Fluid

viscosity the fluid, the slower fluid flow.

hi h th

higher

the fluid's

fl id' specific

ifi gravity,

it lower

l

th

the fluid's

fl id' flow

fl

rate.

t

6) Fluid Condition: The condition of the fluid (clean or dirty) also

limitations in flow measurement, some measuring devices become

blocked/plugged

/p gg

or eroded if dirty

y fluids are used.

7) Velocity Profiles: Velocity profiles have major effect on the

accuracy and performance of most flow meters.

The shape of the velocity profile inside a pipe depends on the

momentum or internal forces of the fluid, that moves the fluid

through the pipe, the viscous forces of the fluid that tend to slow

the fluid as passes near the pipe walls.

Laminar or Streamlined: is described as

liquid flowing through a pipeline, divisible

into layers moving parallel to each other.

of flow pattern found in pipes. Turbulent flow

is the flow pattern which has a transverse

velocity (swirls, eddy current).

Transitional

T

iti

l flow:

fl

which

hi h is

i b

between

t

th

the

laminar and turbulent flow profiles. Its

behaviour is difficult to predict and it may

oscillate between the laminar and turbulent

flow profiles.

Flow-straightening devices

These devices are used to improve

p

the flow-pattern

p

from

turbulent to transitional or even to laminar.

There are three common elements; tubular element, radial Vane

element and aerodynamic straightening vanes.

Flow meters operate according to many different

principles

i i l off measurementt although

lth

h thi

this could

ld be

b

classified roughly as follow:

1. Differential pressure flowmeters

2. Variable area flowmeters

3. Mechanical flowmeters

4 Electronic flowmeters

4.

5. Mass flowmeters

Differential pressure type flow meters provide the best results

where the flow conditions are turbulent. Some of the most

common types of differential pressure flow meters are:

ORIFICE METERS.

VENTURI

VENTURI METERS

NOZZLE METERS

PITOT TUBES.

something makes the velocity of the fluid change and

this produces a change in the pressure so that a

difference P is created.

It can be shown for all these meters that the

volumetric flowrate Q is related to p by the following

basic formula.

Q = K (p)0.5

K is the meter constant.

measured,

d and

d the

th velocity

l it (V),

(V) th

the volumetric

l

t i fl

flow (Q) and

d the

th

mass flow (W) can all be calculated using the following generalized

formulas:

k is the discharge

g coefficient of the element ((which also reflects

the units of measurement),

A is

i th

the cross-sectional

ti

l area off th

the pipe's

i ' opening,

i

and

d

D is the density of the flowing fluid.

"beta ratio," the ratio between the bore diameter of the flow restriction and

th iinside

the

id di

diameter

t off th

the pipe.

i

the Reynolds number (Re), which for liquid flows can be calculated using the

relationship:

Q is the volumetric liquid flow in gallons/minute,

gallons/minute

SG is the fluid specific gravity at 60F, and

i th

is

the viscosity

i

it iin centipoises.

ti i

ORIFICE FLOWMETERS

The components of a typical orifice flowmeter

installation are:

Orifice plate and holder

Orifice taps

Differential pressure transmitter

Flow indicator / recorder

ORIFICE PLATES

o Are metal plates have an

equal outer diameter of the

pipeline. These plates have an

opening orifice bore smaller

than the pipe inner diameter.

o The typical orifice plate has a

concentric, sharp edged

opening.

i

B

Because off the

th

smaller area the fluid velocity

increases, causing a

corresponding decrease in

pressure.

The concentric orifice plate has a sharp (squareedged) concentric bore that provides an almost pure

line contact between the plate and the fluid. The beta

(or diameter) ratios of concentric orifice plates range

from 0.25 to 0.75. The maximum velocity and

minimum static pressure occurs at some 0.35 to 0.85

pipe diameters downstream from the orifice plate.

E

Eccentric

i orifice

ifi plates

l

are typically

i ll used

d ffor di

dirty

liquids/ gases. Liquids containing vapour (bore above

pipeline flow axis). Vapours containing liquid (bore

below pipeline flow axis).

Segmental orifice plates are used for heavy fluids, in

preference to eccentric bore p

p

plates,, because it allows

more drainage around the circumference of the pipe.

Orifice Holders

The orifice is inserted into the pipeline between the two flanges of

an orifice union. This method of installation is cost-effective, but it

calls for a process shutdown whenever the plate is removed for

maintenance or inspection.

inspection

In contrast, Senior orifice fitting allows the orifice to be removed

from the process without depressurizing the line and shutting

down flow.

Orifice taps

There are 4 common arrangements of pressure taps:

1.Flange taps are located 1 inch from the orifice plate's surfaces.

They are not recommended for use on pipelines under 2 inches

in diameter.

2. Vena contracta taps are located one pipe diameter upstream

from the plate, and downstream at the point of vena contracta.

This location varies from 0.35D to 0.8D. The vena contracta taps

provide the maximum pressure differential,

differential but also the most

noise. Normally are used only in pipe sizes exceeding 6 inches.

4.

Pipe

p taps

p are located 2.5 p

pipe

p diameters upstream

p

and 8

smallest

ll t pressure diff

difference. With pipe

i ttaps measurementt

errors are the greatest.

DP Flow Measurement

When a DP cell is used to

transmit a flow

measurement the output

of the transmitter is not

linear. To solve this

problem some form of

signal conditioning is

needed to condition the

signal for use with a linear

scaled indicator.

When

Wh

the

th diff

differential

ti l pressure iis obtained

bt i d experimentally

i

t ll and

d

plotted against flow, the resulting graph is a square function.

If the square root of differential pressure is plotted against flow,

a straight line is obtained showing that the rate of flow is in

direct proportion to the square root of differential pressure.

Therefore, in many flow measurement installations a Square

Root Extractor is fitted to the output of a differential pressure

transmitter.

DP Flowmeter Installations

Advantages

They are easy to install.

One differential pressure transmitter applies for any pipe size.

Many DP sensing materials are available to meet process

requirements.

Orifice plates have no moving parts and have been

researched extensively; therefore, application data well

documented (compared to other primary differential pressure

elements).

Disadvantages

The process fluid is in the impulse lines to the differential

transmitter may freeze or block.

Their accuracy is affected by changes in density, viscosity,

and temperature.

They require frequent calibration

VENTURI TUBES

o Venturi tube consists of a section of pipe with a conical entrance,

a short straight throat, and a conical outlet. The velocity

increases and the pressure drops at the throat. The differential

pressure is measured between the inlet (upstream of the conical

entrance) and the throat.

o Venturi tubes are available in sizes up to 72", and can pass 25

to 50% more flow than an orifice with the same pressure drop.

F th

Furthermore,

the

th total

t t l unrecovered

d head

h d loss

l

rarely

l exceeds

d

10% of measured d/p.

Advantage

g

It can handle low-pressure applications

It can measure 25 to 50% more flow than a comparable orifice

plate

It is less susceptible

p

to wear and corrosion compared

p

to orifice

plates

It is suitable for measurement in very large water pipes and

very large

l

air/Gas

i /G d

ducts.

t

Provides better performance than the orifice plate when there

are solids in Suspension.

Suspension

Disadvantage

It is the most expensive among the differential pressure meters

It is big and heavy for large sizes

Its

I has

h considerable

id

bl length

l

h

Variable area flowmeters are simple and versatile

devices that operate at a relatively constant

pressure drop and measure the flow of liquids,

gases, and steam.

There are two main types of this meter

1.Float type (Rotameter)

2.Tapered

p

p

plug

g type.

yp

The float is inside a tapered tube.

tube The fluid

flows through the annular gap around the

edge of the float.

The restriction causes a pressure drop over

the float and the p

pressure forces the float

upwards.

Because the tube is tapered,

p

, the restriction

is decreased as the float moves up.

Eventually a level is reached where the

restriction is just right to produce a pressure

force that counteracts the weight of the

float.

float

The level of the float indicates the flow rate.

If the flow changes the float moves up or

down to find a new balance position.

In this meter,

meter a tapered plug is aligned inside a hole or

orifice. A spring holds it in place. The flow is restricted as it

passes through the gap and a force is produced which

moves the plug. Because it is tapered the restriction

changes and the plug takes up a position where the

pressure force just balances the spring force. The movement

of the plug is transmitted with a magnet to an indicator on

the outside.

3)

) MECHANICAL FLOWMETERS

Mechanical flow meters that measure flow

using an arrangement of moving parts,

either by passing isolated known volumes of

a fl

fluid

id through

th

h a series

i off gears or

chambers

c

a be s (positive

(pos t e d

displacement

sp ace e t meters)

ete s)

OR by means of a spinning turbine or rotor

(Turbine Flowmeters)

Th turbine

The

bi

flowmeter

fl

is

i an

accurate and reliable

flowmeter for both liquids

and gases. It consists of a

multi-bladed

multi

bladed rotor mounted

at right angles to the flow

p

in the fluid

and suspended

stream on a free-running

bearing. The rotor speed of

rotation is proportional to

the volumetric flow rate.

Turbine rotation can be

detected by solid state

d

devices

((inductance

d

pickk

ups).

o The outputs of reluctance and inductive pick

pick-up

up coils are continuous

sine waves with the pulse train's frequency proportional to the flow rate.

o At low flow, the output (the height of the voltage pulse) may be on the

order

d off 20 mV

V peak-to-peak.

k t

k It is

i nott advisable

d i bl to

t transport

t

t such

ha

weak signal over long distances. Therefore, the distance between the

pickup and associated display electronics or preamplifier must be short.

o In an electronic turbine flowmeter, volumetric flow is directly

proportional to pickup coil output frequency. We may express this

relationship

p in the form of an equation:

q

f = kQ

Q

Where,

f = Frequency of output signal (Hz, equivalent to pulses per second)

Q = Volumetric flow rate (e.g. gallons per second)

k = Turbine meter factor (e.g. pulses per gallon)

k Factor

A turbine flowmeters K factor is determined by the manufacturer by

di l i

displacing

ak

known volume

l

off fluid

fl id through

th

h the

th meter

t and

d summing

i

the

th

number of pulses generated by the meter.

Advantages

g

The turbine meter is easy to install and maintain. They:

Are bi-directional

bi directional

Have fast response

Are compact and light weights

Disadvantages

They generally are not available for steam measurement (since

condensate does not lubricate well.

They are sensitive to dirt and cannot be used for highly viscous fluids.

Flashing or slugs of vapour or gas in the liquid produce blade wear and

excessive bearing friction that can result in poor performance and

possible turbine damage.

Th

They are sensitive

ii

to the

h velocity

l i profile

fil to the

h presence off swirls

i l at the

h

inlet; they require a uniform velocity profile (i.e. pipe straightness may

have to be used).

o Strainers

S i

may be

b required

i d upstream to minimise

i i i particle

i l

contamination of the bearings.

o Turbine meters have moving parts that are sensitive to wear and

can be damaged

g

by

y over speeding.

p

g To prevent

p

sudden hydraulic

y

impact, the flow should increase gradually into the line.

o When installed, bypass piping may be required for maintenance.

o The transmission cable must be well p

protected to avoid the

effect of electrical noise.

4) ELECTRONIC FLOWMETERS

of flow measurement technologies. All have no

moving parts, are relatively non-intrusive, and are

possible by

y today's

y sophisticated

p

electronics

made p

technology. 3 types of flowmeters:

1. Magnetic flowmeters,

2 Vortex

2.

V t

flowmeters,

fl

t

3. Ultrasonic flowmeters

MAGNETIC FLOWMETERS

Base principle of magnetic flowmeter

The magnetic flow meter design is based on Faradays law of magnetic

induction which states that: "The

induction,

The voltage induced across a

conductor as it moves at right angles through a magnetic field

proportional to the velocity of that conductor.

That is, if a conductor is moving perpendicular to its length through a

magnetic field, it will generate an electrical potential between its two ends

(E)

E=BxLxv

Where:

B = the strength of the magnetic field (induction)

L = the length of the conductor (distance of electrodes)

y of the conductor (average

(

g flow velocity)

y)

v = velocity

o If a conductive fluid flows through a pipe of diameter (D) through a

magnetic field density (B) generated by the coils, the amount of

voltage (E) developed across the electrodes will be proportional to the

velocity (V) of the liquid. Because the magnetic field density and the

pipe diameter are fixed values, they can be combined into a calibration

factor (K) and the equation reduces to:

off each

h flowtube.

fl t b

Th K value

The

l

th

thus

obtained

bt i d is

i valid

lid for

f

any other

th

conductive liquid and is linear over the entire flowmeter range.

Advantages

Are bi-directional

Have no flow obstruction

Are easy to re-span

Are available with DC or AC power

It can measure pulsating and corrosive flow.

It can measure multiphase; however, all components should be moving at

the same speed; the meter can measure the speed of the most conductive

component.

It can install vertically or horizontally (the line must be full, however) and

can be used with fluids with conductivity greater than 200 umhos/cm.

Changes

Ch

i conductivity

in

d

i i value

l

d not, affect

do

ff

the

h instrument

i

performance.

f

Disadvantages

It's above average cost

It's

It' large

l

size

i

Its need for a minimum electrical conductivity of 5 to 20 mhos / cm

Its accuracy is affected by slurries containing magnetic solids.

Electrical

El t i l coating

ti

may cause calibration

lib ti

shifts

hift

The line must be full and have no air bubbles (air and gas bubbles

entrained in the liquid will be metered as liquid, causing a measurement

error).

In some applications, appropriate mechanical protection for the electrodes

must be provided.

Base Principle:

The speed at which sound propagates in a fluid is

dependent on the fluid's density. If the density is

constant, however, one can use the time of ultrasonic

passage (or reflection) to determine the velocity of a

flowing fluid.

There are 2 types of ultrasonic flowmeters:

1. Doppler shift, and

2 Transit time

2.

o Doppler-effect

D

l

ff t flow

fl

meters

t

use a transmitter

t

itt that

th t projects

j t a

continuous ultrasonic beam at about 0.640 MHz through the

pipe wall into the flowing stream. Particles in the stream reflect

the ultrasonic radiation, which is detected by the receiver.

o The frequency reaching the receiver is shifted in proportion to

the stream velocity.

o The frequency difference is a measure of the flow rate.

o When the measured fluid contains a large concentration of

particles or air bubbles,, it is said to be sonically

p

y opaque.

p q

More

opaque the liquid, greater the number of reflections that

originate near the pipe wall,

wall a situation exemplified by heavy

slurries.

applications and is generally used when other metering methods

are not practical or applicable. It should not be treated as a

universal portable meter.

to the change

g in frequency.

q

y The flow (Q in gp

gpm)) in a

pipe having a certain inside diameter (ID in inches)

can be

b obtained

bt i d by:

b

for the proper operation of the Doppler flowmeter.

Advantage

sh tdo n

shutdown.

process.

Di d

Disadvantage

t

The sensor may detect some sound energy travelling in the causing

interference reading errors.

Its accuracy depends on the difference in velocity between the particles, the

fluid, the particle size, concentration, and distribution.

re-calibration.

calibration

o In this design,

g , the time of flight

g

of the ultrasonic signal

g

is measured

between two transducers; one upstream and one downstream. The

difference in elapsed time going with or against the flow determines the

fluid velocity.

o When the flow is zero, the time for the signal T1 to get to T2 is the

same as that required to get from T2 to T1. When there is flow, the

effect is to boost the speed of the signal in the downstream direction,

while decreasing it in the upstream direction. The flowing velocity (Vf)

can be determined by

y the following

g equation:

q

o where K is a calibration factor for the volume and time units used, dt is

the time differential between upstream and downstream transit times,

and TL is the zero-flow transit time

o The speed of sound in the fluid is a function of both density and

temperature. Therefore, both have to be compensated for. In addition,

g in sonic velocity

y can change

g the refraction angle

g "a", which

the change

in turn will affect the distance the signal has to travel. In extreme cases,

the signal might completely miss the downstream receiver.

Advantages

It can be installed bi

bi-directional

directional

measurements in very large water pipes.

Disadvantages

This type of meters are highly dependent on the Reynolds number (the

velocity profile)

It requires nonporous pipe material (cast iron, cement and fibreglass should

be avoided)

re calibration

applicable.

5) MASS FLOWMETERS

Traditionally fluid flow measurement has been made in

terms of the volume of the moving fluid even though the

meter user may be more interested in the weight (mass) of

the fluid. Volumetric flow meters also are subject to ambient

and process changes, such as density, which changes with

temperature and pressure.

There are three ways to determine mass flow:

1. The application of microprocessor technology to

conventional volumetric meters.

2. Use of Coriolis flow meters, which measure mass flow

directly.

3. The use of thermal mass flow meters that infer mass flow

by way of measuring heat dissipation between two points

in the pipeline.

pipeline

compensate a volumetric flow meter for temperature

and pressure.

o With reliable composition (density) information,

information this

factor also can be entered into a microprocessor to

obtain mass flow readout. However, when density

changes may occur with some frequency,

frequency and

particularly where the flowing fluid is of high

monetary value (for example, in custody transfer),

precise density compensation (to achieve mass) can

be expensive.

pressures and temperatures, it is necessary to determine the

density, which is pressure and temperature dependent, and

from this value to calculate the actual flow. The use of a

computer is essential to measure flow with changing pressure

or temperature.

o This unit will automatically correct for variations in pressure,

temperature, specific gravity, and super-compressibility. The

pressure differential

diff

ti l (h) developed

d

l

db

by th

the flow

fl

element

l

t is

i

measured, and the mass flow (W) can all be calculated using

the following generalized formulas:

Where:

k is the discharge coefficient of the element (which also reflects

the units of measurement),

A is the cross

cross-sectional

sectional area of the pipe's

pipe s opening, and

D is the density of the flowing fluid.

o The

Th power supply

l directs

di

t h

heatt tto th

the midpoint

id i t off a sensor tube

t b

that carries a constant percentage of the flow. On the same tube

at equidistant two temperature elements (RTD) are installed

upstream and downstream of the heat input.

o With no flow, the heat reaching each temperature element (RTD)

is equal.

o With increasing flow the flow stream carries heat away from the

upstream element T1 and an increasing amount toward the

downstream element T2. An increasing temperature difference

develops between the two elements.

o This temperature difference detected by the temperature

elements is proportional to the amount of gas flowing, or the

mass flow rate.

as Tw),

), while,

e, so

some

e d

distance

sta ce a

away,

ay, tthere

e e is

s no

o d

difference

e e ce

between wall and fluid temperature.

o Therefore,

Therefore the temperature of the unheated fluid (Tf) can be

detected by measuring the wall temperature at this location

further away from the heater. This heat transfer process is non

nonlinear, and the corresponding equation differs from the one

above as follows:

b an electric

by

l t i heater.

h t

A the

As

th process fluid

fl id flows

fl

th

through

h the

th

pipe, resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) measure the

temperature rise,

rise while the amount of electric heat introduced is

held constant.

o The mass flow (m) is calculated on the basis of the measured

temperature difference (T2 - T1), the meter coefficient (K), the

electric heat rate (q), and the specific heat of the fluid (Cp), as

follows:

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