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Chapter 1 (cont.

1. Precontemplation- During which a person may or may not recognize a health challenge,
and in either case has no intention of making changes to address it in the near future
(That is within the next 6 months)
2. Contemplation- During which a person acknowledges the health challenge and thinks
about making a change within the next 6 months. At this stage, the person is still not
ready to take action but is thinking about it.
3. Preparation-During which a person intends to change the behavior within the next
month and has a plan of action in mind (such as enrolling in a class or joining a support
4. Action-During which a person has modified the behavior in an observable way: for
example, quit smoking, begun jogging each week, cut down fatty foods, etc.
5. Maintenance- In which a person has maintained the new behavior for six months or
more, and continues to actively work to prevent relapse (reverting to old habits).
Maintenance can last months or even years, and relapse is not unusual.
6. Termination- During which a person has successfully achieved behavior change to the
point where he or she is completely confident that relapse will not occur.
1. Perceived Threat-The belief that you are at risk of threat (such as an illness or injury)
and perceive that threat to be a real one.
2. Perceived Illness- The belief that making a behavior change will help reduce the
perceived threat.
3. Perceived Barriers- Your assessment of the potential negative consequences of
changing the behavior
4. Cues to Action- For example, events that would motivate you to make a change, such as
witnessing a friend or family go through a health problem that you may face yourself.
5. Self-Efficacy-Your belief in your ability to make a lasting change
6. Other Variables-Other social or personal factors that may affect your attitude toward
making the behavior change.
19) Self-Efficacy- Is the ability to take action demonstrating a sense of personal control over a
Locus of Control- A persons belief about where the center of power lies in his or her life; can
be external or internal.


Your self-efficacy and your locus of control are not set in stone. By turning to clearly
defined techniques that can help change behavior in positive ways, you can increase your
own sense of self-efficacy. The greater sense of empowerment, in turn, can help you
make even more changes.

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Chapter 2

Psychological Health-The broad measure of well-being that encompasses the mental,

emotional, and spiritual dimension of health.
Mental Health-The thinking component of psychological health that allow you to
perceive reality accurately and respond rationally and effectively.
Emotional Health-The subjective side of psychological health, including your feelings
and moods.
Spiritual Health-A component of psychological health that provides a sense of
connection to a larger purpose coupled with a system of core values that provide direction
and meaning in life.


Autonomy- The capacity to make informed, un-coerced decisions

Assertiveness- The ability to clearly express your needs and wants to others in an
appropriate way.

They tend to feel good about themselves and their lives, respond to challenges in resilient
ways, have optimistic outlooks on life, capitalize on opportunities, and even enjoy better
physical health.


1. Physiological needs- Providing for basic needs such as breathing, food, water, shelter,
sex and sleep
2. Safety and security- Protection from harm by others or surroundings
3. Love and belonging- Giving and receiving love; feelings a sense of belonging with
4. Self-esteem- Respecting yourself and being respected
5. Self-actualization- Truly fulfilling your potential.
5) Optimism- The psychological tendency to have a positive interpretation of lifes events.

Optimistic people embrace the belief that positive outcomes are more likely to occur than
negative ones. People with optimistic outlooks do not ignore negative situations but
instead balance the negative with the positive. They are motivated to action by the belief
that most problems have solutions. Optimism also helps patients fight serious diseases
maintain a positive outlook during treatment and cope better with the ups and downs of
illness. The effect of optimism on health is well documented and is part of the mind-body

6) Emotional intelligence- The ability to accurately sense, assess and manage your emotions
and those of others.

You can increase your emotional intelligence by consciously recognizing and naming
your emotions when you feel them, think about other peoples feelings and motivations in
relation to specific situations or lowering them to overrule other desires and priorities.

7) Quiet contemplation, Mediation produces a deep state of relaxation and calms the mind.
Meditation can have different intended purposes, such as reaching higher states of consciousness,
developing creativity and self-awareness, or simply achieving a more relaxed and peaceful state
of mind.
8) The exploding rage you feel when you get really angry raises your blood pressure and
appears to be associated with risk factors of heart disease. Cardiovascular effects of anger can
still be detected even a week after the angry outburst if the person continues to dwell on the
event. Also raises levels of tension and stress.
9) Major depressive disordered or major depression is diagnosed if someone consistently
experiences 5 or more depressive symptoms, including either depressed mood or loss of interest
or please, for at least 2 weeks straight.
10) Genetics, irregular hormone levels, prolong illness, chronic pain, certain medication,
traumatic events, grief, financial problems, school pressure, and substance abuse.

Depressive Disorder- a mental disorder usually characterized by profound, long-term

sadness or loss of interest that interferes with daily life and normal functioning
Major Depressive Disorder (Major depression)- A type of depressive disorder
characterized by experiencing five or more symptoms of depression, including either
depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure, for at least two weeks straight.
Dysthymic Disorder (Dysthymia)-A milder chronic type of depressive disorder that last
two years or more.
Seasonal Affective Disorder(SAD)- A type of depressive disorder caused by fewer
hours of daylight during the winter months.

12) Bipolar Disorder- Also known as manic-depressive disorder, is characterized by

occurrences of abnormally elevated mood (or mania) alternating with depressive episodes, with
periods of normal mood in between. Mania can cause increased energy and decreased need for

sleep, an expansive or irritable mood, impulsive behavior, and unrealistic beliefs or expectations.
Manic peoples thoughts race, their speech is rapid, their attention span is low, and their
judgment is poor. Extreme manic episodes can sometimes lead to aggression or psychotic
symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations.
13) People who suffer from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) feel chronic anxiety,
exaggerated worry, and pessimism, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it or they
know they are overreacting. People with GAD develop a continuous cycle of worrying that can
be extremely difficult to break. They worry about common things and even when the concerns
are valid, they worry to excess.
Panic attacks are sudden feelings of terror that strike without warning. Symptoms include chest
pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, and nausea. Panic attacks usually induce a sense
of unreality and fears of impending doom, losing control, or dying.
14) Social Anxiety Disorder- Also called social phobia, typically involves an intense fear of
being judged by others and of being humiliated by your own actions. It can be accompanied by
physical symptoms such as sweating, blushing, increased heart rate, trembling, and stuttering.
15) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)- An anxiety disorder characterized by recurring
gear, anger, and depression occurring after a traumatic event. Events that commonly cause
PTSD are: war, child abuse, natural disasters, automobiles, accidents, or being the victim of a
violent crime.
16) The reasons people cause self-injury are because, the mental disorders or traumas theyve
experienced produce deep anguish that causes them to harm themselves. This is usually
performed in an effort to deal with negative or overwhelming feelings.
17) Counselor. Counselors have a masters degree in counseling and focus on talk therapy.
Counselors may lead group or individual therapy sessions.
Psychologist- Psychologist have a doctoral degree and focus on talk therapy. Many have
particular specialties, and they may lead group or individual therapy sessions.
Psychiatrist- Psychiatrists have a medical degree and usually focuses on the medical aspects of
psychological issues. Unlike counselors or psychologist, psychiatrist can prescribe medication
and may have admitting privileges at local hospitals. Psychiatrists and talk therapy professionals
often work together to provide a person a full range of care if needed.
18) Cognitive Therapy- A type of therapy that focuses on thoughts and beliefs and how they
influence your mood. Cognitive therapy is most effective in treating depressive disorders and
anxiety disorders but can also be helpful along with medication-for bipolar disorder and
Behavioral Therapy- A type of therapy that focuses on a patients behavior and its relationship
to psychological health. Behavioral therapy focuses on changing learned behaviors, with the idea
that once the behavior changes, our thoughts, feelings, attitudes and moods will follow. Common
behavioral therapy techniques include exposure therapy, which is gradual exposure to an

anxiety-provoking situation paired with relaxation techniques; positive reinforcement, which

encourages desired behaviors; and aversion therapy, or negative reinforcement that discourages
unwanted behaviors. Behavioral therapy is often used for anxiety and attention disorders.
Psychodynamic Therapy- A type of therapy that focuses on the unconscious sources for a
patients behavior and psychological state. Psychodynamic is founded on the idea that there are
unconscious sources for a persons behavior and psychological state. In psychodynamic therapy,
patients and therapists explore unresolved conflicts buried in the unconscious, often stemming
from childhood experiences. The goal is to talk through these conflicts, under-stand them, and
change how they affect the patients today. This therapy can last 2 years or more. Psychodynamic
therapy is often used for depressive disorders.
Positive Psychology-A new field of psychology that focuses on increasing psychological
strengths and improving happiness, rather than on psychological problems. This type of therapy
aims to highlight traits such as kindness, originality, humor, optimism, generosity, and gratitude
in order to help you develop a more positive outlook and foster the best parts of yourself. In
positive psychology, you perform activities such as noting three good things that happen to you
each day, with the goal of increasing your happiness.

The therapists credentials, education, and approach to therapy
Areas of specialization that the therapist has or that you would prefer (The disorder such
as bipolar)
An overview of the problems you are experiencing and your goals for therapy
The experience the therapist has in helping people with similar problem
Whether or not you are taking or interested in taking antidepressants or other medication.
Frequency and length of session.

20) Common behavioral therapy techniques include exposure therapy, which is gradual exposure
to an anxiety-provoking situation paired with relaxation techniques; positive reinforcement,
which encourages desired behaviors; and aversion therapy, or negative reinforcement that
discourages unwanted behaviors.

Chapter 3
1) Distress- Stress resulting from negative stress. Example: Getting a low grade or realizing
youve blown your budget for the month.
Eustress- Stress resulting from positive stress. Example: Going on a first date or winning a big

2) Flight-or-Fight A series of physiological reactions to a stressor designed to enable the body

to stand and fight or to flee. Physical attributes: Mouth goes dry, pupils widen, hearing sharpens,
heart beats faster and harder; Blood pressure increases, Sweat appears, lungs breathe faster, Liver
releases glucose into bloodstream, Digestion slows, Blood clots faster, Muscle tension, Adrenal
glands produce stress hormones.
3) General adaption syndrome- An adaptive response consisting of three stages (alarm,
resistance, and exhaustion) through which the body strives to maintain homeostasis.
Alarm-When first confronted by a stressor, the body activates the flight-or-fight response, boosts
levels of stress hormones, and increases heart rate. When you first realize youve completely
forgotten about a quiz in class tomorrow and havent left much time in your evening to study, the
rush of worry you may feel marks this stage.
Resistance- As the stressor continues, your body continues to turn its internal resources to deal
with the stressor and try to restore balance. As you get ready to cram for the quiz, for example,
you may not feel as worried, and the little jolt of adrenaline you sense at first may subside. But
as you resolve to stay up late to study, your body may continue to produce slightly elevated
levels of stress hormones to help keep you awake.
Exhaustion- After long exposure to the stressor, your bodys ability to adopt eventually wars
out, and you cannot continue to function normally. You can probably withstand one late night
cramming for a quiz, but if you repeatedly put off studying until the last minute, cutting into your
sleep night after night, your entire school experience may suffer as you become sick or exhausted
from too little sleep and too much worry.
4) Chronic Stress Syndrome- Collection of symptoms resulting from the long-term effects of
prolonged exposure to the bodys physiological stress responses.
Effects on Cardiovascular system- When under chronic stress people may overeat and exercise
less, thereby increasing their risk of obesity. Obesity increases cholesterol levels and diabetes
risk, and both are leading risk factors for heart disease.
Effects on Digestive system- Constantly directs blood away from the stomach and intestines, the
digestive system doesnt get the fuel it needs to do its job. This can result in stomachache,
constipation, or diarrhea. Stress hormones can also affect the bodys ability to regulate blood
sugar levels, which may increase the risk of diabetes.
Effects on the Immune system- When stressed, the body releases cortisol and other hormones to
strengthen your immune system. However, long-term over production of these hormones due to
chronic stressors can suppress the immune system, reduction your ability to fight off infections.
5) Emotional Signs- Anxiety, sleep disruption, anger and agitation, trouble concentrating,
unproductive worry, frequent mood swings, and depression
Physical Signs- Stooped posture, sweaty palms, chronic fatigue, weight loss or weight gain,
Migraine or tension headaches, neck aches, digestive problems, asthma attacks, and physical
symptoms that your doctor cant attribute to another condition.

Behavioral Signs- Overreacting to problems or difficult situations, increased use of alcohol,

tobacco, or drugs, unusually impulsive behavior, Withdrawing from relationships or contact with
others, Feeling burned out on school or work, frequent bouts of crying, feelings of anxiety or
6) Immune cells to decrease, promote weight gain, lead to the breakdown of muscle, increase
fluid retention, and decrease inflammatory response.
7) A stressor is any event that triggers your stress response. Chronic stressors reflect long-term,
life changing events, such as struggle to recover from a serious injury.
8) pg.50-51
9) Relax, step back from stressful situations, and face your challenges with renewed energy and
confidence. Some of these techniques involve making changes to your lifestyle and cultivating
habits that strengthen your resilience and energy.
10) Do the Easy questions first, which will give you confidence and allow you to budget your
remaining time on the more Difficult question.
11) All domains of health
12) Sleep debt- A condition occurring when the amount of sleep you attain is less than the
amount you need for optimal functioning.
13) It affects mental health by, reducing reaction time, reducing the capacity to learn new
material, and impairing coordination and judgment.
14) Alcohol and marijuana use, smoking, fighting and thoughts of suicide.
15) Go to bed early, Get a sleep pattern going by sleeping and waking up around the same time,
dont stare at the ceiling, quiet and dark sleeping environment, cut caffeine, go to the gym earlier
in the day, avoid alcohol and cigarettes before bedtime, set stress aside until morning, try not to
nap, avoid all-nighters, try not work in bed, give yourself time to wind down, try not to sleep-inon week-ends
16) Slow you breathing and metabolism, quiet your mind, and greatly reduce your stress.
17) Lower blood pressure and calm your mind
18) A technique that helps you relax each major muscle group in your body, one by one, adding
up to a powerful reduction in physical tension.
19) Visualization- visualize yourself somewhere relaxing by closing your eyes and imaging a
peace place to reduce stress.
Guided imagery- When nervous for an event such as a speech, image a standing ovation at the
Athletes often use visualization techniques to handle pressure of competitive events.

Chapter 4
1) Provide you with energy, helps you stay healthy, and allow you to function at your best.
Lacking nutrients- Drain your energy, decrease your sense of well-being, High Blood
Pressure, Heart Disease, Type 2 diabetes, and obesity.
2) Carbohydrates- 4
3) Simple Carbohydrates- The most basic unit of carbohydrates, consisting of one or two
sugar molecules. EX: Glucose, fructose, galactose, maltose, sucrose, and lactose.
Complex Carbohydrates- Contain chains of multiple sugar molecules; commonly called
starches, but also come in two non-starch forms: Glycogen and Fiber
4) Unrefined grains or whole grains include three parts-brans, germ, and endosperm they
contain valuable vitamins, minerals, fibers, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Which help
maintain body functions and may reduce the risk of certain diseases. In contrast to refined
grains in which are stripped of their bran and germ during processing.
5) 45-65%
6) Saturated fats-(Saturated with hydrogen) Solid at room temp and stable, they arent easily
altered and have long shelf times. Usually found in animal products, dairy products, and
tropical pills. It can also increase LDL cholesterol in blood. A high level of LDL is a
major risk factor for heart disease, increases of stroke and can lead to a heart attack.
Unsaturated fats- Flexible and liquid at room tem (oils). 2 types are monounsaturated and
polyunsaturated. Consuming it triggers less total cholesterol production and decreases
your blood levels of LDL and increase HDL that protects you against some cancers.
7) Monounsaturated- Fatty acid chains with 1 unsaturated region
Polyunsaturated- Fatty acid chain with 2 or more unsaturated regions
Trans fats- Fats that are produced when liquid fat (oil) is turned into solid fat during food
8) They help get rid of newly formed cholesterol and reducing deposits in artery walls
thereby reducing blood cholesterol.
9) 20 and 35 percent
10) 71
11) Folic acid is a water soluble B-vitamin complex. Woman bearing labor should intake 400
Micrograms daily
12) It is vital to nutrient digestion, absorption, and transportation. It serves as lubricants,
regulates body temps, reduces fluid retention, helps prevent constipation, provides
moisture to skin and other tissues, carries waste out of the body, is the medium in which
most chemical reactions take place, and gives the feeling of fullness when consumed with
a meal.
13) Vitamin D
14) Fiber is a non-nutrient, non-digestible complex carbohydrate.

Benefits: Promote bowel regularity, easing condition such as hemorrhoids, constipation,

and other digestive disorders.
15) Phytochemicals- Naturally occurring plant substances thought to have benefits such as
disease preventing qualities and health-promoting properties.
16) Antioxidants- Compounds in food that help protect the body from harmful molecules
called free radicals. They work by stabilizing free radicals, thereby stopping the chain
reaction that damages cells.
17) They include a list of all ingredients in food in descending order by weight. Nutrient
information required by the U.S. Food and drug admin. Recommended serving size,
number of servings per package, calories, and calories from fat per serving.
18) 1 (1oz) slice of whole wheat bread, cup(1 oz) cooked brown rice, cup pinto beans
19) Foodborne illness- Illness caused by pathogenic microorganisms consumed through food
or beverages. Avoid raw or uncooked red meat, poultry, shellfish, cake icing, untreated
water, unpasteurized milk, uncooked raw eggs, uncooked fruits and veggies,
contaminated water, raw or rare ground beef. Unpasteurized juice or cider.
20) Milks, eggs. Peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, fish, and shellfish.
21) Vegetarian- A person who avoids some or all foods from animal sources: red meat,
poultry, seafood, eggs, and dairy products
Vegan- Consume no animal products, seafood, dairy products, and many also avoid
products made from or tested on animals
Lacto-ovo vegetarians-Avoid all but will consume dairy products
Pesco-vegetarian-Avoid red meat and chicken but will eat seafood, dairy products and
Semivegetarians- May avoid only red meat, or may eat animal-based foods only once or
twice a week.
22) Lactose intolerance- An inability to properly digest the milk sugar lactose.
23) Onions, corn, peas, broccoli, asparagus, tomatoes, and eggplant.

Chapter 5
1) Health-related fitness- The ability to perform activities of daily living with vigor
(Physical strength and good health). The 5 components: Cardiorespiratory fitness,
Muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
2) Muscular endurance- The capacity of muscles to repeatedly exert force, or to maintain a
force, over a period of time.
Static Muscular Endurance- How long you can hold a force that is motionless
Dynamic Muscular Endurance- How long you can hold a force that is in motion
3) Flexibility- The ability of joints to move through their full ranges of motion.
Good health benefits: relief of muscle tension, reduction of join pain, reduction of back
pain, and improved posture

4) Stronger heart, healthier lungs, better mood, help you manage stress, lowers risk of
premature death, and as you age it will help postpone physical decline and many of the
diseases that can reduce quality of life in your later years.
Manage and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Reduce risk of some cancers. Increased
immune function. Stronger bones. Reduced risk of injury. Healthy weight management.
Benefits to psychological health and stress management.
5) Colorectal cancer in men. Breast and ovarian cancers in women.
6) Helps control weight, regulate certain hormones, encourage your body to remove
substances-including potential toxins that might cause cancer more quickly
7) Overload principle- The idea that in order to increase fitness level, you must increase the
stress placed on your body through exercise, creating a greater demand than your body is
accustomed to meeting which forces it to adopt and become more fit.
8) Frequency- The number of times you engage in a particular exercise each week.
Intensity- The level of effort at which you exercise.
Time (duration) - The amount of time you spend on a particular exercise
Type- The kind of exercise you choose to do.
9) Overload- Increasing the stress placed on your body through exercise, which results in
an improved fitness level
Progressive Overload- Gradually overloading the body over time in order to avoid
10) Cardiorespiratory fitness is physical activity that increases heart rate and improves works
the large muscle groups. You can improve it by aerobic exercise which makes your heart,
lungs, and entire circulatory system stronger by requiring them to work harder to deliver
adequate oxygen to your muscle.
11) Target heart rate zone recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine is
between 64% to 91%
12) To compute maximum heart rate: 206.9-(Your age * 0.67) = Max heart rate
Target heart rate: minimal physical activity (64%-75% of max heart rate)
Low-end: MHR*0.64=
High-end: MHR*0.74=
Sporadic physical activity (74%-84% of MHR)
Low-end: MHR*0.74=
High-end: MHR*0.84=
Regular Physical activity (80%-91% of MHR)
Low-end: MHR*0.80=
High-end: MHR*0.91=
13) Muscular strength develops best when you do fewer repetitions with heavier weights or
more resistance and muscular endurance develops best when you do more reps with
lighter or less resistance.
14) Your core muscles are the muscles that run the entire length of your torso, stabilizing the
spine, pelvis, and shoulders. They provide a solid foundation for movement of the arms

and legs and make it possible for you to stand upright, move on 2 feet, balance, and shift
movement in any direction and stand upright.
Core strength can be built through exercises such as abdominal curls, planks, back
extensions, Pilates, and any other exercise that work core muscles.
15) Before, during and after
Pain, tightness, or pressure in your chest, neck, arm, or shoulder.
Dizziness or nausea.
Cold sweats
Severe muscle cramps
Extreme shortness of breath
Pain in your joins, feet, ankles or legs

Chapter 6
1) The status of the obesity problem according to the Center for disease Control and
Prevention has declared obesity a national epidemic
2) Because excess fat makes your body resistant to insulin, a hormone that controls blood
sugar (glucose) levels. If insulin resistance develops, blood sugar can become
dangerously high and lead to a form of diabetes where insulin is produced but cells do not
respond to it and dont take in glucose for energy production.
3) High blood pressure (Hypertension), Type 2 diabetes, Abnormal levels of blood fats,
Coronary heart disease, Stroke, Metabolic syndrome, Cancer, Osteoarthritis, Sleep apnea,
Gallbladder disease, Fatty liver disease, Fertility problems, and Pregnancy complications.
4) Metabolic Syndrome- A group of obesity-related factors that increase the risk of
cardiovascular disease and diabetes, including: large waistline, high triglycerides, low
HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, and high fasting blood glucose.
5) Colon, rectal, esophageal, and kidney. In woman Breast cancer and Prostate in men,
6) Energy Balance- The state achieved when energy consumed from food is equal to
energy expended, maintaining body weight.
7) Basal Metabolism
8) Basal metabolic rate (BMR) - The rate at which the body expends energy for only basic
functioning of vital organs.
Factors that lower basal metabolic rate: Age, genetic factors, gender differences,
environmental factors, psychological factors.
9) 15 pounds. Excess calorie contribute and decline in physical activity.
10) Waist-to-hip ratio is a measurement used to predict weight-related health problems. It
determined by dividing your waist circumference by your hip circumference.
11) Body Mass Index (BMI) - A numerical measurement, calculated from height and weight
measurements, that provides an indicator of health risk categories.

12) Modify your eating habits, Get physically active, Seek support
13) Hunger- The physiological sensation caused by the lack of food
Appetite- The physiological response to the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food that
prompts or postpones eating.
Satiety- Physically fullness; the state in which there is no longer the desire to eat.
14) Cut Trans fats from your diet, Consume more good fats, Make sure each meal includes
some fat.
15) Participate in activities such as weightlifting to increase muscle mass and swimming to
improve cardiovascular fitness.
16) Anorexia Nervosa- An eating disorder characterized by extremely low body weight,
body image, distortion, severe calorie restriction, and an obsessive fear of gaining weight
Bulimia Nervosa- An eating disorder characterized by episodes of binge eating followed
by a purge behavior such as vomiting, laxative abuse, or extreme exercise
Binge-Eating Disorder- The rapid consumption of an excessive amount of food.
Disordered Eating- A range of unhealthful eating behaviors used to deal with emotional
issues that does not warrant a diagnosis of a specific eating disorder.
17) Compulsive overeating- Constantly eating even when full. Eating quickly, often snack
around the clock instead of sitting down to eat at set meal times. Some use food as
comfort. They also think and talk about food throughout the day
Extreme dieting- Tend to be young women. Dieting and weight loss become obsessions
focused on each bite of food taken and every pound if weight shed.
Although they are never lose enough weight to have anorexia, they do suffer from
physical effects of weight loss, such as weakness from diminished muscle mass.
They are also at greater risk for developing anorexia.

Chapter 7
1) Drug- A chemical substance that alters the body physically or mentally for a nonnutritional purpose.
Psychoactive- A drug that alters feelings, mood, perceptions, or psychological
2) To seek pleasure, escape from problems, or relieve pain. Others use it to improve their
performance at school, work, or on the field.
3) 1 in 4 meet criteria for medical criteria for drug addiction or dependence.
5) Most common illicitly used drug is Marijuana and the second one is Prescription drugs
(nonmedical use)
6) Drug misuse- The inappropriate use of a legal drug, either for a reason for which it was
not medically intended, or by a person without a prescription
Drug abuse- The use (Most often the excessive use) of any legal or illegal drug in a way
that is detrimental to your health.

Addiction-A complex, relapsing condition characterized by uncontrollable craving for a

substance or behavior despite the harmful consequences.
Euphoria- A feeling of intense pleasure.
Tolerance- Reduced sensitivity to a drug so that increased amounts are needed to achieve
usual effect
7) Weight, Sex, Ethnicity, history of drug use (tolerance)
8) Taking the incorrect dose
Taking the medicine at the wrong time
Forgetting to take a dose
Failing to take all the medicine
9) Painkillers
10) Risk of liver problem increases
11) Yes, 6.1% of people over the age of 12.Usually used by rolling a joint or using a bong
(water pipe), or made in brownies. More males do it
12) Daily cough and phlegm production, bronchitis and other respiratory problems, lung
damage, impaired immune system function, impaired cognitive functioning, and
possibility increased risk of cancer of the respiratory tract and lungs.
13) Caffeine
14) Restlessness, anxiety, dehydration, and irritability. Symptoms of withdrawal: Headaches,
anxiety, fatigue, drowsiness, and depression.
15) A rush of euphoria, usually feeling energetic and mentally alertness. It also reduces the
need for food and sleep. Some people tend to say it helps them perform simple physical
and mental tasks more quickly. More common effects are, Loss of appetite, increased
heart rate, increased blood pressure, and increased respiration. They also include chest
pain, blurred vision, fever, muscle spasms, and convulsions. Long term use can cause:
Abnormal heart rhythms, seizures, heart damage, strokes, abdominal pain and nausea,
coma, and death.
16) Long term use can increase long term use can increase the risk of heart-related illness.
17) Confusion, sleep problems, anxiety, drug craving, and paranoia. More distinctly physical
effects can include nausea, blurred vision, chills, sweating, muscle tension, rapid eye
movement, involuntary teeth clenching, faintness and increases heart rate and blood
Similar drugs with the same effect: amphetamines and cocaine
18) It causes: decreased blood pressure, drowsiness, visual disturbance, dizziness, and
confusion. It can also cause partial amnesia, rendering users unable to remember certain
events. Yes it can.
19) Inhalants- Chemical vapors that when inhaled, produce mind-altering effects.
Examples: Solvents, Aerosols, Gases, Nitrites
20) Drowsiness, calm feeling that can benefit people suffering from anxiety, sleep disorder
or pain. Two common examples: Barbiturates and Benzodiazepines.

21) Heroin is an opiate. It is the fastest acting. It is typically administered by injection to the
vein, or smoked. It is addicting because people who use it tend to be older when they
start. At a mean age of 23.

Chapter 8
1) Half of the adults in the US drink alcohol-about 129 million people.
2) Binge drinking- A pattern of drinking alcohol that results in a blood alcohol
concentration of 0.08 or above (about 5 or more alcoholic drinks within 2 hours for men,
or four or more alcoholic drinks within 2 hours for women). It is most common in the age
range of 18-24.
3) Most likely to binge drink is athletes, sports fans, frats, and sorority members, and
extremely social students. The group that is less likely to drink are: women, minorities,
religious, married, and older students tend to drink less.
4) They are not protecting their children from alcohol abuse.
5) How much and how quickly you drink, What you drink, your sex, food intake, and
6) Lightheadedness, relaxation, loss of inhibition, compromised motor coordination, slowed
reaction times, slurred speech, dulled senses, and clouded judgment. They also include
dehydrate, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbances, alterations in the metabolic state
of liver and other organs.
7) It can cause miscarriage, health problems, brain damage in the fetus, facial abnormalities,
retarded growth, and permanent intellectual and behavioral problems.
8) Tolerance- Needing to drink more and more alcohol to get drunk.
Withdrawal symptoms-Having a physical dependence on alcohol to the extent that
nausea, sweating, shakiness, tremors, seizures, and anxiety are experienced after stopping
Loss of control- Drinking more or longer than intended
Desire or an inability to quit- Having a persistent desire to cut down on drinking or
attempting unsuccessfully to do so.
Overwhelming time commitment- Spending an excessive amount of time buying
alcohol, drinking it, and recovering from its effects.
Interference with life- Experiencing a reduction in social, recreational, or work
activities, or working activities due to alcohol use.
Continued use- Drinking despite the knowledge that it is causing physical or
psychological problems.
9) Gender, parents, low self-esteem, impulsiveness, a need for approval, peer pressure,
poverty, and being a victim of physical or sexual abuse.
10) Young adult- Start by their 21st birthday. Lack of family history of alcoholism. Dont
seek help and do not abuse any other drugs. 31.5%
Young antisocial- Start earlier than 21. Tend to have families that suffer from
alcoholism. Half are considered antisocial and many have major disorder, bipolar or

anxiety problems. They are also more likely to smoke cigarettes, and marijuana, as well
as use of cocaine. They account for 21% of alcoholics
Functional- Middle aged, well-educated and smoker, stable jobs with good incomes and
families. About 1/3 have a family history of alcoholism. And about have had a major
bout of depression. Make up 19.5% of the alcoholic population.
Intermediate familial- Middle aged drinkers tend to have alcoholic parents. About half
have been depressed. Most smoke cigarettes. And nearly one in 5 have had problems with
cocaine and marijuana use. 19% of alcoholic population.
Chronic severe- Start early in life. Develop problems young as well. Tend to be middleaged, antisocial, and prone to psychiatric disorders, including depression. They exhibit
high rates of smoking, marijuana use, and cocaine dependence. Make up 9 % of alcoholic
11) Rebellion and experimentation, peer pressure, family exposure, aggressive advertising
and marketing, desire to lose weight, stress.
12) Dopamine.
13) Tobacco
14) Cardiovascular diseases: Coronary heart disease, Stroke, Abdominal aortic aneurysm,
Respiratory Disease: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
15) All the chemicals she smokes passes onto her baby, Nicotine reduces the amount of
oxygen that goes to the baby, 30% higher baby will be born premature, increase risk of
illness or death, Miscarriage and stillbirths.
Cancer, respiratory infections, and asthma.
Premature death and disease in children and adults who do not smoke
Increase a nonsmokers risk of heart disease by 25-30%
Cause lung cancer in people who have never smoked.
Cause ear infection in children
Cause sudden infant death syndrome in babies.
17) Bidis are worse than cigarettes. They contain 3 to 5 more nicotine than found in a regular
cigarette. Bidis smokers are at increased risk for several types of cancer, including oral,
lung, stomach, and esophageal cancer, as well as coronary heart disease, emphysema, and
chronic bronchitis.
18) Dopamine.