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JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY

DEPARTMENT CIVIL ENGINEERING


PG (STRUCTURE)/1ST SEM/2014-15

Experiment.2:
Date:3/9/2014
TEST FOR BUCKLING OF COMPRESSION MEMBER

Object of experiment: To determine the buckling load of rectangular MS section


by Southwell method.

Apparatus Used: Column Buckling Apparatus, Dial Gauge, Scale, Vernier-caliper


.

Theory:
The relation between critical load and displacement is given below:
= - Y0 + P0 (/P) (1)
Where, Y0 = Initial displacement at centre, P0 = Cr. Buckling Load
= displacement corresponding to applied load P
From Equation (1), it is clear that if we plot /P vs. on a graph paper, it will be a
straight line.
Now from equation (1), P0 must be the slope of the straight line obtained.

Experimental Procedure:
1. The dimensions of the specimen are measured and the sectional properties like crosssectional area and moment of inertia are calculated.
2. The specimen is now loaded in the Universal testing machine with arrangement for
measuring lateral deflection.
3. The load and corresponding deflection are recorded in tabular form. The deflection
can be found out from two dial gauges placed at the centre of the specimen.
4. When the central deformation is sufficiently large, the loading is stopped.
5. /P vs. is plotted, whose gradient gives the critical or buckling load.

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT CIVIL ENGINEERING
PG (STRUCTURE)/1ST SEM/2014-15

Sample:
i)
ii)
iii)

Width of plate 40 mm
Thickness 5.8 mm
Length 240 mm

Observation Table:

Sl. No.

Load (P)
in ton

Dial Gauge
Reading

Difference
from
Initial

Deflection
(mm)

/P
(mm/ton)

0.8

14.6

0.000

14.8

0.2

0.2

0.200

1.2

15.05

0.45

0.45

0.375

1.4

15.35

0.75

0.75

0.536

1.6

15.88

1.28

1.28

0.800

1.8

16.83

2.23

2.23

1.239

19.33

4.73

4.73

2.365

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT CIVIL ENGINEERING
PG (STRUCTURE)/1ST SEM/2014-15

/P v/s Plot
Difference from Initial

Linear (Difference from Initial)

y = 2.053x - 0.240
R = 0.993

in mm

0
0

0.5

-1

1.5

/P in mm/ton

Result:
A graph is plotted of /P vs. . From this graph, we get
Y0 = - 0.4 mm
Y0 = -0.24 mm{by computer generated (Excel)}
PC = 2.133 ton(by hand)
PC = 2.053 ton{by computer generated(Excel)}

2.5

JADAVPUR UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT CIVIL ENGINEERING
PG (STRUCTURE)/1ST SEM/2014-15

Conclusion:
Buckling Load:
From graph, we obtained Bucking load (PC) as 2.133 ton.

Comparison with Eulers and Rankines Formula:


Eulers Formula:
PE =
Where, E = Modulus of Elasticity of the material = 2 X 105 N/mm2
I = Moment of Inertia of the material =

= 650.373 mm4

L = Effective length = 240 mm


PE =
= 22287 N
= 22.287 KN
2.23 ton

NB: For the method to work well, the column should be subjected to eccentric axial
loads, or to tiny lateral loads that trigger measurable lateral deflections prior to
buckling Such that be the applied axial load P < Pcr. Then only

*(