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University of Lucknow

Department of Business
Administration

Euro & Bharat Stage


Emission Norms
Environment & Management
Assignment

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I take this opportunity with much pleasure to thank all the people who have
helped me in the preparation of this assignment. I sincerely thank my
Environment and Management Lecturer Dr. Ajai Prakash for his guidance,
help and motivation. Apart from my subject of my study, I learnt a lot from him,
which I am sure will be useful in different stages of my life.
This assignment would not have been possible without the confidence,
endurance and support of my family. My family has always been a source of
inspiration and encouragement. I wish to thank my parents, whose love, teachings
and support helped me a lot in the preparation of this assignment.

Krishna Prasad
MBA 1st Semester
Section A
Department of business Administration
University of Lucknow

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Index
S. No

Contents

Page no

Introduction

Euro Emissions

Bharat Stage Norms

10

Emission Norms in India

11

History of Emission Norms in India

13

Fuel Technology

15

Article from The Business Line

18

Article from The Times of India

20

References

21

10

Bibliography

22

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(Euro and Bharat Stage Emission Norms)


Introduction
India's ongoing population explosion has placed great strain on the
country's environment. This rapidly growing population, along with a move
toward urbanization and industrialization, has placed significant pressure on
India's infrastructure and its natural resources. Deforestation, soil erosion, water
pollution and land degradation continue to worsen and are hindering economic
India's booming metropolises are straining the limits of municipal services and
causing serious air pollution problems.
The Environment Protection Act was passed in 1986, creating the Ministry
of Environment and Forests (MoEF) and strengthening India's commitment to the
environment, which was enshrined in the 42nd amendment to country's
constitution in 1976. Under the 1986 Environmental Protection Act, the MoEF is
tasked with the overall responsibility for administering and enforcing
environmental laws and policies. The MoEF established the importance of
integrating environmental strategies into any development plan for the country.
Nevertheless, despite a greater commitment by the Indian government to protect
public health, forests and wildlife, policies geared to develop the country's
economy have taken precedence in the last 20 years. While industrial
development has contributed significantly to economic growth in India, it has
done so by degrading the environment.
Not only is industrial pollution increasing public health risks, but
abatement efforts also are consuming a significant portion of India's gross
domestic product (GDP). As such, one of MoEF's main responsibilities continues
to be the reduction of pollution. To control pollution, especially in urban areas,
the Govt. has taken following action for the Industrial Sector.
Closure of polluting industries after due warnings to remedy the situation.
Shifting of polluting industries to less polluted locations. Carrying capacity
based development planning.
Declaration of air pollution control areas by state governments?
Industrial zoning followed by Industrial Complexes, for pollution
prevention and reuse of wastes.
As far as transport sector is concerned, emissions all over the country from
18 million on-road vehicles in 1989 totalled 26,000 tons per day (TPD), which
increased to around 63,000 TPD from 49 million vehicles by the end of 2001 and
is expected to increase to around 85,000 TPD by 2005. Therefore, exhaust
emission control has become a matter of paramount importance. The initiatives
taken so far cover:
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Phased switchover from leaded to unleaded petrol beginning in 1995


initially in the metro cities. Only unleaded petrol is supplied in all retail
outlets of the entire country effective 01.02.2000
Introduction of Vehicular Pollution Checks of all vehicles on the roads in
the metropolitan cities coupled with phasing out of old vehicles and
replacement of two stroke engines.
Improved engine efficiency coupled with use of catalytic converters in new
vehicles.
Earlier a Supreme Court directive had stipulated the adoption of Euro-I and
Euro II emission norms in a time bound manner.
In consultation with the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF), the
Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) vide GSR 77(E) dated 31.01.2000
had notified more stringent emission standards known as Bharat Stage-II
similar to Euro-II emission standards for registration of Motor cars and
other Four-wheeler Passenger Vehicles with Gross Vehicle Weight (GVW)
equal or less than 3500 Kg, which should confirm to Euro-II emission
norms by 01.04.2000 in the National Capital Region.
Introduction of low-sulphur diesel and low benzene gasoline in a phased
manner along with promotion of alternative fuels like Compressed Natural
Gas (CNG).
The Ministry of Surface Transport also constituted a committee, vide its
order dated 19.01.2000, to work out a phased time table, for introduction
of fuel with 0.05% (max.) sulphur content throughout the country to enable
the stipulation of Bharat-II emission standards for registration of new
vehicles throughout the country.

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Euro Emissions Standards for Cars


Fuel exhausts have an impact on air quality and human health, especially
in urban areas where traffic is dense. To reduce this impact, the EU is preparing
to impose stricter emissions limits on both diesel and petrol cars, limiting in
particular nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) which pose the most
serious health problems. With the next generation of standards for cars (known
as Euro 5) recently drafted and set to enter into force as early as mid-2008, some
member states including France and Germany are already pressing ahead with
measures of their own.
Europe concentrates on cars as they have very small number of two
wheelers and 3 wheelers which are now rare. The above proposed European
Union stricter emissions limits alone wont do much to check air pollution. In
India, the Supreme Courts order disallowing registration of all private noncommercial vehicles in the National Capital Region (NCR) failing to conform to
Euro II fuel emission norms from 1st April 2000 was the revival of public debate
on the need for an environment-friendly and sustainable transport network in
cities. This would meant that any new four wheeled petrol driven passenger
vehicle to be registered after 31st March 2000 in the NCR would have to meet
mass emission norms which were 2 to 3 times more stringent than the current
permissible carbon monoxide emissions depending upon the reference weight of
the vehicle. The corresponding tightening of norms for hydrocarbons and
nitrogen oxides together was to be about 3 to 4 times. Similarly, for new four
wheeled diesel passenger vehicles the new carbon monoxide emission norms was
1.2 to 2 times more stringent compared to its present levels, correspondingly for
nitrogen oxides, the new range was 2 to 2.4 times stricter; and for particulate,
though currently there were no mass emission norms, but from April 2000 the
range became from 0.14 to 0.25 gm/km depending upon the reference weight of
the vehicle.
This order had shaken car manufacturers, which was evident from some of
their statements that they would try to meet the Euro II norms before the original
deadline of 1st April 2005 set by the apex court. The irony is that many of these
manufacturers were capable of producing vehicles that adhere to the Euro II
norms. Their foreign promoters were, in fact, manufacturing and selling only such
vehicles in other countries, which met the Euro II standards. Why did not these
companies adopt the Euro II norms for vehicles produced in India as well? When
they were forced to follow the stringent norms, they were indirectly admitting
that meeting these norms was indeed possible before the original deadline; the
Indian customers would not be very pleased with them. The other logical question
was why limit the enforcement of Euro II norms only in the NCR? The pollution
caused by automobiles was getting worse in other cities, too. Should we wait to
act similarly in other cities till they reach the levels of pollution that was in Delhi?
In fact, this was a right time to file a petition to the Supreme Court for extension
of Euro II emission norms to other metropolitan cities in the country. However,
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it was not enough to just ensure that the new vehicles, all over the country and
wherever they were registered adhered to the Euro II norms.
Introduction of Euro standard
Poor air quality leads to health problems such as respiratory and
cardiovascular disease. To preserve air quality, cars must meet certain standards
for exhaust emissions before they can be approved for sale. Successive 'Euro'
emission standards for passenger cars and light vehicles were initiated in the EU
in 1993. They have already helped achieve considerable reduction in air pollution
from cars, for example by forcing carmakers to fit catalyst filters to exhaust pipes.
Heavy-duty trucks and buses, off-road diesel vehicles and motorcycles are subject
to separate emissions regulations. The negative health and environmental effects
of air pollution are to be tackled by the Commission in a forthcoming strategy
due by mid-2005. This so-called thematic strategy on air pollution will be adopted
as part of the 6th environmental action programme and its related Clean Air for
Europe (CAFE) programme launched in 2001 (see EurActiv Links Dossier on the
6th EAP).
The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became
effective in 1989. These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass
emission limits for both gasoline (1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were
gradually tightened during the 1990s. Since the year 2000, India started adopting
European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled light-duty and heavyduty vehicles. Indian own emission regulations were prescribed for two and threewheeled vehicles.
Though the Govt. is keen to catch up with the developed world as far as the air
pollution from automobiles is concerned, the following factors are hindering
proper implementation of exhaust emission (Euro) Norms:
1. A set of lacunae exists in the pollution control and implementation of Euro
norms in India.
2. The standards have not been implemented for the entire country. The
government has not given any rational reason for not adopting these
standards for the whole nation.
3. The issue of pollution by the existing fleet of old technology vehicles still
remains. Estimates show that 70 per cent of the cars are from the
precatalytic converter era. It is established that the catalytic converters
substantially reduce emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons.
4. The current set of diesel vehicles on our roads emits inordinate amounts of
particulate matter, NOx and sulphur dioxide. Of highest concern are the
fine, respirable particles of sizes 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5)
which are highly carcinogenic and carry toxic heavy metals with them. It
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is time the government set standards to particularly address PM10 and


PM2.5 emissions. The answer may lie in control technologies such as
particulate traps, oxidation catalysts, and NOx catalytic controls.
5. The poor maintenance of vehicles. There is a tendency for vehicles to
pollute more as they get older. Solution could lie in mandatory periodic
fitness certification for all such vehicles. A rigorous maintenance schedule
by the owner and genuine certification by authorised service stations would
be the key elements of any such effort.
6. The Motor Vehicles Act of 1988 and the Central Motor Vehicles Rules of
1989 place no limit on the age of vehicles plying on the road. They also
lack any provision that addresses the scrapping of old commercial vehicles.
The same is being challenged in courts of law. Even with the best of
maintenance standards, the older vehicles may still cause an unacceptable
level of pollution.
7. The courts directives do not apply to old personalised vehicles.
8. The crucial role of oil refineries in improving air quality cannot be
overstated. Fuel adulteration is rampant. For vehicles to conform to Euro
norms, it is imperative that petrol and diesel adhere to specific fuel
properties. The oil refineries still produce diesel with relatively high levels
of sulphur though production and use of leaded petrol has stopped.
Unless the above stated hindrances are overcome, the race against air pollution
will be lost even before getting started.
Who Pollutes the Air?
Air pollution is the outcome of unsustainable economic activities of
production and consumption. Burning of fossil and bio-fuels, industrial processes
and running of vehicles in the transport sector- all contribute heavily to air
pollution. Nearly 62 per cent of Indian power generation is from coal fired
thermal power plants and 70 per cent of the coal produced every year in India has
been used for thermal power generation. Although, most of the Indian coal has
low sulphur content, burning of coal has been the source of serious environmental
problems including the emission of CO2, NOx, fly-ash etc. It is reported that the
transport sector contributed most of the pollution load (27 per cent NOx, 74 per
cent carbon monoxide [CO], 11 per cent volatile organic compound and 100 per
cent lead in urban areas.
The vehicular pollution is caused because of the following factors:
Many vehicles are in poor condition, creating more particulates and
burning fuel inefficiently.
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Lower quality fuel is used, leading to the emissions of far greater quantities
of pollutants.
Motor vehicles are concentrated in a few large cities.
There is a lack of public transport and travel demand management.
Bad road conditions and poor infrastructure
As of June 30, 2000, the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) identified a
total of 1551 medium and large industrial units under the seventeen highly
polluting industrial sectors. Of these about 77 per cent are predominantly water
polluting, 15 percent predominantly air polluting and the remaining 8 per cent of
the industries are potentially both air and water polluting. Out of 1551 units, 1324
have provided the requisite pollution control facilities, 165 units have closed and
62 units are defaulting. Air pollution causes many health problems, hinders
economic productivity, damages material property and causes ecological
changes.

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Bharat Stage Norms


In the earlier days of development of automobiles, the main issue was to
get the car moving in the fastest and safest manner. With globalization and
improved economic conditions, there has been a huge increase in number of cars
and other vehicles coming out of manufacturing plants. With increase in number
of vehicles, the amount of exhaust gasses emitted is also increasing exponentially,
thus having significant influence exponentially, and thus having significant
influence on the environment. If this is not controlled, companies may sacrifice
the environment structurally. It is for this reason that Governments across the
world have implemented emission standards to ensure that companies ensure that
emissions are not too much. In India, these standards have been captured under
the name of Bharat Stage, BS for short.
First, it is important to know the contents of exhaust gases and necessity of
controlling it before knowing how the Government has decided on implementing
different Emission norms.
Exhaust Fumes
Emission control on cars and trucks have one purpose i.e. to reduce amount
of pollutants and environmentally damaging substances released by vehicles. The
consequences of pollutants are dangerous. The air we breathe and water we drink
may become contaminated with chemicals that adversely affect our health.
Initially, during the development of automobiles not much attention was
given to emissions. However, this changed when winter day in England, smog
was spotted. In simple words, SMOG is the name given to the combination of
FOG and Smoke, thus standing for dirty air.
However, smog not only appears as dirty air, it is also an irritant to a
persons eyes, nose, and throat. The key elements in smog are Hydro-carbons,
NOx (oxides of nitrogen) and Sulphur-oxides. These particles react with each
other and cause polluting smog.
Pollutants in Automotive exhaust fumes
The main automotive pollutants Hydro-carbon, Carbon monoxide, and
Oxides of nitrogen emissions are also present in engine exhaust fumes. These
emissions are caused by different reasons.
Hydro-carbon emissions are caused largely by unburned fuel from
combustion chambers, and can also originate from evaporative sources such as a
petrol tank. CO emissions are a by-product of combustion process and they result
from incorrect air/fuel mixtures. NOx emissions are caused when cylinder
temperatures exceed 1371 degree centigrade; in this case, nitrogen and oxygen
combine to form NOx.
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All these components are harmful in their own way and thus are subject to
government scrutiny.

Emission Norms in India


It was in 1991 that first time emission norms were introduced in India for
petrol cars; diesel cars followed in 1992. From then onwards, new cars
manufactured in India had to adhere to these standards; their exhaust fumes could
not contain more than specified quantity of pollutants.
These standards were compounded with the implementation of mandatory
catalytic converters in 1995 for the 4 Metro cities, thus reducing pollution further.
From 2000, India introduced stricter Emission standards modelled on the
European ones. This meant the birth of Bharat Norms, with the first set of norms
known as Bharat Stage II, followed by BS III, and BS IV (BS I was the earlier,
Indian standard).
The tables given below give details of Emission norms at different stages
and area of implementation. Here we are focusing on petrol engines, but diesel
engines have similar norms also. Interestingly, you will see that initially HC and
NOx were considered in one category.
Emissions Testing
Given the norms, obviously the government needs to have methods to test the
exhaust fumes also. For this purpose a gas analyser is used. A typical exhaust gas
analyser has a long sample hose with a probe at the end of hose. The probe is
inserted to the vehicles tailpipe. When the analyser is turned on, an internal pump
moves an exhaust sample from tail pipe through the sample hose and the analyser.
A water trap and filter in the hose removes moisture and carbon particles.
The pump forces an exhaust sample through a sample cell in the analyser. In the
sample cell, a beam of infra-red light passes through the exhaust sample. Using
light spectrograph, the analyser then determines the quantities of HC and CO (if
the analyser is a two gas analyser) or HC, CO, CO2 and O2 if its a four gas
analyser. Some analysers called five gas analysers can also measure NOX. Nearly
all analysers currently used are four or five gas machines. Most of gas analysers
measure the gases in percentages or parts per million.
The Maximum limits for the measures gases are seer by government for particular
vehicle as mentioned in tables above.

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Norms Applied to Fuels


Besides norms applied to exhaust fumes (and hence the cars engineering), fuels
are also subject to certain rules. In India, the Ministry of Environment and Forest
notified fuel specifications. Herein maximum limits for critical ingredients (like
benzene) have been specified for engine fuel.
Automotive Engineering and Emission Norms
Given engine norms, auto manufactures need to do adaptations in their
engineering to achieve these norms.
While a discussion on this will be very technical, here are some points that
manufacturers will focus on:
-

Temperature in the cylinder as this affects completeness of combustion

Recirculating exhaust fumes

Better catalytic technology

Changes in proportions of fuel and air

At some points, introducing more expensive technology in order to comply with


stricter norms will not make sense to manufacturers. It is for this reason that we
have seen localized phase out of certain models, such as the Maruti 800.
Non Structural Emission Influences
Besides changes in auto engineering structure, emissions can also vary across cars
for situational reasons. The below is an analysis of this variation, listing certain
reasons for changes in emissions.
Excessive HC emissions may be caused by

Ignition system misfiring


Improper ignition timing
Excessively lean or rich air/Fuel ratio
Low cylinder compression
Defective valves, guides, or filters
Defective rings, pistons or cylinders
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Vacuum leaks
All these issues lead to incomplete combustion, thus releasing HC into the air.

Excessive CO emissions are caused by

Rich air/fuel mixtures


Dirty air filter
Faulty injectors
Higher than normal fuel pressures
Defective system input sensor

Excessive HC and CO emissions caused by

Plugged Positive Crank case Ventilation system (PCV system)


Excessively rich air/Fuel ratio
Stuck open heat riser valve
AIR pump inoperative or disconnected
Engine oil diluted with gasoline

Higher than normal NOX emissions may be caused by

An overheated engine
Lean air/fuel mixtures
Vacuum leaks
Over advanced ignition timing
Defective EGR system

THE PARAMETERS DETERMINING EMISSION FROM VEHICLES

Vehicular Technology
Fuel Quality
Inspection & Maintenance of In-Use Vehicles
Road and Traffic Management

While each one of the four factors mentioned above have direct environmental
implications, the vehicle and fuel systems have to be addressed as a whole and
jointly optimised in order to achieve significant reduction in emission.
VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY

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In India, the vehicle population is growing at rate of over 5% per annum and
today the vehicle population is approximately 40 million. The vehicle mix is also
unique to India in that there is a very high proportion of two wheelers (76%).

History of Emission Norms in India


The significant environmental implications of vehicles cannot be denied. The
need to reduce vehicular pollution has led to emission control through regulations
in conjunction with increasingly environment-friendly technologies.
It was only in 1991 that the first stage emission norms came into force for petrol
vehicles and in 1992 for diesel vehicles.
From April 1995 mandatory fitment of catalytic converters in new petrol
passenger cars sold in the four metros of Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai and Chennai
along with supply of Unleaded Petrol (ULP) was affected. Availability of ULP
was further extended to 42 major cities and now it is available throughout the
country.
The emission reduction achieved from pre-89 levels is over 85% for petrol driven
and 61% for diesel vehicles from 1991 levels.
In the year 2000 passenger cars and commercial vehicles will be meeting Euro I
equivalent India 2000 norms, while two wheelers will be meeting one of the
tightest emission norms in the world.
Euro II equivalent Bharat Stage II norms are in force from 2001 in 4 metros of
Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata.
Since India embarked on a formal emission control regime only in 1991, there is
a gap in comparison with technologies available in the USA or Europe. Currently,
we are behind Euro norms by few years, however, a beginning has been made,
and emission norms are being aligned with Euro standards and vehicular
technology is being accordingly upgraded. Vehicle manufactures are also
working towards bridging the gap between Euro standards and Indian emission
norms.

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FUEL TECHNOLOGY
In India we are yet to address the vehicle and fuel system as a whole. It was in
1996 that the Ministry of Environment and Forests formally notified fuel
specifications. Maximum limits for critical ingredients like Benzene level in
petrol have been specified only recently and a limit of 5% m/m and 3% m/m has
been set for petrol in the country and metros respectively.
In place of phase-wise up gradation of fuel specifications there appears to be a
region-wise introduction of fuels of particular specifications. The high levels of
pollution have necessitated eliminating leaded petrol, throughout the country.
To address the high pollution in 4 metro cities 0.05% sulphur petrol & diesel has
been introduced since 2000-2001. The benzene content has been further reduced
to 1% in Delhi and Mumbai.
There is a need for a holistic approach so that up gradation in engine technology
can be optimised for maximum environmental benefits.
Other factors influencing emission from vehicles.
INSPECTION & MAINTENANCE (I&M) OF IN-USE VEHICLES
It has been estimated that at any point of time, new vehicle comprise only 8% of
the total vehicle population. In India currently only transport vehicles, that is,
vehicles used for hire or reward are required to undergo periodic fitness
certification. The large population of personalised vehicles are not yet covered by
any such mandatory requirement.
In most countries that have been able to control vehicular pollution to a
substantial extent, Inspection & Maintenance of all categories of vehicles have
been one of the chief tools used. Developing countries in the South East Asian
region, which till a few years back had severe air pollution problem have
introduced an I&M system and also effective traffic management.
ROAD & TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT
Inadequate and poor quality of road surface leads to increased Vehicle Operation
Costs and also increased pollution. It has been estimated that improvements in
roads will result in savings of about 15% of Vehicle Operation Costs.

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Emission Norms for Petrol & Diesel Vehicles in India


As per the Auto Fuel Policy approved by the Cabinet on 3.10.2003, the
quality of Petrol and Diesel was to be upgraded to Bharat Stage-IV (equivalent to
Euro-IV specifications) in 13 identified cities (Delhi/NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata,
Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad including Secunderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune,
Surat, Kanpur, Agra, Solapur and Lucknow) with effect from 1st April, 2010. In
the rest of the country, BS-III Petrol and Diesel (equivalent to Euro-III
specifications) was scheduled to be introduced from 1st April, 2010.
In line with the schedule specified in the Auto Fuel Policy, BS-IV grade
petrol and Diesel have already been made available in 13 specified cities with
effect from 1st April, 2010.
BS-IV Petrol and Diesel are cleaner fuels as they have low sulphur content
vis--vis BS-III fuels. While the BS-III Petrol and Diesel contain 150 mg/kg and
350 mg/kg of sulphur respectively, the sulphur content in BS-IV Petrol and Diesel
respectively. Sulpur being a major air pollutant, reduction in sulphur content in
auto fuels would go a long way in reducing air pollution in Delhi.
Details on emission norms proposed for petrol & diesel vehicles in India
are as follows:

Emission norms for passenger cars

Norms

CO( g/km)

HC+ NOx(g/km)

1991Norms

14.3-27.1

2.0(Only HC)

1996 Norms

8.68-12.40

3.00-4.36

1998 Norms

4.34-6.20

1.50-2.18

India stage 2000 norms

2.72

0.97

Bharat stage-II

2.2

0.5

Bharat Stage-III

2.3

0.35(combined)

Bharat Stage-IV

1.0

0.18(combined)
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Emission norms for Heavy diesel vehicles:

Norms

CO (g/
kwhr)

HC(g/kwhr)

NOx(g/
kwhr)

PM
(g/kwhr)

1991 Norms

14

3.5

18

1996 Norms

11.2

2.4

14.4

India stage 2000 norms

4.5

1.1

8.0

0.36

Bharat stage-II

4.0

1.1

7.0

0.15

Bharat Stage-III

2.1

1.6

5.0

0.10

Bharat Stage-IV

1.5

0.96

3.5

0.02

Emission Norms for 2/3 Wheelers ( Petrol)


Norms

CO ( g/km)

HC+
NOx (g/km)

1991 norms

12-30

8-12 (only HC)

1996 norms

4.5

3.6

India stage 2000 norms

2.0

2.0

Bharat stage-II

1.6

1.5

Bharat Stage-III

1.0

1.0

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New fuel emission norms: Auto, oil firms continue blame game
The Bharat Stage-IV norms were rolled out in 13 identified cities on April 1,
2010, in line with the roadmap laid down in the Auto Fuel Policy.
NEW DELHI, MAY 8: The Governments clean fuel programme or Bharat
Stage-IV norms that came into effect from April 1, 2010 is still facing problems.
Even as the Government is working on a new automotive fuel emission norms to
be introduced in the next few years, the blame game continues among the
stakeholders oil and auto companies with the Bharat Stage-IV norms.
Automobile manufacturers say their readiness will depend on how prepared the
oil companies are with new fuel grades. The oil companies, on the other hand,
say the opposite.
The programme was to be implemented in phases, with a target of bringing over
50 cities by 2015 using cleaner petrol and diesel.
The Bharat Stage-IV norms were rolled out in 13 identified cities on April 1,
2010, in line with the roadmap laid down in the Auto Fuel Policy, instead of an
All-India launch, as only a few oil refineries were providing the required fuel
grade.
But now with refinery capacity going up significantly, most refiners are in a
position to supply the graded fuel. Those closely associated with the oil industry
say that the Government can consider implementing it State-wise, instead of citywise, provided the auto industry is ready.
Says I. V. Rao, Managing Executive Officer (Engineering), Maruti Suzuki India,
The Government wanted to bring out a single norm in the country because of
the environment concern, but oil companies are not able to supply according to
the new norm (from BS-II to BS-II and to BS-IV).
As and when they are ready to supply according to specifications, we will also
come out with the vehicles having upgraded engines.
It is mainly the sulphur contents in the fuel that requires to be filtered as there is
an increase of sulphur content in the environment.

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Automobile companies are working on increasing fuel efficiency of a vehicle by


enhancing the basic engine performance so that better energy is generated. They
are also working on ways to reduce basic weight of vehicles so that less fuel is
consumed, which ultimately will result in making them environment friendly.
The companies are ready and most of them are also making Euro-V (BS-V in
India) compliant vehicles, which are meant for export markets. But, the countrys
Auto Fuel Policy has not moved beyond BS-IV, say observers.
Original equipment manufacturers have the capability and can meet any norm
anytime by a few technical changes for engines to adapt more refined fuel, P.
Balendran, Vice President, General Motors India said.
There are some extra costs that the automakers have to incur for tuning the
engines, and that may ultimately be passed on to the customers, especially the
diesel vehicles.
Marc Nassif, Managing Director, Renault India, said that while the auto industry
does realise green car is a must, the gap between BS-IV and BS-V is huge in
terms of technology as the diesel injection system is completely different. The
impact on small cars is big then, he said.
Many vehicles are still in BS-III in India. I dont think India is ready for new
emission norms. The Government must first look at shift from BS-III to IV. BSV has to be delayed till then, he said. While the auto companies are waiting for
the oil companies to make first move, the oil industry says that to reap the full
benefit of the upgraded fuel quality and reduce pollution levels, more important
and immediate requirement would be to ensure improvement in vehicle engine
technology to reduce emission levels and deliver higher fuel efficiency.
From January 1, 2012 to March 1, 2013 the oil companies have expanded the
coverage of BS-IV to 17 more cities. This was over and above 13 cities already
covered in 2010, said a senior official from an oil company.
The Government has also constituted an Expert Committee under the
chairmanship of Saumitra Chaudhuri, Member, Planning Commission, for
drafting a Draft Auto Fuel Vision & Policy 2025.
Talking about their preparedness, another official said, the Indian refining
industry in the last decade has seen tremendous growth, with the refining capacity
increasing from a modest 62 million tonnes annually in 1998 to 215.066 million
tonnes, at present, comprising 22 refineries 17 under public sector, three in the
private sector and two in joint venture.
(With inputs from Swetha Kannan, Chenna
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THE TIMES OF INDIA India Business

Everything about Bharat Stage norms


NEW DELHI: Come April 1 and auto India will follow new emission norms.
Contrary to popular belief, however, India will don, not Euro-III emission norms
but its less celebrated Indian versions Bharat Stage-II and III (BS-II/III).
BS-II takes over the whole of India except 11 select cities that are under BS-III
reign. Along with the four major metros National Capital Region (NCR),
Chennai, Mumbai, and Kolkata cities like Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Hyderabad
& Secunderabad, Kanpur, Pune, Agra & Surat too will go the BS-III way. The
rest of India, meanwhile, will drive into the BS-II territory on All Fools Day.
Interestingly, emission norms in India have been named BS-II/III not as a pretext
of merely copying Euro-III for India but as a pretext of styling it to suit specific
needs and demands of Indian conditions, said K K Gandhi of Society of Indian
Automobiles Manufacturers.
The European regulations for new heavy-duty diesel engines are usually referred
to as Euro norms and BS-II/III are its evolved forms. The differences lie
essentially in environmental and geographical needs, even though the emission
standards are exactly the same.
For instance, Euro-III is tested at sub-zero temperatures in European countries.
In India, where the average annual temperature ranges between 24 and 28 degree
Celsius, the test is done away with.
Another major distinction is in the maximum speed at which the vehicle is tested.
A speed of 90 kmph is stipulated for BS-III, whereas it is 120 kmph for Euro-III,
keeping emission limits the same in both cases.
In addition to limits, test procedure has certain finer points too. For instance, the
mass emission test measurements done in g/km on a chassis dynamometer
requires a loading of 100 kg weight in addition to unloaded car weight in Europe.
In India, BS-III norms require an extra loading of 150 kg weight to achieve the
desired inertia weight mainly due to road conditions here.
According to industry estimates, passenger car manufacturers alone will have to
invest around Rs 25,000 crore over seven years to meet stricter norms. For one,
diesel car makers will have to resort to new technologies like common rail direct
injection to make cars comply with these stricter norms.
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REFERENCES
ELECTRONIC SOURCES
Web sites/pages

Emission Norms for Petrol & Diesel Vehicles in India


As per the Auto Fuel Policy approved by the Cabinet on 3.10.2003, the quality of
Petrol and Diesel was to be upgraded to Bharat Stage-IV (equivalent to Euro-IV specifications)
in 13 identified cities (Delhi/NCR, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad
including Secunderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Surat, Kanpur, Agra, Solapur andLucknow) with
effect from 1st April, 2010. In the rest of the country, BS-III Petrol and Diesel (equivalent to
Euro-III specifications) was scheduled to be introduced from 1st April, 2010.

http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=65196

Background
The first Indian emission regulations were idle emission limits which became effective in 1989.
These idle emission regulations were soon replaced by mass emission limits for both gasoline
(1991) and diesel (1992) vehicles, which were gradually tightened during the 1990s. Since the
year 2000, India started adopting European emission and fuel regulations for four-wheeled
light-duty and for heavy-duty vehicles. Indian own emission regulations still apply to two- and
three-wheeled vehicles

http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/in/

Vehicular Exhaust
http://cpcb.nic.in/Vehicular_Exhaust.php

HISTORY OF EMISSION REGULATIONS IN INDIA


http://www.pcra.org/english/transport/bahonot.pdf

Everything about Bharat Stage norms


http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2005-02-20/india-business/27858698_1_bs-iiiemission-norms-euro-iii

Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers.

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Bibliography
Websites
http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/industry-andeconomy/new-fuel-emission-norms-auto-oil-firms-continueblame-game/article4696207.ece
http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=65196
http://www.dieselnet.com/standards/in/
http://cpcb.nic.in/Vehicular_Exhaust.php
http://www.pcra.org/english/transport/bahonot.pdf
http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2005-02-20/indiabusiness/27858698_1_bs-iii-emission-norms-euro-iii

Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers.

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