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Evaluation of

Undrained Shear Strength


from In-Situ Tests
Paul W. Mayne
Georgia Institute of Technology

Mix & Match of


Undrained Shear
Strengths
from different
tests

Pentre, UK Site
(Lambson, et al.
1996, Large Scale
Pile Tests in Clay,
Thomas Telford)

Classical Methods for su in Clays & Silts

Undrained
Shear
Strength
(c = cu = su)
Undrained Strength
Anisotropy and Effects
of Strain Rate, Boundary
Conditions, and Initial
Stress State

Undrained Shear Strength

Classical interpretation from CPT in clays:


undrained shear strength = cu = su

su

q t vo
N kt

Which su ?

HC CIUC PSC CK0UC DSC

DS

Theoretical formulation from critical-state soil


mechanics for intact clays (Cambridge Univ.):

su/voDSS = sin'OCR
where 1 - Cs/Cc

Nk = 15
DSS

Undrained Shear Strength of Clays

Experimental work by MIT with simple shear


device:

su/voDSS = 0.23 OCR0.8

PSE CK0UC CIUE UU UC

Low OCRs (assume = 28o): suDSS 0.2 p

Undrained Shear Strength from Stress History

NC Normalized DSS Undrained Strength


0.4

0.3

0.2
Bothkennar
Amherst
Hackensack
James Bay
Porto Tolle
Boston Blue
Silty Holocene
Wroth (1984)

0.1

Intact Clays
Independently
obtained by

experiments
(SHANSEP)

Mexico City
AGS Plastic
Onsoy
Rissa
Portsmouth
San Francisco
Cowden

And theory
(CSSM)

0.0
0.3

0.4

0.5

sin'

0.6

0.7

0.8

Shear-Induced Porewater Pressures

OC Normalized DSS Undrained Strength


10

DSS Undrained Strength, su/vo'

su/vo' NC (DSS)

su/vo'NC (DSS) = sin'

' = 40o
30o

Intact

20o

Fissured

su/vo' = sin' OCR


Note: = 0.8
0.1
1

Strength Anisotropy

10

Overconsolidation Ratio, OCR

100

Drammen
Portsmouth
Portland
Maine
Boston Blue
Silty Holocene
Haga
Upper Chek Lok
Lower Chek Lok
Bangkok
Atchafalaya
Conn Valley
Paria
Hackensack
McManus
Cowden
Brent Cross
20
30
40
Fissured 20

Strength Anisotropy

Undrained Strength Anisotropy

Undrained Strength Anisotropy

Wroth-Prevost Constitutive Model


NC Undrained Shear Strength Ratio

0.6

CIUC
0.5

KoPSC
0.4

CKoUC
0.3

SS
0.2

DSS
0.1

KoPSE
0
15

20

25

30

35

40

45

Effective Stress Friction Angle (deg)

CKoUE

(Jamiolkowski, et al. 1985; Ladd, 1991)

Undrained Strength by SHANSEP

Undrained Strength by SHANSEP

(Koutsoftas
and Ladd,
1985)

(Ladd &
Foott, 1974)
(Ladd, 1991)

Troll Investigation, North Sea

Troll Investigation, North Sea

Piezocone Readings (kPa)


0

500

1000

Nm = Q (a' = 0)

1500

10

Bq

15

' (deg)

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

20

10

10

10

15

15

15

20

20

20

25

25

25

25

30

30

30

30

20

u2 (shoulder)

35

40

45

uo (hydrostatic)

Lab TX

Depth (meters)

Depth (meters)

15

30

Troll, North Sea


Amundsen et al (1985)

qt (tip stress)
10

25

CPTu

Troll Investigation, North Sea

Troll Site, North Sea (NGI, 1989)

Troll, North Sea


0

200

300

400

10

CPTu2
Oed.1985
Oed.1989

15
20

Amundsen et al. (1985)

25

qtnet
Oed.1985
Oed.1989
svo'

' = 29o

10

10

15

15

300

400

10

20

SCE-CSSM
Oed.1985
Oed.1989
svo'

15

50

60

70

80

NGI (1989)

10
15

CPTu2
TC 1984
TC 1987
TC 1988
TC 1989

20

20

25
25

30

DSS Strengths - Troll, North Sea

Triaxial CKoUE -Troll, North Sea


Troll, North Sea

Troll, North Sea


10

Undrained Shear Strength, su (kPa)


20

30

40

50

60

70

80

10

Undrained Shear Strength, su (kPa)


20

30

40

50

60

70

80

NGI (1989)

10
15

CPTu2
DSS 1984
DSS 1987
DSS 1988
DSS 1989

Depth (meters)

30

40

Depth (meters)

10

25

30

20

Delta u2
Oed.1985
Oed.1989
svo'

Undrained Shear Strength, su (kPa)

500

500

Troll, North Sea

Preconsolidation Stress, p' (kPa)


200

400

Triaxial CKoUC -Troll, North Sea

Troll Site, North Sea (NGI, 1989)

100

300

25

25

200

20

20

= 0.85

100

30

Depth (meters)

500

Depth (meters)

Depth (meters)

100

Depth (meters)

Preconsolidation Stress, p' (kPa)

Preconsolidation Stress, p' (kPa)

Overconsolidation Ratio, OCR

10
15

NGI (1989)
CPTu2
TE 1984
TE 1987
TE 1988
TE 1989

20
25
30

Troll Investigation, North Sea

Anchorage, Alaska

(Jamiolkowski, et al. 1985, ICSMFE)


(Ladd, 1991, Terzaghi Lecture, JGE)

Summary POA Undrained Shear Strengths

POA Summary: Triaxial Effective Stress Paths

CIUC Triaxial and DSS Tests


10

POA Triaxial Summary

0.77

Simple Shear: su/vo' = 0.23 OCR

OC Envelope
TB 9 (138 ft)

400

Shear Stress, q = (1 - 3)/2 kPa

Strength Ratio, su/vo'

Triaxial: su/vo' = 0.33 OCR

0.70

TP11 (155 ft)

Overconsolidated
Effective Strength Envelope

TB15 (109 ft)


TB15 (124 ft)

' = 27o

300

TB15 (149 ft)


TB25 (69 ft)

c' = 20 kPa

TB25 (90 ft)


TB25 (190 ft)

200

TB28 (95 ft)


TB31 (126 ft)
TB31 (126 ft)
TB31 (126 ft)

100

TB39 (115 ft)


TB39 (160 ft)
TB47 (120 ft)

TB49 (100 ft)

0.1

10

100

200

300

400

500

600

Effective Stress, p' = (1'+3')/2 kPa

100

TB49 (115 ft)


TB56 (115 ft)

Overconsolidation Ratio, OCR

POA Summary: Triaxial Effective Stress Paths

POA Triaxial Summary

CIUC Triaxial and DSS Tests


10

OC Envelope

Critical State Soil Mechanics


(Modified Cam Clay)
o
' = 27
= 0.75

TB 9 (138 ft)

400

TP11 (155 ft)


TB15 (109 ft)

Normally-Consolidated
Effective Strength Envelope

300

TB15 (124 ft)

' = 27o

TB15 (149 ft)


TB25 (69 ft)

c' = 0

TB25 (90 ft)


TB25 (190 ft)

200

TB28 (95 ft)


TB31 (126 ft)
TB31 (126 ft)
TB31 (126 ft)

100

TB39 (115 ft)

Strength Ratio, su/vo'

Shear Stress, q = (1 - 3)/2 kPa

Summary POA Undrained Shear Strengths

DSS Data
CIUC Data

TB39 (160 ft)

MCC Pred CIUC

TB47 (120 ft)

MCC Pred DSS

TB49 (100 ft)

100

200

300

400

Effective Stress, p' = (1'+3')/2 kPa

500

600

TB49 (115 ft)


TB56 (115 ft)

0.1
1

10

100

Overconsolidation Ratio, OCR

Undrained Shear Strength Anisotropy

Undrained Strength Anisotropy


Wroth-Prevost Constitutive Soil Model

TC

PSC

TE

DSS

NC Strength Ratio, s u/vo'

0.6

PSE

DSS
Trial & Error Solution
Using Limit Equilibrium

Deterministic Solution
Using Limit Plasticity

CIUC

0.5

KoPSC

POA Bootlegger
Cove Clay

0.4

CKoUC

0.3

SS

0.2

DSS

0.1

KoPSE

Stability Analyses on Clays

CKoUE

20

25

30

35

40

45

Effective Stress Friction Angle, ' (deg)

POA In-Situ and Lab Undrained Strengths

Undrained Strength Anisotropy

Piezocone Sounding C-28 (TB-33A)

(Jamiolkowski, et al., ICSMFE, 1985)

Undrained Shear Strength, su (kPa)


0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

160

180

200

10

Lab DSS Data

Elevation (meters)

15

20

Soft
Silt

Lab Triaxial Data


Vane Shear
Mudline

TC from CPTu
DSS from CPTu

25

30

35

40

Upper
Bootlegger
Cove Clay
Lower
Bootlegger
Cove Clay

45

Port of Anchorage SCPT


Tip Stress, qt (MPa)
0

Friction, fs (kPa)
0

50

100

Porewater, ub (MPa) Dissipation,t50 (min)

150 0

10

100

Undrained Shear Strength of Clays


Shear Wave, Vs (m/s)
0

100

200

300

400

500

10

Theoretical formulation from critical-state soil


mechanics for intact clays (Cambridge Univ.):

Mudline

su/voDSS = sin'OCR

Depth (meters)

15

20

where 1 - Cs/Cc

25

30

Experimental work by MIT with simple shear


device:

su/voDSS = 0.23 OCR0.8

35

40

Low OCRs (assume = 28o): suDSS 0.2 p

45