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CENTRE FOR PREPARATORY STUDIES

The Chicago Manual of Style


(16th Edition)
The Author-Date System

The Essential Condensed Guide for Staff and Students of


the Centre for Preparatory Studies

Version 2013-2014

Compiled and edited by Juan van As, Jane Tate and John Beck

This document explains how you can reference your work according to The Chicago Manual of
Style 16th Edition (henceforth simply referred to as Chicago).
Chicago uses two systems. The notes and bibliography system and the author-date system. The
CPS uses the author-date system.
While there are a number of different referencing systems used in academia worldwide, Chicago is
one of the most common and consistent, consequently, it is the one most likely to be useful to you
in your future academic studies. This is why we expect you to use Chicago for referencing on the
UPC. Once you have been admitted to the university department where you will be studying for
your degree, you should, however, check which system your department favours and adapt your
referencing practices accordingly.
This guide is only an introduction to Chicago, so if you find it does not fully cover your needs or
you would like to take a more comprehensive look at it, we suggest that you refer to chapters 14
and 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style (2010).1

WHAT IS REFERENCING?

Referencing is a method for standardising and presenting systematically the words and ideas of
others in your own writing. Such ideas may include direct quotations, facts, figures, ideas and
theories from both published and unpublished works.

WHY REFERENCE?

Referencing is necessary to avoid plagiarism. It also provides a unique way of identifying each
piece of information in your work, enabling your reader to easily locate it in its original source. This
is useful for readers who may want to verify your material or follow up the information that you
have presented so that they can do further research themselves. Finally, referencing materials
from recognised researchers in your field of study can strengthen the credibility of any evidence or
argumentation that you present in your own work. This is because a reference can help
demonstrate that you have not simply fabricated or invented the evidence you use when
presenting your arguments.

REPORTING THE IDEAS OF OTHERS: QUOTATIONS AND PARAPHRASING

For in-text citations use the name of the author, followed by the year of publication (Beck 2012).
Where different authors have the same surname, include the authors initials in the in-text
citation (C.L. Hamilton 1994).

Chapter 14 covers the notes and bibliography style for detailed coverage of all possible referencing queries. Chapter
15 covers the author-date system, but is less comprehensive in its coverage than chapter 14. We suggest that if you
cannot find the solution to your referencing issues in chapter 15, you should refer to chapter 14. However, the authordate format of chapter 15 should then be applied; this will usually involve simply moving the date from the end of the
reference to immediately after the author.
1

If two or more authors are cited at the same point in the text then they are included in the
same in-text citation, separated by a semicolon (Brown 1991; Smith 2003). They should be
presented alphabetically by author.
When the same author has written two or more publications in the same year and you want
to distinguish them from each other, the year of the one with the title alphabetically closest to a
should be followed by an a, the one which has the second closest to a in alphabetical terms
should be followed by a b, etc. (Kroll 1990a), (Kroll 1990b) and so on.
In instances where two references by the same author/s are enclosed in the same brackets,
they should be separated by a comma (Johns 1988, 1993).
When directly quoting from a source, the relevant page
number must be given and should be separated by a
comma (Piaget 1980, 74). For shorter quotations (i.e. fewer
than 100 words), the quotation should be enclosed in double
quotation marks.

For longer quotations (i.e. 100 words or more), the quotation should be presented as a separate
paragraph in font size 10 indented about two centimetres from the left margin; however, longer
quotes are advised against at the CPS as we would prefer to see your ability to paraphrase and
summarise ideas. It should not be enclosed in quotation marks and, even if the main body of the
text is written with 1.5 or double spacing between the lines, the quotation should be single line
spacing. Ellipses can be used to indicate the omission of words not relevant to the quote, such as
the beginning or end of the sentence.
Examples of each of these direct quotation types are presented here:

Hyland (2007, 88) expresses the view succinctly, learning occurs more
SHORTER
QUOTATION

effectively if teachers are explicit about what is being studied, why it is being
studied, and what will be expected of students at the end of the course....
There is a need for balance, the nature of which is best expressed by Kutz:

LONGER
QUOTATION

We want to validate our students as people and language users, but we also want
to teach them to use language in ways that support academic success, ways they
do not know when they enter our classes. We fear that validating their present
language will lead them to believe that anything goes, when we know that in
university and the world beyond there are rigid conventions, not only for correct
usage, but for genre, style, and diverse other features they must use to be
successful. Further, we know that many conventions of academic discourse are
not arbitrary prescriptions, but have evolved as the clearest way to express the
thinking done in various disciplineseven as a heuristic for that thinking. (1998,
38)

Having discussed the underlying pedagogical and ethical rationale for this
approach, in the next section a taxonomy of what theorists have argued that
students should be taught about academic writing is presented.

In addition to including page numbers for direction quotations, you should also include page
numbers when paraphrasing or referring to an idea from a source which is a book or
lengthy text, as this helps the reader to check and follow up on the information that is presented
in your text, as shown in the example below:

Delpit (1998, 215) argues that for people from disadvantaged backgrounds to boost their
economic and social position in society, the most immediate and tangible solution available to
them is to learn the discourse practices of the powerful and remove the barriers that restrict their
social mobility.

With some sources (particularly electronic) page numbers may not be provided. In this case you
will be required to substitute page numbers with section, chapter or paragraph numbers or some
combination of both of these.

The BA in Media and Cultural Studies (BA MACS) examines the complexity of cultural life
providing the conceptual tools with which we can understand the production of messages,
images, signs and symbols (ICR 2004a, para. 1).

When quoting or paraphrasing the work of another you will have to decide whether you want to
give prominence to the author/s whose ideas you are presenting or to the information itself.
If you want to give prominence to the author (author prominent citation), you can make his or
her name part of the sentence. The publication information should be placed immediately after the
name...

Kennedy (2001, 30-34), for example, argues that the needs of an undergraduate student are
likely to be different from those of a lecturer seeking to publish in English.

...or, when the same page (or page range) is cited more than once in one paragraph and you want
to ensure that there is no ambiguity as to where the ideas of one author end and other ideas
begin, you can place the name of the writer at the beginning of the presentation of his/her ideas
and the publication information at the end:

Zamel, for example, argues that the adoption of such a service course ideology diminishes the
expertise and position of writing teachers by forcing them to substitute their skills in conveying to
students a complex understanding of how language, discourse, and context are entwined for an
approach that misrepresents and oversimplifies academic discourse and reduces it to some
stable and autonomous phenomenon that does not reflect reality (1988, 258-259).

If, however, you would like to give the ideas prominence over the author/s (idea prominent
citation), you can simply place all details of author, date and page number in brackets at the end
of the block of information:
there is a concern that university lecturers themselves have only a tacit knowledge of the
conventions of their field and expect students to gain familiarity with those conventions with little
explicit instruction, and that when they do attempt to instruct, their meaning is unclear (Ivanic,
Clark, and Rimmershaw 2000, 63; Lea and Street 2000, 39; Lillis 2001, 55; Johns 1990b, 213).
It should be remembered that rules about prominence of information are not rigid
conventions. It is often a matter of stylistic consideration by the author and decisions may be
based simply on what the writer feels fits best with what else has been written both before and
after the material that has been referenced; i.e. a balanced use of both styles is often considered
as desirable.

SECONDARY SOURCES

There are also likely to be occasions when the material you want to use is information written by
one author that you have found quoted in the work of another author. If so, you must make
this clear in your in-text reference. In such instances the author/s who the idea originated from
should be written first, followed by the term quoted in (see example below), followed by the
reference from which you actually got the information. Whilst both sources should be included in
the in-text citation in this way, you should only include the source from which you actually got the
information in your reference list.
Analysis of attempted educational reforms in seven different countries has shown that 75% of
educational innovations end in failure (Adams and Chen 1981 quoted in Markee 1997, 6).
According to Adams and Chen (1981 quoted in Markee 1997, 6) analysis of attempted
educational reforms in seven different countries has shown that 75% of educational innovations
end in failure.

REFERENCE LISTS AND BIBLIOGRAPHIES

A reference list only includes books, articles etc. that are cited in the text. A bibliography is a
list containing the sources used in developing a publication and other sources the author
considers might be of use or interest to the reader.
During courses at the CPS, you will usually only be required to include a reference list at the end
of your text and not a bibliography. You should be aware that if you include in your reference list
materials that have not been referred to in your work, your teachers will regard this unfavourably
and it is likely to have a negative impact on your grade. This is because you are providing no
evidence that you have knowledge of the material incorporated in these texts and because it gives
the impression that you are trying to claim credit for work that you have either not done or not
applied to your writing task.

Reference lists and bibliographies are arranged alphabetically by author. Where two authors
have the same surname, they are ordered alphabetically by the initial of their first name as in the
example below.
Allwright, Jasper. 1988. Don't Correct - Reformulate! In Academic Writing: Process and
Product. Edited by Patrick C. Robinson, 233-257. Hong Kong: Modern English
Publications in association with The British Council.
Allwright, Richard. 1982. Perceiving and Pursuing Learners Needs. In Individualisation. Edited
by Mary Geddes and Gabriella Sturtridge, 56-73. Oxford: Modern English Publications.
In instances where there is more than one work by the same author, they should be ordered
chronologically.
Dudley-Evans, Tony. 1993. Variation in Communication Patterns between Discourse
Communities: The Case of Highway Engineering and Plant Biology. In Language,
Learning and Success: Studying through English. Edited by George M. Blue, 111-130.
Hemel Hempstead: Phoenix ELT.
Dudley-Evans, Tony. 1994. Variations in the Discourse Patterns Favoured by Different
Disciplines and their Pedagogical Implications. In Academic Listening: Research
Perspectives. Edited by John Flowerdew, 342-351. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press.
Two or more works by the same author in the same year must be differentiated by the addition
of a, b, and so forth (regardless of whether they were authored, edited, compiled, or translated),
and are listed alphabetically by title. In-text citations consist of author and year plus letter.
Fogel, Robert William. 2004a. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100:
Europe, America, and the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fogel, Robert William. 2004b. "Technophysio Evolution and the Measurement of Economic
Growth." Journal of Evolutionary Economics 14 (2): 217-221. doi:10.1007/s00191-0040188-x.
Where an item has no author, it is cited by its title, and ordered in the reference list or
bibliography alphabetically by the first significant word of the title. For example, if there were no
author, the book entitled: The Diffusion of Innovations in Language Education would be listed
under D because diffusion is the first significant word in its title.
Chicago requires the second and subsequent lines of the reference to be indented, as shown:
Higher Education Funding Council for England. 2009. Report on the Pilot Exercise to Develop
Bibliometric Indicators for the Research Excellence Framework. Accessed October
12, 2009. http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/2009/09_39/

CHICAGO AUTHOR-DATE SAMPLE CITATIONS

The following examples illustrate citations using the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of
a corresponding parenthetical in-text citation. For more details and examples, see chapter 15 of The Chicago Manual of Style.

BOOKS
IN-TEXT
GENERAL (Familyname year) OR
FORMAT (Familyname year, pages)
ONE AUTHOR (Pollan 2006, 99-100)
(Ward and Burns 2007, 52)
TWO OR THREE
As Ward and Burns (2007, 52)
AUTHORS
suggest
(Levitt et al. 2005, 22)
FOUR OR MORE Levitt et al. (2005, 22) state that
AUTHORS NOTE that you list ONLY the first
author, followed by et al.

(Food Cures 2007)


NO AUTHOR NOTE that if the title is long, a
shortened title may be used.

(Shaw, n.d.)
NO DATE NOTE the use of a comma after the

REFERENCE LIST
Familyname, Firstname. Year. Title. Place of publication: Publisher.
NOTE that the authors name is inverted; i.e. the family name is written first.

Pollan, Michael. 2006. The Omnivores Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals.
New York: Penguin.
Familyname, Firstname, and Firstname Familyname. Year. Title. Place of publication:
Publisher.
NOTE that the second authors name is not inverted; i.e. the first name is first.

Ward, Geoffrey C., and Ken Burns. 2007. The War: An Intimate History, 1941-1945.
New York: Knopf.
Levitt, Steven D., William T.D. Lake, Ruth Lee, and Stephen J. Dubner. 2005.
Freakonomics: A Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of
Everything. New York: William Morrow.
NOTE that you list ALL of the authors in the reference list.
NOTE that the first authors name is inverted, but all subsequent authors names are written
so that the first name is first.

Food Cures: Breakthrough Nutritional Prescriptions for Everything from Colds to


Cancer. 2007. New York: Readers Digest Inc.
Shaw, Owen. n.d. Reflective Learning. London: Faber.

name.

BOOKS
(continued)

IN-TEXT

EDITOR OR (Lattimore 1951, 91-92)


TRANSLATOR AS
AUTHOR (Cohen and Manion 2011, 234)
EDITOR OR
TRANSLATOR IN
ADDITION TO
AUTHOR
PREFACE,
FOREWORD,
INTRODUCTION,
OR SIMILAR PART
OF A BOOK

(Garca Mrquez 1988, 242-255)


Perhaps Plaths (2000) most
significant point is

(Mansfield and Winthrop 2000)

REFERENCE LIST
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of
Chicago Press.
Cohen, Louis, and Lawrence Manion, eds. 2011. Research Methods in Education.
7th ed. London: Routledge.
Garca Mrquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith
Grossman. London: Cape.
Plath, Sylvia. 2000. The Unabridged Journals. Edited by Karen V. Kukil. New York:
Anchor.
Mansfield, Harvey, and Delba Winthrop. 2000. Introduction to Democracy in
America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, xvii-lxxxvi. Translated and edited by
Harvey Mansfield and Delba Winthrop. Chicago: University of Chicago
Press.
NOTE for a preface, foreword, etc. replace Introduction to with Preface to, Foreword to.

(Austen 2007, chap. 4)

BOOK PUBLISHED
ELECTRONICALLY Antokoletz (2008) shows that
(E-BOOK)

(Beck 2000, 32)

Austen, Jane. 2007. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Kindle
edition.
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. PDF e-book.
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. Microsoft
Reader e-book.
Antokoletz, Elliot. 2008. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok.
New York: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/
9780195365825.001.0001.
Beck, Alan M. 2000. The Use of Animals to Benefit Humans, Animal-Assisted
Therapy. In The Handbook on Animal Assisted Therapy: Theoretical
Foundations and Guidelines for Practice. 2nd ed. Edited by Aubrey H. Fine,
21-40. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. Accessed February 13, 2013.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123694843500049

NOTE: If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.
NOTE: For chapters in books, see Beck (2000) above, and Allwright (1982, 1988) and Dudley-Evans (1993, 1994) page 5 for examples.
NOTE: For later editions, see Cohen and Manion (2011) and Beck (2000) above.
7

JOURNAL
IN-TEXT
ARTICLES
GENERAL
(Familyname year, pages)
FORMAT
(Cahana and Romagnioli 2007,
ARTICLE IN A 103)
PRINT JOURNAL NOTE that the specific page
number(s) consulted are listed.

ARTICLE IN AN
ONLINE JOURNAL

(Binder 1993, 758)


(Craft 2006, 340)

REFERENCE LIST
Familyname, Firstname. Year. Title of Article. Name of Journal volume (issue): page range.
NOTE that there is not always an (issue) number.

Cahana, Alex, and Simone Romagnioli. 2007. "Not all Placebos are the Same: A
Debate on the Ethics of Placebo Use in Clinical Trials Versus Clinical
Practice." Journal of Anesthesia 21 (1): 102-105.
NOTE that the page range for the whole article is listed.

Binder, Amy. 1993. "Constructing Racial Rhetoric: Media Depictions of Harm in


Heavy Metal and Rap Music." American Sociological Review 58: 753-767.
Accessed January 30, 2013. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095949
Craft, Anna. 2006. "Fostering Creativity with Wisdom." Cambridge Journal of
Education 36 (3): 337-350. doi:10.1080/03057640600865835.

NOTE: Include a doi (Digital Object Identifier) if the journal lists one. A doi is a permanent ID that, when appended to
http://dx.doi.org/ in the address bar of an Internet browser, will lead to the source. If no doi is available, list a URL. Include an accessed
date only if there is no doi.
OTHER ARTICLES

IN-TEXT
ARTICLE IN A (Mendelsohn 2010, 68)
NEWSPAPER,
POPULAR
(Petrovsky and Miller 2005)
MAGAZINE, OR
PERIODICAL

NO AUTHOR

REFERENCE LIST
Mendelsohn, Daniel. 2010. But Enough about Me. New Yorker, January 25.
Petrovsky, Alexander, and Larry Miller. 2005. China's New Restructuring. The
Economist, August 6. Accessed August 25, 2012.
http://www.economist.com/china/art/Chinasnewrestructuring.html
NOTE that if you consulted the article online, include a URL; include an accessed date for
any work submitted to the CPS.
NOTE that for no author, the name of the newspaper, magazine, or periodical stands in place
of the author.

(New York Times 2002)

New York Times. 2002. In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor. July 30.

(Psychology Today 1995)

Psychology Today. 1995. Low Weight, High Hopes. January 1. Last modified June,
2012. http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/199501/low-weight-highhopes

NOTE: Newspaper and magazine articles cited in the text must be included in the reference list for any work submitted to the CPS.
8

OTHER

IN-TEXT

THESIS OR
(Kim 2012)
DISSERTATION

PAPER
PRESENTED AT A
MEETING OR
CONFERENCE

(Adelman 2009, 22)

REFERENCE LIST
Kim, Sungah. 2012. "The Influence of Environmental and Personal Variables of
Motivation on Creativity." PhD dissertation, Oklahoma State University.
Accessed February 12, 2013. http://gradworks.umi.com/35/25/
3525685.html
Adelman, Rachel. 2009. Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On: Gods Footstool in
the Aramaic Targumim and Midrashic Tradition. Paper presented at the
annual meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, New Orleans,
Louisiana, November 21-24.

Mauer (1999, 15) claims that

Mauer, Marc. 1999. "The Crisis of the Young African American Male and The
Criminal Justice System." Paper presented at the U.S. Commission on Civil
Rights, Washington, D.C. April 15-16. Accessed March 28, 2012.
http://www.sentencingproject.org/doc/publications/rd_crisisoftheyoung.pdf

(Kats 2006)

Kats, Gregory. 2006. Greening Americas Schools. Accessed January 24, 2012.
http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Archive/General/Docs2908.pdf

REPORT
(U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
2008)
(Encyclopaedia Britannica Online
ENCYCLOPAEDIAS 2013)
AND
DICTIONARIES (Oxford Advanced Learners
Dictionary 2010)

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2008. Women in the Labor Force: A Databook
(Report 1011). Accessed December 28, 2012. http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlfdatabook-2008.pdf
Encyclopaedia Britannica Online. 2013. s.v. "Sustainable Development." Accessed
July 19, 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/765512/
sustainable-development
Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary. 8th ed. 2010. s.v. Placebo. Oxford: Oxford
University Press.

OTHER
(continued)
WEBSITE (WITH
DATE LAST
MODIFIED)

IN-TEXT

REFERENCE LIST

(Melton 2013)

(Microsoft Corporation 2006)

WEBSITE (WITH
(Rola, n.d.)
ACCESSED DATE)

Melton, Paula. 2013. Green Government. Last modified May 2013.


http://greensource.construction.com/features/currents/2013/1305-greengovernment.asp
Microsoft Corporation. 2006. "WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text
to a String Variable." Last modified November 23, 2008.
http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730
Rola, Olinda. n.d. Alcohol Abuse Effects - 5 Physical Effects of Alcohol Abuse.
Accessed February 24, 2013. http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/2845/1/
Alcohol-Abuse-Effects-5-Physical-Effects-Of-Alcohol-Abuse.html
NOTE that if there is no obvious date when the article was written, published or last
modified / updated, use n.d. after the author.

NOTE: Many websites are not acceptable academic sources. Great care should be taken regarding their use. Any website used must
be cited and included in the reference list. Because such content is subject to change, include a date when the site was last modified
or, if unavailable, an accessed date.
SECONDARY SOURCES
If an original source cannot be found, the
source in which the information is found
must be referred to and should use the
format on the right.
SAME AUTHOR, SAME YEAR
Two or more works by the same author in
the same year must be differentiated by the
addition of a, b, and so forth (regardless of
whether they were authored, edited,
compiled, or translated), and are listed
alphabetically by title. Text citations
consist of author and year plus letter.

IN-TEXT
(Zokofsky 1931 quoted in Costello 1981)
Louis Zokofsky (1931 quoted in Costello 1981)
points out that
NOTE BOTH sources should be included in the
in-text citation.

IN-TEXT
(Fogel 2004a, 45-46)

(Fogel 2004b, 218)

REFERENCE LIST
Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore:
Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge,
MA: Harvard University Press.
NOTE ONLY the source from which the
information was found should be included in the
reference list.

REFERENCE LIST
Fogel, Robert William. 2004a. The Escape from Hunger and
Premature Death, 1700-2100: Europe, America, and the
Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fogel, Robert William. 2004b. "Technophysio Evolution and the
Measurement of Economic Growth." Journal of
Evolutionary Economics 14 (2): 217-221.
doi:10.1007/s00191-004-0188-x.

10

IN-TEXT
THE CITATION

GRAPHIC DATA
Any type of figure (e.g.
tables, diagrams, maps,
graphs, charts) must be
referenced both in the
text and in the reference
list.
Figures need to be labelled
in numerical order (e.g.
Figure 1, Figure 2).

Within the textbefore or


after the figurerefer to
your figure number:
(see Figure 1)
As shown in Figure 1,

THE FIGURE
Under the figure, the
following information should
be given:
Figure 1. Title. Source:
Author year, page /
chapter / section.
NOTE that the above is
WITHOUT parentheses and
according to the type of source
it comes from.

If the source has been


adapted, use:

Figure 1. Title. Source:


Adapted from Author
year, page / chapter /
section.
EXAMPLE
The situation is rather serious as can be seen in Figure 1.

REFERENCE LIST

The source which the figure comes from should be


included in the reference list.
The figure should be referenced according to the
type of source it comes from (e.g. if it comes from a
book, that book should be referenced as shown in
this guide; if it comes from a website, that website
should be referenced as shown in this guide).
Additional information regarding the figure is not
required as this is covered by the page, chapter or
section number in the in-text citation.

EXAMPLE

Johnson, Peter. 2006. The North-South Divide:


Adventures of the Nigerian Tsetse Fly.
Lagos: Beck Publishing.
Figure 1. Rainfall. Source: Johnson 2006, 66.
However, there are other situations when

11

SAMPLE REFERENCE LIST

REFERENCE LIST
Allwright, Jasper. 1988. Don't Correct - Reformulate! In Academic Writing: Process and Product.
Edited by Patrick C. Robinson, 233-257. Hong Kong: Modern English Publications in
association with The British Council.
Allwright, Richard. 1982. Perceiving and Pursuing Learners Needs. In Individualisation. Edited
by Mary Geddes and Gabriella Sturtridge, 56-73. Oxford: Modern English Publications.
Antokoletz, Elliot. 2008. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok. New York:
Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/ 9780195365825.001.0001.
Austen, Jane. 2008. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics. PDF e-book.
Beck, Alan M. 2000. The Use of Animals to Benefit Humans, Animal-Assisted Therapy. In The
Handbook on Animal Assisted Therapy: Theoretical Foundations and Guidelines for
Practice. 2nd ed. Edited by Aubrey H. Fine, 21-40. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Accessed February 13, 2013. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/
B9780123694843500049
Binder, Amy. 1993. "Constructing Racial Rhetoric: Media Depictions of Harm in Heavy Metal and
Rap Music." American Sociological Review 58: 753-767. Accessed January 30, 2013.
http://www.jstor.org/stable/2095949
Cahana, Alex, and Simone Romagnioli. 2007. "Not all Placebos are the Same: A Debate on the
Ethics of Placebo Use in Clinical Trials Versus Clinical Practice." Journal of Anesthesia
21 (1): 102-105.
Cohen, Louis, and Lawrence Manion, eds. 2011. Research Methods in Education. 7th ed. London:
Routledge.
Craft, Anna. 2006. "Fostering Creativity with Wisdom." Cambridge Journal of Education 36 (3):
337-350. doi:10.1080/03057640600865835.
Dudley-Evans, Tony. 1993. Variation in Communication Patterns between Discourse
Communities: The Case of Highway Engineering and Plant Biology. In Language,
Learning and Success: Studying through English. Edited by George M. Blue, 111-130.
Hemel Hempstead: Phoenix ELT.
Dudley-Evans, Tony. 1994. Variations in the Discourse Patterns Favoured by Different Disciplines
and their Pedagogical Implications. In Academic Listening: Research Perspectives.
Edited by John Flowerdew, 342-351. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fogel, Robert William. 2004a. The Escape from Hunger and Premature Death, 1700-2100:
Europe, America, and the Third World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fogel, Robert William. 2004b. "Technophysio Evolution and the Measurement of Economic
Growth." Journal of Evolutionary Economics 14 (2): 217-221. doi:10.1007/s00191-0040188-x.
12

Food Cures: Breakthrough Nutritional Prescriptions for Everything from Colds to Cancer. 2007.
New York: Readers Digest Inc.
Garca Mrquez, Gabriel. 1988. Love in the Time of Cholera. Translated by Edith Grossman.
London: Cape.
Higher Education Funding Council for England. 2009. Report on the Pilot Exercise to Develop
Bibliometric Indicators for the Research Excellence Framework. Accessed October 12,
2009. http://www.hefce.ac.uk/pubs/hefce/2009/09_39/
Kats, Gregory. 2006. Greening Americas Schools. Accessed January 24, 2012.
http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Archive/General/Docs2908.pdf
Kim, Sungah. 2012. "The Influence of Environmental and Personal Variables of Motivation on
Creativity." PhD dissertation, Oklahoma State University. Accessed February 12, 2013.
http://gradworks.umi.com/35/25/ 3525685.html
Levitt, Steven D., William T.D. Lake, Ruth Lee, and Stephen J. Dubner. 2005. Freakonomics: A
Rogue Economist Explores the Hidden Side of Everything. New York: William Morrow.
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