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380 Final Blueprint Review 50 questions

Slide 1
Approaches to knowledge development and their respective research methods;
i.e., deductive inductive process
o Inductive knowledge: is developed by pulling observations and facts
generated through research together to generate theory
That theory is then used to suggest further observations that might
be expected, which are then used to refine the theory
o Deductive knowledge: is developed by proposing a theory regarding a
phenomenon of interest
It starts with the whole and breaks down the parts of the theory,
seeking observations and facts to support the abstract relationship
proposed in that theory
Observations that support or refute a theorys predictions of
relationships are used to revise or refine the theory, which then
undergoes further testing
o Quantitative Research uses DEDUCTIVE REASONING
o Qualitative Research uses INDUCTIVE REASONING
Nursing theorists and their construct: Orem, Roy, Watson
o Orem: proposed the concept of self-deficit
o Roy: adaptation model
Defined nursing as the science and practices that expands adaptive
abilities and enhances person and environment transformation
o Watson: introduced carative factors or Caring
Nursing theory their relevance to nursing practice: Guides
o Four Main Domains:
Person
Environment
Health
Nursing
Principles of Ethics: Declaration of Helsinki, Nuremburg Code; and the Belmont
Commission Report of 1979 IRB
Different qualitative methods: phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography
o Designs that function to facilitate understanding answer descriptive
design questions
Designs that seek to link ideas and concepts answer questions of
connection or relationship
o Phenomenology: used to discover and develop understanding of
experiences as perceived by those living the experience
The method seeks to avoid external control by going as directly as
possible to those who have lived or are living the experience being
studied
Grounded theory: is to study interactions to understand and
recognize links between ideas and concepts, or, in other words, to
develop theory

The term grounded refers to the idea that the theory


developed is based on or grounded in participants reality
rather than on theoretical speculation
Ethnography: this method originated in the discipline of
anthropology, and its purpose is for the researcher to participate or
to immerse himself or herself in a culture to describe a
phenomenon or phenomena within the context of that culture
Ethnography and ethnonursing assume that culture exists,
even though it is not visible, and that the only way to know
a culture is to get both an insiders view and an outsiders
perspective
Rigor in qualitative research: trustworthiness, credibility, transferability
o Trustworthiness: refers to the honesty of the data collected from or about
the participants
To collect trustworthy data, the researcher must have a meaningful
relationship with the participants, which may require time to
develop
Trust and a respectful relationship must be established early in the
study process
o Confirmability: the ability to consistently repeat decision making about
the data collection and analysis in qualitative research
One approach taken to ensure confirmability of data in qualitative
research is developing and maintaining an audit trail
An audit trail is an ongoing documentation regarding the
researchers decisions about the data analysis and
collection processes
Documentation from the audit trail may include field notes
about the process of data collection, theoretical notes about
the working hypotheses or developing ideas during the
analysis, or methods notes regarding approaches to
categorizing or organizing the data
The audit trail can be used to assist the researcher in being
consistent as well as to demonstrate the presence of
consistency when sharing the data
o Transferability: refers to the extent to which the findings of a study are
confirmed by or are applicable to a different group or in a different setting
from where the data were collected

Slide 2
Qualitative Method
o Data saturation; how to define Triangulation; Audit trail; Characteristic
of Qualitative Design: Flexible: The researcher become intensely
involved. Requires ongoing analysis and planning
Data saturation: the point at which all new information collected
is redundant of information already collected

Triangulation: is the process of using more than one approach or


source to include different views or to look at the phenomenon
from different angles
Audit trail: is an ongoing documentation regarding the
researchers decisions about the data analysis and collection
processes
Probability and Non Probability Sampling their differences
o Nonprobability sampling: not everyone in the population of interest has
an equal chance of being included in the study
These types of strategies are used because they are less costly or
because it is not possible to identify everyone in the population
o Probability sampling: ensure that every member of the population has an
equal opportunity to be in the study
o Major reasons for randomization/extraneous variable: - Convenient Sampling
Includes members of the population who can be readily
found and recruited and are convenient for the researcher
to recruit
Concept of Power Analysis and sample size
o Qualitative: sample size is smaller than in
quantitative research because the data collection
methods in qualitative research yield much data
from each participant
The sampling strategy and the complexity
of the phenomenon of interest also dictate
sample size in qualitative research
Summary: Sampling in qualitative
research is usually driven by the data
being collected and may change as the
study progresses
o Quantitative: the larger the sample size in
quantitative study, the more likely the sample will
be representative of the population of interest, and
the more likely the study will apply to our clinical
situations
Sample sizes in quantitative research are
determined by the goal of having a
reasonable likelihood that the inferential
statistics applied to the data will yield
statistical significance
The larger the sample size, the more
likely we are to get results that are
statistically significant that is, that did
not happen by chance alone
Quantitative researchers often use a
process called power analysis to

determine how large a sample they will


need
You may see a written statement of
power analysis indicating that a
specified sample size was adequate
In quantitative research, a sampling plan
is identified and strictly followed, and
analysis of data usually is not started until
the entire sample is in place
While qualitative studies will thoughtfully
change sampling strategies in response to
data analysis, a quantitative study will
usually follow a clearly identified plan
that is determined before sampling has
started and that is not modified during
the sampling process
Components of a true experimental design
Will there be an intervention
What type of comparison will be made
How will you set up controls
When and how many times will data be collected
In what setting will the study take place
Why do we randomize
To decrease the potential for bias and to ensure that all
subjects have an equal chance of being in any particular
group within the study

Slide 3
Why do we use instruments in Quantitative research vs. Qualitative
How variables are defined in both major methods
o Operational: is one that is defined in specific, concrete terms that allows
us to see how we might actually measure the variable
o Theoretical: is one that is described and understood conceptually, not
concretely
o Independent: are those factors in the study that are used to explain or
predict the outcome of interest and are sometimes called the predictor
variables because they are used to predict the dependent variable
o Dependent: are the variables that depend on other variables in a study or
are the outcome variables of interest
o Bonus: qualitative research tends to not have any operational
definitions
Understand what a measurement error is
o Measurement error: when a variable is not measured with 100%
accuracty
Refers to the difference between what is true and the answer
we obtained from our data collection

o Qualitative: does not operationalize variables because it does not


presume to know enough about the variables of interest to be able to select
appropriate and accurate concrete measures
Yet, qualitative research does translate specific experiences or
observations into theoretical concepts or descriptions of variables
during the process of data collection and analysis
Therefore, qualitative research is open to errors in
interpretation during the data collection process
o Quantitative: because quantitative research often examines abstract
variables that require both a theoretical and an operational definition,
the opportunities for error in measurement can be even greater
Error can occur in the translation from theoretical to
operational, and it can occur in the operationalized
measurement process
Know the nature of: aggregated data; assumptions
The sequences to the researchers research process (theory, deductive reasoning,
predictions, analysis, results utilized to reject, modify or lend credence to the
theory
Psychometrics of an instrument Define Reliability, validity
o A psychometric assessment is an evaluation of the quality of a
measuring instrument
o Reliability: means that a measure can be relied on consistently to give the
same result if the aspect being measured has not changed
o Validity: reflects how accurately the measure yields information about the
true or real variable being studied
A measure is valid if it measures correctly and accurately what
it is intended to measure
Validity becomes more of an issue the more abstract the
variable to be measured is; with a concrete variable such as
gender, validity is not a great concern

Slide 4
Aspects of reliability define, how are they evaluated internal consistency;
equivalence; stability
o Internal consistency reliability: is the extent to which responses to a
scale are similar and related
Evaluated by cronbach alpha
o Equivalence: Inter-rater reliability
When two or more independent data collectors agree in the results
of their data collection process
Inter-rater reliability score is reported as 98% this means that
98% of the occasions two independent raters got the same
score
o Stability: The extent to which scores are similar on two separate
administrations of an instrument
evaluated by test-retest procedure

Cronbach alpha (Alphas .70 highly desirable) evaluates Internal Consistency


(how closely the answers to the different items within the scale are related to each
other)
Test Retest reliability evaluates Stability (the measure will stay consistent over
time)
Inter-Rater Reliability 90% and above is highly desirable: evaluates Equivalence
Type of research error

Slide 5
Validity: The degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to
measure
Threats to Internal Validity: History: Maturation: Selection Bias: mortality
o History: is some factor outside those examined in a study affecting the
outcome or dependent variable
The term history is used because some past event has influenced
the dependent variable
o Maturation: refers to a change in the dependent variable simply because
of the passage of time
Thus, the natural aging process, a type of maturation with time,
might lead to decreased daily functioning, regardless of whether
the subjects were providing care to a family member
Those studies with a design that did not include a control group
would be vulnerable to maturation
o Mortality: refers to the loss of subjects from a study because of a
consistent factor related to the dependent variable
Occasionally, the loss of subjects is from death
At other times, mortality refers to subjects withdrawing from a
study
o Selection bias: refers to subjects having unique characteristics that in
some manner relate to the dependent variable, raising a question whether
the findings from the study resulted from the independent variable or the
characteristics of the sample
A research designs overall internal validity would be best defined as effects
detected in the study are a true reflection of reality rather than an extraneous
variable
Selection of independent and dependent variables, types of Hp
o Selection of independent and dependent variables come from the research
purpose
Research purpose is a clear statement of factors that are going to
be studied to shed knowledge on the research problem
These factors may also be referred to as the variables to
be studied
In general, we expect the research purpose to identify
the major variables
o Types of hypotheses:

Directional hypothesis: predicts that two variables will be related


and as well predicts the direction of that relationship
Ex: It will predict that as scores for one variable increases,
the score for a second variable will increase
Nondirectional hypothesis: predicts that two variables will be
related but does not predict the direction of that relationship
Bonus: research questions can also be directional and
nondirectional
o Nondirectional question: Is there a relationship
between sun exposure and number of freckles?
o Directional question: Do the number of freckles
increase as the amount of sun exposure increases?
Null hypothesis: states that there will be no relationship or
differences among variables
Research hypothesis: predicts relationships or differences in
variables