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Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate

Chemical Reactions:
Reactants: Reactants are the starting substances in the chemical reaction
Products: Products are the substances produced in a chemical reaction
Conservation of Mass: Chemical equations show that atoms are conserved
in the reaction; this is known as the conservation of mass
o Total mass of products = Total mass of reactants
- In a chemical reaction, no atoms are destroyed or created
Acids
Properties of Acids: Acids have certain properties which distinguish it from
bases:
o Taste sour
o Corrosive
o React with solid substances
Bases
Properties of Bases: Bases have certain properties which distinguish it
from acids:
o Taste Bitter
o React with the hydrogen in acids
Indicators
Indicators are substances that can be used to tell whether a substance is
an acid or base.
Types of Indicators
- An example of an indicator is litmus paper
o Acid turns blue litmus paper red
o Acids do not change the colour of red litmus paper
- Another example of an indicator used for acids is the metal test
o Acids wear away metals
o Hydrogen gas is given off while the metal is changing
Universal Indicator & pH:
- pH is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution
o The lower the pH the more acidic the solution
o Strongly acidic solutions have pH around 0 to 2
o The higher the pH the more basic the solution
o Strongly basic solutions have pH around 12 to 14
Chemical Reactions:
- A chemical reaction is when substances combine to form new
substances.
o Indicated by change in colour odour,
o Exothermic (gives off heat)
o Endothermic (heat is absorbed)
o Gas is given off
A Chemical equation: chemical equation summarises the events of a
chemical reaction.
Types of chemical reactions:
- Metal/acid Reaction: acid+metalsalt+hydrogen gas

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate


To test for the presence of hydrogen gas, you bring a lit taper next to the
gas and it should pop. The name of the salt changed depending on the
name of the acid and metal.
I.E: Hydrochloric +Magnesium Magnesium Chloride + hydrogen
- Neutralisation (ACID/BASE reaction) :acid + basesalt +water
I.E: Sulfuric acid + calcium Hydroxide calcium + water
- Acid/carbonate Reaction: acid+carbonate salt +carbon dioxide
+water
In another words, acid carbonate reaction is when limewater goes from
visible to cloudy/turbid.
Nitric Acid + calcium carbonate calcium nitrate + Co2 +H2o
Types of chemical reactions:
- Combustion: Burning- it is a self-sustaining chemical reaction
that occurs at temperatures higher than the surroundings.
- Corrosion: is the eating away of metal so that it loses strength
and become unable to do its intended purpose.
- Precipitation: the formation of a solid from 2 solutions.
- Neutralisation: the reaction between an acid and a base
- Decomposition: the breaking of a compound into more simple
substances.
The Arrangement of the Periodic Table
- The elements are arranged in the periodic table according to their
increasing atomic number
- The elements are arranged in rows and columns
o Rows are called periods
o Columns are called groups
Recognising the Elements on the Periodic Table
- Each element is represented in a separate box on
the periodic table
- Each box has four different characters:
o 1. the atomic number
o 2. the symbol of the element
o 3. the atomic weight
o 4. the name of the element
Structure of an atom:
- The atoms of all matter are electrical and are made up of three small
subatomic particles:
Electrons: which carry negative charges
Protons, which carry positive charges
Neutrons, which carry no charge.
- Atoms are held together by a strong attraction between protons and
electrons.
- Particles with opposite charges attract one another. E.g.: opposite
poles of a magnet.
- Definitions:

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate


Atom: an atom is the smallest unit in an element that can exist by
itself.
Molecule: a molecule is 2 or more atoms joined together.
Element: Element is made from one type of atoms only.
Compound: A compound is made up from many molecules joined
together.
Attractions between ions:
-

The attraction of the ions forms new compounds.


More electrons than electrons is negative.
More protons than electrons is positive.
The electrons and protons keep the compound together.
The chemical bond is called Ionic bond.
The difference in charge keeps them together.
A compound stays together because they share electrons and
protons from each other.
Structure of an Atom:

The atoms of all matter are electrical and are made up


of three small subatomic particles:

Electrons: which carry positive charges.


Protons: which carry positive charges.
Neutrons: which carry no charge.

Protons and neutrons make up the very dense nucleus


of the atom and the tiny electrons are arranged in shells
of different energy levels and orbit around the nucleus.
The maximum number of electrons in the first shell is
always two, the second is eight and the third is eight.
Electrons fill the inside shells first.
Attractions:
o
o
o
o
o
o

Atoms are held together by a strong attraction between the protons


and electrons.
Particles with opposite charges attract one another, like opposite
poles of a magnet.
The attractions of the ions form new compounds.
More electrons then protons are negative.
More neutrons than electrons are positive.
The protons and electrons keep the compound together.

Chemistry II

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate

Compounds
Atoms of elements bod together to produce new substances called
Compounds. These reactions occur when two or more atoms
chemically bond resulting in a unique compound chemically and
physically different to the parent atoms. An example of the uniqueness of
compounds from their parent cells is table salt. Table salt, which is totally
safe to eat, is produced from sodium (Na (S)) and chlorine (Cl(g)) that are
two dangerous elements. Sodium reacts so violently with water, it results
in flames, and chlorine is extremely poisonous used as a weapon in WWII.
There are two main types of bonding:

Ionic
Covalent

Ionic Bonding
Ionic compounds are held
together by electrostatic forces.
These forces are due to the
transferring of negatively
charged electrons. One of the
atoms in the reaction loses an
atom making it positively
charged and another atom in
the reaction gains that lost ion
making it positively charged. The
charges of different atoms are shown
--------------- These charges determine
how the electrons will be lost or gained.
For a reaction to occur the charges
must add up to 0. For example Sodium is in group
1, so its charge is +1, and Chlorine is in group 7, which has a charge of -1. +1 + -1 = 1 1 =
0. This proves that the charges must add up to 0. The features of Ionic Bonds are:

Form between metals and non-metals


When naming the bond, the metal always comes first
These compounds dissolve easily in water and other polar solvents
In solution, they can conduct electricity
Tend to form crystalline solids with high melting points
The solids that are made from the reaction are formed together with multiple
molecules that have a crystalline/repeating pattern calle a crystal Lattice.

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate

Covalent Bonding
Covalent bonding
occurs when two nonmetals want to bond.
Covalent bonding,
unlike ionic bonding
where there is a
complete transfer of
electrons, is where two
atoms share atoms. It
occurs between to
negatively charged
ions. As both
nonmetals want to
gain electrons they will
merge and share their
electrons as shown in
the diagram ----- This
occurs as the ions are
trying to fill their shells
in order to achieve a
neutrally charged
state. Some atoms are required to share multiple electrons to fill
their shell. This means sometimes they require to share more
than 1 pair of electrons resulting in Multiple Bonds.
There are to subtypes of Covalent Bonding:

Non-Polar occurs when the attraction between the atoms


are equal. The first two examples in the diagram above are
examples of non-polar bonds. This is because both atoms
require the same amount of atoms to fill their shell.

Polar occurs when the attraction is not equal between the


atoms. The second two in the diagram above are polar
bonds. In the carbon dioxide example, the carbon atom
requires more electrons to fill its shell than the oxygen.

Properties of covalent bonds:

Exist as gases, liquids, or solids with low melting points as


their attraction is weaker than ionic bonds

Do not conduct electricity


Insoluble in water

Precipitation Reactions
These occur when an insoluble solid is formed when two solutions are
mixed.

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate

Solubility is the amount of solute that can be dissolved in a


solvent
Solute is the substance that is dissolved
Solvent is the liquid in which the solute is being dissolved

Solute + Solvent = Solution

To predict a precipitation reaction, you check if any of the products of the


reaction are insoluble using the solubility rules.

Simplified Solubility Rules

All nitrates are soluble


All group 1 metal compounds are soluble
All chlorides (except silver, lead, and mercury) are soluble
All sulphates (except silver, calcium, barium, and mercury)
are soluble
All carbonates (except group 1 metals) are insoluble
All hydroxides ( except group 1 metals) are insoluble

Double Replacement
The general equation:
AB
+
CD

AD

CB

Example:
Copper (II) Nitrate and Sodium Phosphate

Copper
(II)
Phosphate
Sodium Nitrate

CuNO3 +
NaPO4
CuP04 +
NaNO3
To find the subscript to write chemical formula, use the criss-cross
method:

and

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate

Acids and Bases


Acids and Bases:

Contains

Properties

Acids

Bases

Contains hydrogen in
combination with other
non metal elements, for
example, hydrochloric
acid (HCI).

Contain hydroxide (OH)


in combination with
metal elements, for
example sodium
hydroxide (NaOH).

-Acids have a sour


taste - Acids turn blue
litmus paper red
-Acids conduct electricity
in water solution
Common Uses

Pain relievers,
flavouring, and
preserving food,
herbicide, car batteries,
herbicide, vitamin
supplements and brick
and metal cleaners.

Bases taste
bitter
Bases have a
soapy feel - Bases
turn red litmus paper
blue
Oil and grease dissolver,
soaps, washing powder,
cooking and neutraliser

Indicators
Indicators are chemicals that are used to measure pH or acidity. The
universal indicator is the most common and effect way of testing pH. It
changes colour depending the acidity/pH level.

Examples of Common Acids and Bases


Classification

Substances

Properties

Acid (1 pH)

White vinegar,
-Tastes sour
soda water, lemon -Attacks and
juice
dissolves some
reactive metals Attacks limestone
-Does not react
with fats

Litmus
colour
change
Blue-purple to red

Year 10 Science Yearly Notes /School Certificate

Neutral (7 pH)

Water

- No taste
-Does not react
with most
metals -Does
no react with
fats

Remains bluepurple

Base (14 pH)

Ammonia
solution, washing
soda solution,
baking soda
solution, lime
water

-Tastes bitter
-Does
not
attack
metals
-Reacts slowly
with fats

Blue-purple to
blue

pH Scale
The pH scale is used to measure acidity.

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