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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Literature is essentially a creation, a creation not merely - an imitation eye


(in Luxemburg, 1989: 5). Literature as the shape and outcome of a creative work,
is essentially a medium which utilizes language to reveal about human life.
Therefore, a literary work, in general, contains about issues surrounding human
life. Emerging literature is born against the background of the encouragement of
basic human existence to reveal himself. (In Sarjidu, 2004: 2).
Literature usually divided according to geographical region or language.
So, which is included in the category Literature: Novels stories / short stories
(written / verbal), poetry, rhymes, skits / drama, painting / calligraphy.
Drama / theater is one of the most popular literature until now. Even in
this day and age there has been a rapid growth in the field of theater. For example,
soap operas, movies, and performances - performances that depict the life of
another living creature.
In addition, drama / theater also has been a tremendous business area. In
this case, the organizer or the cast will get financial benefits as well as being
famous, but before getting to that an organizer or should be a human actor are
professionalism in order to continue growing.
Based on the above review, the authors make this paper in order to help
the reader who wants to pursue the world of drama. In addition to the definition
and elements - elements of drama, this paper also includes a note about the
benefits of play and also comes with a guide how good acting.
Similarly description of the contents of this paper from the author. Finally,
we thank you.

CHAPTER II
DISCUSSION

A. Definition of Drama
The word drama comes from the Greek meaning Draomai do, in effect,
act. So the drama could mean deeds or actions.
The first meaning of the drama is the quality of communication, situation,
action (all seen on stage) that give rise to concern, greatness (acting), and the
strain on the listener.
The second meaning, according to Moulton Drama is life with the motion
described (life presented in action).
According to Ferdinand Brunetierre: Drama will be giving birth to the
action.
According to Balthazar Vallhagen: Drama is the art depicting human
nature and the nature of the motion.
The third meaning of the drama is the story of human conflict in the form
of dialogue projected on stage by using conversation and action in front of the
audience (the audience)
The other drama terms derived from the word Drame, a French word taken
by Diderot and Beaumarchaid to explain their play-play about middle-class life. In
more rigorous terms, a serious drama is a play that worked on the problems that
have important meaning - although it may end up with a happy or unhappy - but
not aimed at exalting the tragedy. However, in the modern universe, the term
drama is often expanded to include all serious drama, including tragedy and drama
of the absurd.
Drama is an art form of play that tells the story through conversation and
action characters. However, a conversation or dialogue itself can also be viewed
as a definition of the action. Although it is a form of literature, a different way of

presenting the drama of other literature form. Novel, short stories and ballads each
tell a story involving the characters through a combination of dialogue and
narration, and a printed literary work. A play consists of dialogue only, maybe
there is some sort of explanation, but only contains instructions to be used as
guidelines for staging by the director. By experts, the dialogue and characters are
called hauptext or main text; instructions or the play called nebentext tek side.
Co n anyway;
Chaterina (rushes in, bringing good news); Raina! (He pronounced Raina, with
emphasis on i) Raina! (He pointed to bed, expecting to find Raina there) Why,
where ....! (Raina turned l am coming of the room).
Phases in parentheses above are the instructions for the game director and
performer. It guides the actors and directors as well as neighbor structuring stage
props. George Bernard Shaw (1856 - 1950), a pioneer of realism in the history of
English drama, hinted at length on his nebentext found in most of the script
because he did not want the interpretation of the play-lakonnya deviate from what
he actually wants.
The absence of narrative in the play can be replaced by the acting of the
players, by connecting themselves with the equipment, the lighting and musical
accompaniment, creates atmosphere in the stage and turn it into a very real world.
In addition, an explanation of the figures delivered through dialogue between
characters who talk about another character. In poetry, the power of expression
and rhythm places dominant position. Therefore, the poem does not tell. If a
ballad based on a narrative, because the real ballad is a story, or stories that are
sung. For example, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana in the form of song.
Poetry that reads well be dramatic, as did Renda, good actor. Then "No drama no
doubt sometimes considered to be taken from dramen word that means something
to be played." Maybe plays obtain almost all of its effectiveness from its ability to
organize and explain human experience. Therefore, the drama, as well as literary
works in general, can be considered as a scriptwriter interpretation of life. Main

Elements-feeling of drama, passion, conflict and reconciliation is a key element of


human experience.
In real life, all the emotional experience is a collection of various
impression nothing to do with each other. However, in the drama, scriptwriter able
to organize all of this experience into a pattern that can be understood. Spectators
look at a real-life material presented in the form of t meaning to remove things
that are not important and applying pressure to the things that are important.
Scriptwriter writing plays to be staged, he wrote the play to imagine the
action and words of the actors on the stage. So speech and action are manifested
in the dialogue is the most important part, without which the drama is not really a
play. Therefore, an action drama embodies, emotions, thoughts, characterization,
which needs to be extracted from the dialogues. Is a must for a film director to
analyze or show the drama before the play.
B. History of Drama
Most of us think that drama taste l of Ancient Greece. Nevertheless, a
book entitled A History of the theater show us that worship of Dionysus, which
was later converted into a drama festival in Greece, comes from Ancient Egypt.
Tech Pyramid is dated 4000SM. Abydos is the manuscript of the famous Passion
Play. Of course the experts still doubt whether or not the text was drama before
Gaston Maspero shows that there are clues in the text of action and indications of
various characters.
There are three kinds of theory to question the origin of the drama.
According to Brockett, the drama may have developed from primitive religious
ceremony performed to ask for aid from the gods. This ceremony contains many
seeds of drama. Pastors often portray super nature creatures or animals, and
sometimes - sometimes mimic the action of hunting, for example. The stories
evolve around some rites and stay alive even after the ceremony itself was not
held again. Later myths that are the basis of much drama.

The second theory suggests that the hymns of praise sung together in front
of the tomb of a hero. Speaker broke away from the chorus and demonstrate
actions in the life of the deceased hero. Part exhibited increasingly complex and
choir are not used anymore. A critics have suggested that while the choir getting
increasingly less important, other speakers appear. Dialog started to happen when
there are two speakers on the stage.
A third theory suggests that grew from a love of the human drama to tell
the story. The story - a story told around the camp fire re-create the story - the
story of the hunt or war, or an act of dashing heroes. Third theory was a
forerunner of the drama. Although no one was sure which one is best, it must be
remembered that the three talked about action. That said, the action is the essence
of performing arts.
C. Element - the element of drama
The elements in play include:
1)

Theme

: Idea / ideas / basic story.

2)

Groove

: Phases of a continuous story. Exposure includes, disputes,


serious, climax, denouement. Judging from how to prepare:
forward flow / straight, flow backward, flashback groove, groove
joint.

3)

Figure

: Players / people who play a role in the story.


Figures seen from the character: protagonist, antagonist, and
tritagonis
Figures seen from the development of character: character round
and flat characters.
Figures seen from the position in the story: the main character
(the central) and subordinate figures (sideline).

4)

Background : For an story that explains the time and the scene of an incident
of characters
Scenery is divided into:
-

social background

: background in the form, time, atmosphere,

time, language.

physical background

: Background in the form of object-thing

take around the figures eg, home, living room, kitchen,


fields, woods, clothing / armor.
5)

Mandate

: message or insertions counsel conveyed through the characters


and the author of the conflict in a story.

The basic thing that distinguishes between literary works of poetry,


prose, and drama is in the dialogue. Dialogue is communication between
characters that can be seen (if in a play) and be heard directly by the audience,
when in the form of drama performances.
D. Dramatic Structure
An Aristotle, the Greek philosopher who lived around 300 BC wrote
Poetics. To recognize the plot, character, thought, diction, music and spectacle of
tragedy. Later identification was regarded as a basic philosophy of structuralism
by TS Eliot called the Formalistick Approach.
Structure of Drama:
Exposition: The content exposure main problem or conflict-related major
diametric positions between the protagonist and antagonist. The end result:
Antagonists managed to collect more dominant force.
Raising Action: The contents describe the conflict of interests between characters.
The end result: The protagonist does not succeed in weakening the antagonist.
Protagonist antagonist threatening position. The crisis began.
Complication: The complicated contents disagreement with the presence of a
secondary conflict. Conflicts tapered and widespread, involving two forces
warring allies. The end result: antagonists and allies win the conflict. protagonists
side cornered.
Climax: The contents of casualties camp Protagonist, Antagonist is also a victim
of the camp. The end result: The tragic events and have a big impact the balance
of power between the camps.
Resolution: It's presence savior figure, could emerge from the camp protagonist or
a new character that serves as a unifying force strength of the conflict, so that the

situation can be created osmotic back. At this stage, delivered a moral message,
which is usually a moral solution related to the theme or the conflict that has been
carried.
Here's an example of using the structure of the drama in the drama Romeo Juliet.
At the beginning of our existing plot exposition. It gives the audience the
necessary information about previous events, the present situation or the
characters. In most of the play, the author has been since the beginning of
applying pressure to a question or important conflict. At the beginning of the story
of Romeo's d Juliet, Shakespeare has presented a quarrel between Sampson,
Gregory opponent Baltazar and Abraham, an explanation which gives 'Leitmotive'
to the theme, conflict and reconciliation.
Gregory: You fight, huh?
Abraham: Fighting? Ah, nope!
Sampson: But if yes, I side with you, my best to serve you
Abraham: ah, there would be better.
Sampson: Well
Gregory: (aside to Sampson, see Tybalt out stage)
Say better. It was one of those master comes.
Sampson: Yes, it's better.
Abraham: Liar!
Sampson: Unplug your sword, if you are male. Gregory, remember your hitting.
(They fight).
Dialogue on creating an atmosphere round it and a brief but complete
depiction about conflict between Montague versus Capulet families that will lead
to disaster.

Sometimes there is also an exposition about the characters. A movie called


Jango versus Santana can serve as an example. The movie begins with a scene. A
plot of barren land with cactus trees growing here and there. While camera
focused moves towards the right, a man with a dirty and soaking wet clothes
seemed kneeling in front of a tomb. He was standing and the camera takes a
picture in the medium technique. Enface position gives a clear picture of
character. He did not experience adversity, but he was tough to deal with. Brief
but nearly complete depiction of the figures give a clear starting point to start the
movie.
In the exposition, the conflict is static elements. Through an incident
which stimulates the action starts moving. Here conflict is great start obviously
brings together dramatic events - events in the play. The incident, which
stimulates the Romeo and Juliet appear when Tybalt recognizes Romeo and want
to challenge a fight. President of stimulation that occurs when the host tells Juliet
that Romeo is a Montague family members. Static element in the exposition starts
moving and daily conflict between Sampson versus Abraham increasingly
becoming more and more serious. (Act I) presents a series of conflicts when
Romeo divulge his secret to his friends, climb the garden wall of the Capulet
family, Juliet appears and wait on the windows time the girl appeared, expressing
both love each other and decide to elope (Act II). The longer the play was
increasingly tense until the pastor to pastor Laurence hoped, after conducting
wedding ceremony, the dispute between the families will end and Romeo believes
so. Simple love story between a boy and girl that is now evolving into idealism
involving a big problem facing the parents. There is no doubt that the conflict
toward a crisis, a turning point when the information previously undisclosed least
partially unfold and dramatic problems that can be answered.
Although she was already married to Romeo, he does not come clean on
his father. Therefore, the Capulet continue with his plan to marry Juliet to Paris.
Since the wedding will take place on Thursday, pastor Laurence on Wednesday
suggested that she should swallow the potion that will make a dead faint; while
Laurence will send a message to Romeo to rescue Juliet from the Capulet family

tomb, because he felt sure she would be buried there. Capulet, as opposed by his
daughter, decided to apply for the wedding day. The plan must be made Juliet
drank the poison was. In order for the plan is not blocked, he told host blurted out
and immediately drank the poison was. The next host discovered lifeless Juliet.
Laurence and Paris arrive; wedding ceremony but must be converted into a
funeral (Act IV).
The last part of the play, often called the resolution, evolved from the
crisis until the curtain closed for the last time. It sometimes collect multiple paths
of action and bring the situation to a new equilibrium, thus the results can be
satisfying, but it may also disappoint expectations of the audience.
Not knowing that Jliet just seems dead, Balthazar arrived in Mantua before
the pastor arrived and told us about you about Juliet's death. Hearing that Romeo
buy poison to kill himself buried Juliet. After killing Paris, Romeo drank the
poison. When awake, she'd find Romeo dead and committed suicide. The dispute
ended in the two families of two dead lover (Act V)
E. Completeness Drama

Playwright: scripts that serve players before the gig guide.

Author manuscript: the person who wrote the screenplay and dialogue in
the form of a play so

Director: people who lead or organize a drama group.

Players: people who act out the story plays

Lighting: light regulator in staging

Fashion / make-up: part drama completeness duty makeup and wearing


clothing properties

Sound: voice control to bring up a specific effect in staging

The stage: the completeness of the drama that set the background of each
scene

Stage: a place for players to act out the story

F.

Type - the type of drama


Drama according to its time can be divided into two types: new drama and

long drama.
1. New Drama / Drama Modern
The new drama is a drama that has the purpose to provide education to the
public people with theme everyday of human life.
2. Old Drama / Drama Classic
Long drama is a fantasy drama that generally tells about magic, palace or
royal life, the life of the gods, extraordinary events, and so forth.
Various Kinds of Content Based Drama Story:
1. Comedy Drama
Drama skit was funny and full of joy tickling.
2. Drama Tragedy
Tragedy is a sad story full of drama misfortune.
3. Comedy Tragedy Drama
Tragedy-comedy drama is drama that is sad and there is funny.
4. Opera
Opera is a drama that contains music and singing.
5. Joke / farce
The joke is always acting his role in drama playful patterns stimulate the
audience's laughter.
6. Operetta / Operette
Operetta opera whose story is shorter.
7. Pantomime
Pantomime is a drama that is displayed in the form of gestures or sign
language without discussion.
8. Tableau
Tableau is similar pantomime drama accompanied by movements of limbs
and facial expressions culprit.
9. Passie
Passie is a drama that contains elements of religion / religious.

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10. Puppet
Puppet is that a player plays his plays are puppets. And so forth.
G. Good acting
Acting not only in the form of dialogue, but also in the form of motion.
Dialogue is good dialogue:
1. sound (both volumes)
2. clear (good articulation)
3. understood (correct pronunciation)
4. live (in accordance with the demands / soul role specified in the text)
5. Balk motion is the motion that:
6. looks (good blocking)
7. clear (no doubt - doubt, convincing)
8. understood (in accordance with the laws of motion in life)
9. live (in accordance with the demands / soul role specified in the text)
Explanation:
1.

The volume of the sound is good sound that can be heard from far away.

2.

Good articulation is clear pronunciation. Each syllable spoken with a clear


and bright although spoken quickly. Do not occur word - spoken words into
overlapping.

3.

The correct pronunciation of the word pronunciation corresponding legal


language spoken pronunciation. For example, bold which means "not afraid"
to be pronounced dare or clearly pronounced.

4.

Live or animating means pressure or greeting song should be able to create


the impression that in accordance with the demands of the role in the script.

5.

Blocking is the placement of players on stage, arranged between players with


each other does not cover each other so that the audience can not see a player
who is covered.

6.

Players better seen most of the front part of the body than most rear body
looks. It can be set with the following benchmark

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a. If you stand facing to the right, the right foot should be in front.
b. If you stand facing to the left, the left foot should be in front.
c. Must also set the balance of the players on the stage. Do not let all the
players clumped in one place. In terms of regulating balance, composition:
The right side is heavier than the left
The front part is heavier than the rear
High heavier than low
Which is heavier than the width of the narrow
The brighter heavier than the dark
Facing heavier than the backs
The composition is set not only aims to unsightly but also for scenes that
take place in accordance coloring; Clearly, no doubt - doubt, assured, has the
sense that the motion is carried out not half - half even not be excessive. If in
doubt - doubt seem stiff while over acting impressed if excessive. Understandably,
mean what we realized in the form of motion does not deviate from the laws of
motion in life. For example, when the heavy lifting with the right hand, then your
body will be tilted to the left, and so on. Living the mean motion - motion of
limbs and facial motion should fit the demands of the role in the script, including
the shape and age.
H. DEVELOPMENT OF DRAMA IN INDONESIA
The development of drama in Indonesian is not as old as the development of
poetry and prose. If you know the poetry and prose poetry and prose long time,
not so with the drama. Literary genre of drama in Indonesian completely new,
along with the development of education in Indonesia, appeared in the 1900s.
Drama in Indonesian Literature written in the early 19th century, precisely in
1901, by a Dutch descent named F. Wiggers, in the form of a one-act drama
entitled Lelakon Raden Beij Soerio Retno. For further rise of manuscripts in
Malay Low drama written by the author or Chinese and Dutch descent.
Furthermore, Indonesia's own children who began writing plays. Here you
will be treated to some of Indonesian playwright began Rustam Effendi (born
1903) up to Hamdy Salad (born 1961).

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Year of Birth

Author

Title

Author
1903

Rustam Effendi

Bebasari

1905

Sanusi Pane

Kertajaya

1906

Abu Hanifah

Taufan di Atas Asia

1916

Trisno Sumarjo

Tumbang

1918

D. Jayakusuma

Rama Bargawa

1920

Utuy Tatang Sontani

Bunga Rumah Makan

1921

Usmar Ismail

Leburan Seniman

1926

Asrul Sani

Mahkamah

1928

Mohammad

Iblis

Diponegoro
1933

Bung Besar
Misbach Yusa Biran

1934

Domba-domba Revolusi
D. Sularto

1935

Pembenci Matahari
Rahman Age

1937

Malam Jahanam
Motinggo Busye

1938

Masyitoh
Ajip Rosidi

1938

Egon
Saini KM

1941

Dalam Bayangan Tuhan atawa


Arifin C. Noer

Interogasi

Vredi Kasram Marta

Syeh Siti Jenar

1942

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1943

Aspar Paturusi

Perahu Nuh II

1944

Putu Wijaya

Dam

1945

Wisran Hadi

Cindua Mato

1946

Akhudiat

Jaka Tarub

1949

N. Riantiarno

Sampek Engtay

1955

Yono Daryono

Ronggeng-ronggeng

1959

Arthur S. Nalan

Syair Ikan Tongkol

1961

Hamdy Salad

Perempuan dalam Kereta

I.

BENEFITS OF DRAMA / THEATRE


Many things that we can achieve the dramatic play, both physically and

psychologically. This talk will not be separating in detail between drama and
theater, as both are a unified whole. Described below will play a benefit man
drama or theater.
a.

Improve understanding
Improving our understanding of the phenomenon and the events that

we see and we often face in everyday life. We realize that understanding


others is the most difficult work and takes time. For that drama / theater is one
way to solve it. By playing the drama or the theater we always get together
with people totally different from us. In terms of individual differences, that
we are required to understand others. Our understanding to others not only by
the person, but the whole person. Include the nature, character, manner of
speaking, a way to act (behavior), how to respond to a problem, is that we
must understand the circumstances of the person.

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b.

Sharpen the emotional sensitivity


Dramatic train us to resist the taste, sensitivity training sense, fosters

sensitivity, and sharpens our emotions. Flavor sometimes does not need to be
felt, because it is in us. Keep in mind that the taste, as typically, need to be
nurtured to increasingly sharp. What is before us need a sense. If not, then
there will be everything that we think is natural. In fact they are not. We
become more sensitive to things course through exercise more. Wonderful
flavor, balanced, does not fit, no fun, no intimate a part of the emotion.
Therefore, it needs to be improved to achieve a sense of inner satisfaction.
Presents all the drama. Sensitive stage, error sensitive, delicate beauty,
sensitive voice or music, insensitive Will do the unpleasant and bad, all the
flavor comes from. The more we taste the more subtle pitch also our response
toward something that we face.
c.

Development said
The play as a literary genre, is almost entirely composed of

conversation. Conversation appropriately, intonation, then said we are getting


a clear and easily understood by the other person. Clarity can help listeners to
digest the meaning of existing. There should be a word that is emphasized in
order to facilitate interpretation. Where we provide a comma (,) and dot (.).
almost all conjunctions should be noted subs we practiced reading in dramatic
play. The sound does not clearly affect the listener and the more meaning the
listener or viewer. Here the need for

vocal strength and vocal colors are

different in every situation. Not all situations require the same vowel. Not all
sentences should be suppressed, but there are definitely overlooked. Drama
gives all these possibilities. As one literary work to be performed and
containing imposition and greeting.

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d.

Appreciation dramatic.
Dramatic appreciation of the drama is said to be understanding. The

realization of this is the statement of understanding of good and bad. We can


give the statement if we never know drama. The more we watch the more
knowledgeable theater in our understanding of drama or theater. Therefore, we
are required to further enhance our love of the drama. This is done with the
goal of obtaining a better dramatic knowledge.
e.

Formation of Body Posture


Posture is closely related to the drama playing exercises, this exercise

is divided into two major categories, namely basic and advanced. Which
includes basic exercises are vocal exercises and fitness exercises. Posture is
associated with body work. Body flexibility required in playing the drama,
because drama requires playing gestures. Gestures is what will be make up the
tour heading our bodies in such a way.
f.

Group (Socialize)
Playing the drama may not be implemented alone, except mono play.

Dramatic play, in general, be done in groups or group. How difficult set group
we already understand, how we can live in a group is dependent on ourselves.
Each person in the drama group has duties and responsibilities are the same.
Nothing more and nothing less, all the same at low and high, are equally
important. To that end, the drama always emphasize on understanding
attitudes to others and the environment.
Drama group must constitute a unity intact. All elements in the drama
there is nothing important, but all are important. Sense of togetherness, have,
and maintain group harmony is the responsibility and duty of all members of
the group. Not only the duties and responsibilities of the group leader. Both
the poor staging drama will not be judged from one member of the group but
everyone involved in staging. Therefore, the need for togetherness, unity, and
the unity and integrity of late.

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g.

Hobby
Playing the drama can also be regarded as a hobby dealer. Hobbies

related to literature in general and drama in particular. In the play there are
elements of literature. Drama as a mixture of art (literature, dance,
architecture).

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CHAPTER III
CLOSING

A. Conclusion
-

Drama is an art form of play that tells the story through conversation and
action characters. However, a conversation or dialogue itself can also be
viewed as a definition of the action.

A book entitled A History of the theater show us that worship of Dionysus,


which was later converted into a drama festival in Greece, comes from
Ancient Egypt. Tech Pyramid is dated 4000BC. Abydos is the manuscript of
the famous Passion Play.

Element - the element of drama


-

Theme

Groove

Figure

Background

Mandate

Benefits drama / theater:

Hobby

Group (Socialize)

Formation of Body Posture

Appreciation dramatic.

Development said

Sharpen the emotional sensitivity

Improve understanding

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B. Suggestion
-

School should add extracurricular activities in the arts of drama, so that


students get guidance and more able to express his talent.

School should hold a show / theater piece, in order to more mature students
in developing the artistic talents of his plays.

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REFERENCES

http://sendratasik.wordpress.com/2008/12/05/pengertian-drama-dan-teknikpenulisan-naskah-drama/
http://www.slideshare.net/hanifphone/drama-429983
http://aamovi.wordpress.com/2009/03/26/pengertian-drama-dan-teater-2/
http://my-name-is-sedre.jimdo.com/2009/05/09/pengetahuan-dasar-teater-dandrama
http://awan965.wordpress.com/2008/02/27/perkembangan-sastra-di-indonesia/

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