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Maurice Duplessis: 1933 elected leader of the Qubec conservative party. His party was weak and he formed an alliance
with his supporters called the union nationale.
- The Union Nationale did not bring in the reforms as promised, and Maurice Duplessis allowed English
Protestants to dominate and control business in Qubec. His government was corrupt and he accepted bribes. Maurice
Duplessis was a traditionalist who worked to preserve the French culture.
The Quiet Revolution:
Impatient Generation: Younger generations of Qubeckers did not like the conservative government and demanded
1960 1966 Qubeckers elected Liberal Jean Lesage, who brought Qubec into a period of change and reform.
This period of non-violent reform is called the Quiet Revolution.
The Goals of Lesages government were:
o Modernise Qubec
o Ensure the survival of French Canadian language and culture
o Achieve full equality in political and financial affairs the Canadian partnership
o Place the Qubec economy in the hands of the citizens of Qubec.
War Measures Act
Suspends all civil liberties and gives police power to search, arrest, and detain subjects for no reason.
FLQ Crisis/ October Crisis
FLQ: Front de Libration du Qubec
Belief: Qubec was a colony controlled by English business interests, and Qubec must become independent. The only
way to achieve this goal is violence.
Prime Minister Trudeau invoked the WMA and sent in 10 000 troops to Montral.
o Laporte was killed by the FLQ
o In exchange for Cross the FLQ members were given safe passage to Cuba.
October 5, 1970: The FLQ kidnapped British Trade minister James Cross.
They demanded
o $500 000 in gold
o Freedom for imprisoned FLQ members
o Safe transport to Cuba.
October 10, 170: The FLQ kidnapped provincial cabinet minister Pierre Laporte.

Jean Lesage relied heavily on reform minded minister Ren Lvesque during the quiet revolution. However, Lvesque
became convinced that Qubec must become a separate nation to preserve its identity. In 1968, he formed the parti
Qubcois, which based itself on separatism.

1980 and 1995 referenda:

The Qubec province voting on whether to become an independent nation separate from Canada.
1980: Ren Lvesque wanted to separate. However the question asked was incredibly confusing.
o Do you give the government sovereignty association with the government of Canada?
60% of Qubeckers voted no and Qubec remained part of Canada
1995: Jacques Parizeau wanted to separate and the results were much closer than the previous vote, but still the
Federalists were the majority. The Separatist vote represented 49.45 of the total.
Bill 101:
The PQ passed Bill 101 which:
Made French the official language of business, government and the courts
o All store signs, bill boards, and public notices were in French
o Necessitated that all children attend French schools except those whose first language was English.
o Immigrants had to send their children to French schools.

World War 1
Main Causes:
Militarism: The process of building up military forces and weaponry
o The more a nation builds up its army others do as well.
o Leaders believed the only way to peace was to prepare for war.
Alliances: Systems of treaties and partnerships between governments [intended to keep peace in Europe]
o Going to war with an allied nation means going to war with all its alliances
o An argument between 2 countries could draw all other nations into conflict even if the issue had nothing to do
with their nation.
o At the beginning of World War One, alliances were in place between both conflicting sides.
Imperialism: The policy of controlling lands far from home as colonies and building empires. Done for resources, their
markets and honour.
o Gives mother country glory and military strength when needed.
o Led conflict among great power in Europe because it was seen as a threat to peach
Nationalism: Refers to the feeling of loyalty a citizen has to its nation.
o Europeans competed for the largest army and navy to boast
o Gave groups of people within nations the idea to form their own independent nations.
Helped cause WWI because strong alliances were formed, yet there were very weak leaders in power.
Fearing the rise of Germany France, England and Russia signed an agreement.
1. France
o They were humiliated in the France Prussia war. They had lost land to Germany and were afraid that they
would be requested.
o Fears Germany but seeks revenge as well
2. England
o Was a great empire, with many colonies and the largest army and navy in the world?
3. Russia
o Government was incompetent and weak had a large army but they were weak and untrained.

In response to the Triple Entente, Germany Austria-Hungary and Italy signed their own treaty.
1. Germany
o Feels it doesnt have its rightful place in sun they want to expand their land and wealth.
They are surrounded by enemies and are at risk of fighting a two front war.
2. Austria-Hungarian Empire
o Was an unstable nation
o The empire began with joining Austria and Hungary
3. Italy
o Only plays a small part in causing WWI
Arch duke Franz Ferdinand The heir to the Austro- Hungarian Empire was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, a member of
the Blackhand. The Austrian government accused the Serbian authorities, and threatened to invade if certain demands
were not met.
Austria contacted Germany and was reassured of their support with the invasion
Serbia contacted long-time alliance Russia who would take action if Serbia was invaded.
The assassination of Arch duke Franz Ferdinand was an excuse for Austria-Hungary to invade Serbia. This meant that
Germany and Russia were able to get involved and set everything in motion.
Schlieffen Plan
German commander-in-chief developed a plan to defeat the French and Russians. [This plan was designed to deal with
the two front wars]
He thought that Russia would take an extra 3-4 months to assemble their army, so he planned quickly against the
o If the French were knocked out of the war the German army could turn east and meet the threat of the
Russian army.
o He assumed that because Belgium was neutral France would be expecting an attack along the
France/Germany border and concentrates their army there.
When the Germans attacked in 1914, they were too soon. This meant that the French army could reach the attack.
Germans ended up being attacked by French and English troops from Paris.
The German advance was halted and instead of knocking down France, they found themselves bogged down.
By early 1915 the war became A war of Attrition
Robert Borden visited the soldiers and saw that the only way to get men on the Western Front was conscription. French
Canadians and farmers opposed conscription.
Farmers: They needed help on the farm
French Canadians: Not loyal to France or Britain, and felt they didnt need to be involved with foreign affairs.

Wartime Elections Act

A Bill passed on September. 20 1917 by the conservative government of Robert Borden during the conscription crisis.
o It allowed women with family overseas to vote [they were more likely to vote for conscription because they
were stakeholders]
o Was an attempt to get more votes for government
o Was instrumental in pushing liberal to join conservatives in the formation of the Canadian Unionist government.
Treaty of Versailles
Military Controls: The German Army was limited to 10000 soldiers
o No air force
o Only small ships permitted
Military Reparation: Germany pays money to Britain, France and Belgium $35 000000000 in Canadian money.
War Guilt Clause: Germans were forced to sign a statement that they were the primary cause of the war.
Geographical Terms: Germany loses all its colonies
o Alsace Loraine were given back to France
o Soar Coal region loaned to France for 15 years
o Ports of Eastern Germany given to Poland
League of Nations
o After WWI, President Woodrow Wilson offered a peace plan designed to prevent future wars called the League
of Nations.
o The League would ideally, be made up of countries from around the world that together, would make decisions
to settle disputes peacefully and avoid conflict.
The United States had developed an isolationist opinion and the United States was not able to join the League.
Canada was granted its own seat in the League.
Post War Position
1. Economy
o Transition from a war time production economy to a consumer economy
o Employment went down [ Soldiers returning from the war in need of jobs]
o Products from the prairies and the Maritimes not as much in demand
o High inflation [things cost 4x more than in 1914]
2. Labour Unrest
o Unions start to develop [one big union]
o Winnipeg General Strike, 1919
3. Technology
o Telephones
o Appliances
o Radios
o Phonographs
o Cars
Made the life of a Canadian easier and people especially women started having more free time.
4. Arts, Entertainment &sports.
o Canadian Artists began to become more prominent
o Film and music [silent films and Jazz music]
o Professional Sports esp. hockey brought Canadians together

5. New Nationalism
There was Growing Canadian independence
o Chanak Affair (1922) - Signature on the treaty of Versailles
o Halibut Treaty (1923) - Seat at the Paris Peace Conference
o Belfour Report (1926) - Member of the League of Nations
o Byng- King Affair (1926) - Statue of Westminster (1931)
6. Society
o Roaring 20s flappers
o The temperance movement/prohibition
o Female Independence with suffrage and the persons case
Statue of Westminster
November 12, 1931
A British law clarifying the powers of Canadas Parliament and those of other dominions. Granted former colonies full
legal freedom except in areas where they chose to remain subordinate.
Robert Borden
Was the Prime Minister of Canada during WWI. He passed the Military Conscription Act which led to riots in Qubec.
He knew that Canada was not prepared for a war and he appointed Sam Hughes to organize and train the Canadian
Canadian troops arrived to battle after only four months of training.
Ypres was the first battle at which Canadians saw any action.
o Winning this battle was crucial as it would stop Germans from reaching the English Channel.
Canadians fought alongside troops from the French colony of Algeria
On April 22nd Germans used chlorine and mustard gas for the first time.
o Canadians did not have masks and resorted to soaking rags in urine to breath through
o Canadians held the line for two days and gained the reputation as one of the toughest armies.
o 6000 casualties at Ypres
The Winnipeg General Strike
By 1919 the economy began to slow and shift from a war time economy to a consumer oriented economy. During this
time, unemployment increased and veterans returned to find that their old job was either gone or taken.
As well as a loss of income, high inflation had brought up the cost of living by almost 38% a year.
Returning soldiers felt that they had sacrificed enough and that they deserved their jobs back and higher wages. All this
frustration and anger was aimed at the federal government.
Winnipeg was experiencing a lot of growth and was unable to provide for its citizens. As Winnipeg grew, its citizens grew
more and more unhappy. When negotiations broke down between the management and labour workers in the building
and metal trades, Winnipeg trades and labour council called a general strike.

Flappers: Young women that lived non-conformist lives, were considered to be wild, immoral and incontrollable
o Many Canadians were shocked by their behaviour, appearance and lifestyle
o They drank alcohol, wore short skirts and revealing clothing
Temperance Movement: a movement by women and religious groups to ban the sale of alcohol in the early part of the
twentieth century.
Prohibition: Arose in the early 20th century led by religious groups and women.
o They put pressure on the Canadian government to forbid the production and consumption of all alcoholic drinks.
o They believed it would make Canada a safer place and that men would become better providers and family men.
By 1917, all provinces except Qubec had adopted prohibition yet it was such a custom and way of life that the laws
were ignored. Criminals made millions and provinces lose much needed tax. Prohibition laws were repealed and drinking
became legal again.
Suffrage: The right for women to vote and run for office
o Given to women in the 1920s on a federal level
Car: Made famous mostly by the media.
o Canada became the 2nd largest mass producer of cars in the 1920s
Radio: Used in a serious matter or for entertainment.
o Used for communication during the war
o Because of the radio, many types of music was created, and people broadcasted their opinions and products
instead of using posters.
Telephone: One of Canadas well known inventions used all around the world.
o Was such a great success because it would transmit messages fast, clearly and reliably over various other
King- Byng Affair
It was discovered that some Liberals had been taking bribes to allow the smuggling of alcohol into the United States,
where alcohol was illegal. Prime Minister King knew his government was in trouble and it was just a matter of time
before Arthur Meighen would call for a non-confidence.
o Before the vote was taken King went to Governor General Byng and asked him to call an election. King had
expected Byng to say yes because he had been appointed by King. Byng ignored Kings request because an
election had just been called and the Liberals were a minority government.
o He asked Arthur Meighen to become Prime Minister because there was a chance that the other parties could
support the conservatives.
o King resigned and Arthur replaced him, but for only three days before he was defeated in the house of
commons. Another election had to take place.
o King was very crafty and made Canadians forget about his scandal, and they voted for him in a majority

Main Causes of the Depression
1. Over Production and Over expansion
2. Dependence on a few Primary products competition (Russian wheat, fish production, wheat, lumber, mining)
3. Tariffs Protection of home industries. Canada made it very hard and unappealing for US manufacturers to sell
their product here and vice versa.
4. Dependence on the US branch plant economy
5. Too much credit buying goods ended up costing more than they were worth
6. Stock Market over valued and people buying on margin.
o When the market started to slow, everybody sold their shares and exacerbated the problem
Relief Camps
The ministry of National defense set up camps for the homeless
Mainly men lived in and worked in these camps for 20 cents a day.
On to Ottawa Trek
In 1935 the relief camp workers went on strike, demanding better living and working conditions. In Vancouver over
1000 strikers commandeered freight trains and headed to Ottawa. They planned to present their demands to Prime
Minister Bennett and pressure the federal government to improve their conditions.
o As the train stopped in cities along the way more and more marchers joined the trek until there were 2000
o The federal government was afraid that this was a communist revolution and PM Bennett ordered the RCMP to
stop the trekkers at Regina, Saskatchewan.
o Only 8 strikers were permitted to go all the way to Ottawa to speak with Bennett, where they were refused their
o They came back to Regina and organized a peaceful demonstration which ended with a two hour riot.
Downtown Regina was ruined.
Social Credit Party
Solution to the economic problems: Put money into distribution and change the credit system in Canada.
o UFA provided good government but the Great Depression (drought, high debts, low wheat prices, and bank
foreclosures and takeover farms) had taken its toll on popularity with voters.
o Many supporters like social credit because UFA saw only the federal government could print money.
o The idea was rejected and the party returned to British Columbia.
RB Bennett and William Lyon Mackenzie King
1935 1948: Prime Minister King
1. Placed a commission on the Dominion
2. Implemented a Tax Change
3. Implemented Equalisation payments which would share wealth among all the provinces.
Just before the Election Bennett made a new deal
1. 8 hour work day
2. Minimum wage
3. Unemployment insurance
4. Price controls

Manchuria Crisis: September, 1931 Japan invades the Chinese province of Manchuria
o Manchuria falls quickly and the government of Manchukuo established under puppet control of the
dispossessed emperor of China but controlled by Japanese military
Invasion of Abyssinia: 1935-36 Italian forces invaded Abyssinia
o Mussolini recognized the failure to act
o In 1936 the area of Abyssinia was annexed to Italy.
Haile Salassie said: International mortality is at stakeGod and history will remember your judgement.
Rhineland: The German Nazi party win the election in 1932 and move into the supposedly demilitarized zone of
Enabling Act
Was a 1933 constitutional amendment that was very crucial in the rise of Adolf Hitler to become the dictator and
Fuehrer of Germany. It granted the Chancellor the ability to enact laws without involving the Reichstag.
Axis: Germany, Japan, Italy (Russia)
Allies: Britain, France, Canada, USA (late)
Causes of WWII
1. The treaty of Versailles
o Germany was in a depression because of it
o They were also humiliated; stripped of their colonies, army, etc.
2. The Great Depression
o Nations were destabilized and vulnerable; the perfect time for an attack
3. New political boundaries
o (anger at lack of control)
4. New Democratic Governments
o There was distrust as they were unfamiliar
5. Policy of Appeasement
o Giving in to the demands of dictators
o People wanted to avoid another world war so they gave into Hitler`s demands. This allowed Hitler to get away
with a lot because people were willing to turn a blind eye.
o Appeasement did not work because Hitler did not keep up his end of the bargain.
6. Failure of the League of Nations
o The United States never joined the League which lowered its reputation, authority and power considerably
o When China tried using the League of Nations, nothing was done for them.
7. Rise of Fascism.

Lightning War: Intense military attack designed to bring in a quick and swift victory. Used by the Germans.
1. Airstrikes
o Major cities, harbours, military command posts
2. Infantry Men
o Placed along front lines to confuse enemies of where attacks were to occur
3. Mechanized force
o Tanks. Planes. Submarines.
o Paratroopers, who would be flown overhead and dropped behind enemy lines were used
4. Main force
o Secure the gap created by mechanized forced, encircle the enemy as mechanized force paralyzed
Hitler traded back and forth from Blitzkrieg to Sitzkrieg which is known as phony war in which there were periods of
next to no action.
Night of Broken Glass
Was a series of co-ordinated attacks against the Jews in Nazi Germany on June 9-10 1938. The German authorities
looked on without intervening.
At least 91 Jews were killed and 30 000 arrested and incarcerated in concentration camps
The name of the German air force led by Kerman Gory.
It grew to become one of the strongest, most doctrinally advanced, and most battle experienced air forces in the world
when the Second World War started.
The Final Solution
The most deadly phase of the Holocaust, which based itself on the complete and total annihilation of the Jewish peoples
Nazis continued their march into Russia in 1942, Joseph Stalin wanted Britain and the US to invade Western Europe and
establish a western front.
o This would divide the German Forces and slow down the invasion of the Soviet Union
Churchill and Roosevelt were not yet ready to start a full scale attack on the Germans and settled for a hit and run raid
to test the Nazi defences. (Dieppe, France)
o August 19, 1942 a convoy of 237 ships reached Dieppe and the raid began.
o The element of surprise was lost when German ships opened fire on the convoy. The noise from this battle
woke sleeping Germans and by the time the Allies arrived, Germans were ready for them.
o 2000 captured, 9000 dead
o D-Day had to be pushed back because of the results of Dieppe

Battle of Britain
Hitler had turned his attention to Britain, who was the only European country still to oppose him.
Throughout the summer of 1940 the Royal Air Force fought fiercely against the Luftwaffe in the Airspace over Britain.
o 80 Canadian Pilots lost
o 915 RAF planes lost
o 1722 Luftwaffe planes lost
This battle heightened British Morale instead of crushing it like Hitler had intended.
June 6, 1944
Was the invasion of Europe which began under the command of the American General Dwight D.Eisenhower
At dawn 130 000 Canadian, British, and American troops landed in Normandy, France.
They faced fierce resistance from German troops, even though they were not expecting an attack.
The invading troops had the support and protection of
o 800 warships
o 11 000 aircrafts
Manhattan Project
Even with the success of D-Day, WWII still was not over. Japan was still fighting for survival in the Pacific Ocean and they
refused to surrender.
When President Roosevelt died, Henry Truman replaced him. He decided to shorten the war by utilizing a new secret
weapon developed by British and American scientists The atomic bomb.
On August 6 1945 the United States dropped a n atomic bomb on the Japanese city of Hiroshima.
o 70 000 men, women and children died immediately
o 20 000 died from their burns an exposure to radiation
Japan refused to surrender still, and three days later a second atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki.
On August 14 1945 Japan finally surrendered (V-J Day) and WWII was over.
Japanese victories in the Pacific ocean convinced many Canadians that the Japanese would inevitably attack Canadas
West Coast. One week after Pearl Harbour, the Canadian government seized all Japanese- Canadian fishing boats and by
1942 the roundup of Japanese Canadians had begun.
At the beginning of WWII the government had imposed the War Measures Act. This allowed the government to seize
Japanese Canadian property and remove them from their homes. They were relocated to detention camps in British
Columbia Internment.
Japanese Canadians held no rights and these camps were uninsulated paper shacks with no electricity. Men were often
separated from their families and forced to work laborious jobs. Anyone who resisted was sent to a concentration camp
in Angler, Ontario.
German and Italian immigrants were also under attack in WWI but not to the extent that the Japanese faced.
United Nations
In 1945 the failed League of Nations was replaced by the United Nations, and created with the intention of providing an
international forum for greater co-operation among nations and to promote the peaceful resolution of conflicts. Canada
was one of the first nations to join

Post War Position

Britain and France: Non interventionist
US and Canada: Isolationist/ Extreme protectionist
Policy of Appeasement: Formed an anti communistic pact called the Anti- Comintern Pact.
Formed the Rome-Tokyo-Berlin Axis
Examples of Canadian United States growing relationship
1. Building of the Alaskan highway
2. The Ogdensburg agreement
o Outlined a permanent plan for mutual defense overseas
3. The Lord Lease act and the Hyde park declaration
o Which would allow Canada and the US to share military goods and services
Suez Crisis
The Suez Canal was a vital link between the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean
General Nasser of Egypt took full control of the Canal (Nationalization) from France and Britain in July of 1956. Egypt
closed down the canal to British and Israeli sea traffic as well as closing the straits of Iran.
o This would cause Israel to join France and Britain against Egypt in armed conflict
The US failed to support their allies even though the Soviet Union was supporting theirs (Egypt)
Lester B. Pearson from Canada would win a Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 for facilitating a ceasefire and reopening the canal
and strait for use by December of 1956.
Korean War
The Korean Penninsula was divided along the 38th Parallel in 1945 (similar to Germany)
o US occupied the South (democratic)
o Soviet Union occupied th North (communist)
In 1950 North Korea invaded the South on June 25th and Chinese communist forces would attack the south in November
of 1950.
Canada would participate in Peacekeeping missions 25 000 soldiers (1000 wounded / 406 killed)
o But the US was heavily involved sending in around 300 000 troops
On July 27th 1953 it all ended with the separation of North and South Korea with a 4km wide demilitarized zone.
Canada and Vietnam
Canada was appointed to the International Control Mission (ICC) as the representative of the Western World
The Soviet Union was openly committed to spreading its beliefs as far as possible. Canada and the US became
increasingly concerned about their national securities. They werent the only ones either. Several countries in Western
Europe had similar concerns. In 1949 these nations formed NATO. A defense pact intended to protect its members from
further soviet aggression.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization: A united front against any enemy attacks
o It was established that any acts of aggression against any member nation would be discouraged.

Warsaw Pact
Fearful of a NATO attack the Soviet Union organized countries behind the iron curtain into a rival military alliance in
This led to an arms race between NATO and the countries involved in the Warsaw Pact. By early 1950s both sides had
developed the hydrogen bomb, and were stockpiling nuclear arms. This led to deterrence. Knowing the other side is
prepared to attack leads to nothing happening.
Fuelled by the arms race of the cold war, military technology continued to improve rapidly during the 1950s.
It was Canada and the United Stated agreeing to defend each other.
Canada allowed the Americans to build several defense installations in the Northwest Territories.
Distant Early Warning systems.
High powered radar antennae at stations along this line could pick up approaching enemy aircraft and missiles from
4800km away. Unidentified objects detected would be reported to NORAD headquarters which was located in Colorado
Springs, Colorado.
Some Canadians argued that after everything, their whole defensive plan was in the hands of the US and they didnt like
Igor Guzenko
Was a soviet clerk in Ottawa discovered soviet spy ring
He gave the RCMP proof which led to 18 people being convicted of espionage. He wasnt initially believed.
He gave up this information in exchange for permanent protection
Iron Curtain
Refers to the areas of soviet domination in Eastern Europe.
First used by Winston Churchill in his sinews of peace.
Known as the Booming Fifties
The consumer revolution was greatly affected by television.
- Baby boomers had their eyes glue to TV sets
During these year TV was live and there was little room for mistakes to be made and no time for mistakes to be
New products designed to enhance the level of convenience in the lives of people were beginning to hit shelves.
1957 started the space race.
Sputnik was the worlds first artificial satellite launched by the soviet Union. This was not a problem. The rocket that had
launched Sputnik could be used to deliver a nuclear warhead to any spot in North America. Fear of this drove the
Americans to replace their fleet of long range bomber aircrafts with long range missiles. The soviets responded to this
by building their own missiles.
- The world was at the brink of nuclear waragain.

1970 and 1980s

In the 1960s baby boomers had developed into teenagers. They were tired of seeing old faces in politics and wanted a
younger, fresher face to bring Canada into a new era.
Pierre Elliot Trudeau came to Ottawa in 1965 looking to change things.
- He captured the essence of what the rebellious baby boomers were looking for and earned their vote
He envisioned a just society where all rights were respected and where all could enjoy the good things in life.

Bilingualism (1969)
Bill 101
Environmental care
Arctic waters pollution act
World peace
he encouraged nuclear disarmament
established relations with the communist nations
Constitutional changes
1982 constitution: patrician
The Amending formula
Created the Charter of human rights and freedoms
He was progressive on many issues
Support a strong federal system of government and unity (white paper)

The Mulroney Era

In 1984 Brian Mulroney, leader of the conservative party was elected Prime Minister. His landslide victory was one of
the greatest in Canadian History.
His goals for Canada included:
o Stimulate the Economy
o Provide Jobs
o Encourage Enterprise and foreign investment
o Reduce conflict between provincial and federal government
o Strengthen Canadian defence role
o Improve Canadian and American relations
His Policy
1. Parliament passed laws to reduce corporate tax and increase American investment
2. Goods and services tax
- He felt that eliminating the FST exports would be cheaper and more competitive
3. Reduce deficit and government controls
- This would encourage private industry and foreign investment


Reduce government control in the economy
Crown corporations were sold to private businesses
Asserted that market and competition would bring prices down and service would improve.
Military spending increased
This increased the strength of the Canadian military which Trudeau had reduced.
1985 saw new uniforms
1987 new policy on the future goals and roles of armed forces
New armoured vehicles and guns were purchased 138 CF18 planes were orders
First Canadian Patrol Brigade was built costing 3.9 million dollars

Meech Lake Accord

Robert Bourassa started discussing the constitution with Brian Mulroney on a serious note. In 1985 premiers met to
discuss Qubecs demands which were mainly surrounding the recognition of Qubec as a distinct society, meaning that
Qubec wanted more rights in the areas of language and immigration.
- The Prime Minister and premiers met at the federal retreat conference center of Meech Lake to discuss.
- After much debate over these requests they finally agreed to recognize Qubec as a distinct region and allow
them greater say than previously in the type of immigrant it would accept
- Three Qubeckers would be seated on the Supreme Court This came at the cost of Ontario seats.
Trudeau was against this accord and said that it would give provinces the opportunity to ask for more until the federal
government would weaken.
The Reform party was also against the Meech Lake accord because it felt that Qubec was being given more power than
the other provinces.
Aboriginals were against the accord because they didnt like being left out of the constitutional discussions.
More and more people started to dislike the idea of the Meech Lake accord, and a deadline was set for the ratification.
The deadline was never met and Mulroney acknowledged the Meech Lake accord as a failure.
Charlottetown Accord
After the failure that was the Meech Lake accord of 1987, Mulroney wanted to try again to get support for a new
constitutional package that would satisfy everybody.
He asked Joe Clark to lead a new ministry for constitutional affairs. They had to prepare a draft proposal for amending
the constitution. After two years of debates and edits, the Reform Party and the Parti Qubcois still did not support the
The Charlottetown Accord outline:
o The senate was to be reformed
o Qubec would get 25% of the seats in an enlarged house of commons
o Qubec would be recognized as a distinct society
o Qubec would choose three of the nine supreme court judges
o The right to an aboriginal self government would be recognized
o Provinces would gain power over tourism, housing, forestry and culture
o Universal health care would be preserved, and equalization payments between rich and poor provinces
o Anglophones in Qubec and Francophone elsewhere would have their language rights protected.
Many people were tired of hearing about this issue and said they would vote yes just to get it over with. On the day of
the referendum Canadians voted no and the Charlottetown accord died.

Aboriginal People
Mechanisms of Assimilation
1. Reserves
- There were over 600 reserves
- Aboriginals were told that they were not allowed to keep their Indian status outside of the reservation. Inside
these reservations there was little government funding and it was very hard to be successful
2. Residential Schools
- Run by the Catholic/Anglican churches
- They were designed to assimilate children so that they would go back to their reserves and teach their tribes
- These schools were poorly equipped and the teachers were abusive.
3. Massive European Migration
Indian Act
Was created in 1876 and is still used today. It defined special status and land regulations of aboriginal people who lived
on reserves.
Trudeau offered up The White paper, which would equalize Canadians and aboriginals and give them the same benefits
as Canadians. They refused, saying that they had fought for years to protect their identities and that the Indian act did
that for them, no matter how flawed it was.