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# UNIT I

NUCLEAR PHYSICS

## Two Mark Questions and Answers

1. What is amu? What is its importance in nuclear physics?
[Anna Univ. Nov,07]
The energy released by each neutron during fission process is called nuclear energy
which is measured in terms of amu.
The atomic mass unit [amu] is a unit of mass approximately equal to 1.66
x 10-24 kg. It is used to find the mass loss and nuclear binding energy of any atom.
2. What is called plum pudding?
Thompson proposed a model for the atom consisting of a positive electrical field with
electrons embedded into the field like plums embedded in plum pudding. It is called
plum pudding model of the atom.
3. What is nuclear binding energy/?
[Anna Univ. Nov,07]
The energy released at the moment of combination of two nucleons to
form nucleus of an atom is called binding energy.
4. Define mass defect.
[Anna Univ. Nov,07]
If two or more particles interact to combine together, then the total mass of the system
will decrease to be less than the sum of the masses of the individual particles. The
stronger the interaction becomes, the more the mass will decrease. This decrease of the
mass of the system is called mass defect.
5. Define natural and artificial radioactivity.
[Anna Univ. Nov,07]
Natural radioactivity is isotopes that have been here since the earth formed. Example:
Uranium.
Artificial radioactivity is produced by cosmic rays from the sun.
6. Define Rutherford scattering.
The total positive charge in an atom, +Ze, concentrates on the central point of the atom,
i.e. the nucleus, and the incident alpha particle is scattered with a repulsive coulomb force
exerted by this nuclear point charge called Coulomb scattering or Rutherford scattering.
7. What is atomic number and mass number?
The number of protons in the nuclear is called atomic number. It is denoted by Z. The
total number of nucleons in the nuclear is called mass number. It is denoted by the letter
A.
8. List down some isotopes used in fusion reaction.
[i] Protium
[ii] Deuterium
[iii] Tritium
[iv] Helium-3
[v] Helium-4
9. What is meant by elastic scattering?
In an elastic scattering, the reaction between a neutron and a target nucleus, there is no
energy transferred into nuclear excitation. Momentum and kinetic energy of the system
are conserved although there is usually some transfer of kinetic energy form the neutron
to the target nucleus. The target nucleus gains the amount of kinetic energy that the
neutron loses.
10. Mention the types of cross section.

1. The cross section for a particular process which applies to a single nucleus, it is
called microscopic cross section.
2. If the cross section for the same process is considered for whole nucleus, it is called
macroscopic cross section.
11. What are the advantages of nuclear power?
No atmospheric pollution by combustion products.Space requirements less as compared
to other conventional power plants are of equal size.
12. List down the disadvantages of nuclear power?
High initial cost and complexity of nuclear fuel cycle are beyond the reach of poor
developing countries.Nuclear power plants are not well suited for varying load conditions.
13. What is atom?
The smallest particle of an element which takes part in chemical reaction is known as an
atom.
14. How does empirical approach differ from intuitive approach?
The design of an experiment with the results of the experiment is the basis for the
formation of the model or theory called the empirical approach to model building.
15. What is called nucleus?
The atom consists of two distinct regions. The tiny central core is called the nucleus with
a radius of ~10^-15 m and extensive surrounding space is called as outer sphere with a radius
of 10^-10 m.
16. What is the atomic number and mass number?
The number of protons in the nuclear is called atomic number. It is denoted by Z. The
total number of nucleons in the nuclear is called mass number. It is denoted by the letter A.
17. What is an isotope?
Some elements exist in different forms. Mass number of these different forms is different,
but the atomic number is the same. They are known as isotopes of the element.
18. Write down the Einstein energy equation.
Energy, E = mc.Where m = mass and c = light speed = 3*10^8 m/s.
19. List down some isotopes used in fusion reaction?
Protium, Deuterium, Tritium, Helium-3, Helium-4.
20. List down the factors considered for stable and unstable nucleus?
Even odd nature of the number of protons and neutrons. The ratio of neutrons to
protons.
21. What is nuclear binding energy?
The energy released at the moment of combination of two nucleons to form nucleus of
an atom is called binding energy.
22. Define the term one electron volt.

One electron volt is the amount of energy acquired by any particle with one electronic
charge when it falls through a potential of one volt.
23. How much inone eV in joule?
One eV = 1.602*10^-9 N-m or joule.
by heavy elements.
25. List down the types of radioactive decay.
-emission, -emission, -emission.
26. Define the term half-life.
The half-life of any given elements is the time which is required for one half of the
sample to decay.
27. Mention the types of nuclear interactions.
1. Elastic scattering 2.In Elastic scattering.
28. What are the reactions held by a neutron in the nucleus?
1. Radiative capture 2. Particle ejection scattering.
29. What are the various methods used for determining the cross section?
1. Transmission method 2. Activation method.
30. Mention the two types of scattering cross section.
Coherent scattering and incoherent scattering.
31. What is called positron?
+ is a positron emitted from the nucleus. It is a positive electron and animatter. It is also
emitted when a nucleus has too many protons.
32. Define natural and artificial radioactivity.
Natural radioactivity is isotopes that have been here since the earth formed.
Example : Uranium. Artificial radioactivity is productivity by cosmic rays from the sun.
33. How can decay constant be defined?
The probability per unit time for a given nucleus to decay is called decay constant .
34. Mention the types of cross section?
1. The cross section for a particular process which applies to a single nucleus, it is
called microscopic cross section.
2. If the cross section for the same process is considered for whole nucleus, it is called
macroscopic cross section.