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SteadyHeatConduction

Inthermodynamics,weconsideredtheamountofheattransferasasystemundergoesa
process from one equilibrium state to another. Thermodynamics gives no indication of
howlongtheprocesstakes. Inheattransfer,wearemoreconcernedabouttherateof
heattransfer.
Thebasicrequirementforheattransferisthepresenceofatemperaturedifference.The
temperaturedifferenceisthedrivingforceforheattransfer,justasvoltagedifferencefor
electrical current. The total amount of heat transfer Q during a time interval can be
determinedfrom:
t

kJ

Q Q dt
0

Therateofheattransferperunitareaiscalledheatflux,andtheaverageheatfluxona
surfaceisexpressedas
Q
q
A

W / m
2

SteadyHeatConductioninPlaneWalls
Conductionisthetransferofenergyfromthemoreenergeticparticlesofasubstanceto
theadjacentlessenergeticonesasresultofinteractionsbetweentheparticles.
Considersteadyconductionthroughalargeplanewallofthicknessx=Landsurfacearea
A.ThetemperaturedifferenceacrossthewallisT=T2T1.
Notethatheattransferistheonlyenergyinteraction;theenergybalanceforthewallcan
beexpressed:

Qin Qout

dE wall

dt

Forsteadystateoperation,

Qin Qout
const.

Ithasbeenexperimentallyobservedthattherateofheatconductionthroughalayeris
proportional to the temperature difference across the layer and the heat transfer area,
butitisinverselyproportionaltothethicknessofthelayer.

rate of heat transfer


Q

Cond

T
kA
x

(surface area)(temperature difference)


thickness

M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer1

T1

T2

A
A

Fig.1:Heatconductionthroughalargeplanewall.

Theconstantproportionalitykisthethermalconductivityofthematerial.Inthelimiting
casewherex0,theequationabovereducestothedifferentialform:

Q Cond kA

dT
dx

whichiscalledFourierslawofheatconduction.ThetermdT/dxiscalledthetemperature
gradient,whichistheslopeofthetemperaturecurve(therateofchangeoftemperature
Twithlengthx).

ThermalConductivity
Thermalconductivityk[W/mK]isameasureofamaterialsabilitytoconductheat.The
thermal conductivity is defined as the rate of heat transfer through a unit thickness of
materialperunitareaperunittemperaturedifference.
Thermalconductivitychangeswithtemperatureandisdeterminedthroughexperiments.
The thermal conductivity of certain materials show a dramatic change at temperatures
nearabsolutezero,whenthesesolidsbecomesuperconductors.
Anisotropicmaterialisamaterialthathasuniformpropertiesinalldirections.
Insulatorsarematerialsusedprimarilytoprovideresistancetoheatflow.Theyhavelow
thermalconductivity.

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TheThermalResistanceConcept
TheFourierequation,forsteadyconductionthroughaconstantareaplanewall,canbe
written:
Q Cond kA

T T2
dT
kA 1

dx
L

Thiscanberearrangedas:

Q Cond
Rwall

T2 T1
Rwall

kA

(W )

( C /W )

Rwallisthethermalresistanceofthewallagainstheatconductionorsimplytheconduction
resistanceofthewall.
Theheattransferacrossthefluid/solidinterfaceisbasedonNewtonslawofcooling:

Q hA Ts T
RConv

1
hA

W
( C / W )

Rconv is the thermal resistance of the surface against heat convection or simply the
convectionresistanceofthesurface.
Thermal radiation between a surface of area Aat Ts and the surroundings at T can be
expressedas:

A Ts4 T4 hrad A Ts T
Qrad

Rrad

Ts T
Rrad

(W )

hrad A

hrad Ts2 T2 Ts T

W
2
m K

where = 5.67x108 [W/m2K4] is the StefanBoltzman constant. Also 0 < <1 is the
emissivityofthesurface.NotethatboththetemperaturesmustbeinKelvin.

ThermalResistanceNetwork
Considersteady,onedimensionalheatflowthroughtwoplanewallsinserieswhichare
exposedtoconvectiononbothsides,seeFig.2.Understeadystatecondition:
rateofheat
convection
intothewall

rateofheat
conduction
throughwall1

rateofheat
=
rateofheat
conductionthrough
convectionfromthe
wall2
wall

M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer3

Q h1 AT ,1 T1 k1 A
Q
Q
Q

T ,1 T1
1 / h1 A
T ,1 T1
Rconv ,1

T T3
T1 T2
k2 A 2
h2 AT2 T , 2
L1
L2

T1 T2 T2 T3 T2 T , 2

1 / h2 A
L / k1 A L / k 2 A

T1 T2 T2 T3 T3 T , 2

Rwall ,1
Rwall , 2
Rconv , 2

T ,1 T , 2
Rtotal

Rtotal Rconv ,1 Rwall ,1 Rwall , 2 Rconv , 2


NotethatAisconstantareaforaplanewall.Alsonotethatthethermalresistancesarein
seriesandequivalentresistanceisdeterminedbysimplyaddingthermalresistances.

R1

T,1

R3

R2

T1

h1

R4

k1
A

k2
T2

T3

L1

L2
h2

T,2

Fig.2:Thermalresistancenetwork.
The rate of heat transfer between two surfaces is equal to the temperature difference
dividedbythetotalthermalresistancebetweentwosurfaces.
Itcanbewritten:
T=QR
Thethermalresistanceconceptiswidelyusedinpractice;however,its useislimitedto
systems through which the rate of heat transfer remains constant. It other words, to
systemsinvolvingsteadyheattransferwithnoheatgeneration.
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ThermalResistancesinParallel
Thethermalresistanceconceptcanbeusedtosolvesteadystateheattransferproblemin
parallellayersorcombinedseriesparallelarrangements.
It should be noted that these problems are often two or three dimensional, but
approximatesolutionscanbeobtainedbyassumingonedimensionalheattransfer(using
thermalresistancenetwork).
A1

k1
T2

T1
k2

A2

Insulation
L

Q=Q2+Q2

Q1

R1
Q

T1

Q2

R2

T2

Fig.3:Parallelresistances.

Q Q1 Q2
Q
1
Rtotal

1
T1 T2 T1 T2
1

T1 T2
R1
R2
R1 R2

T1 T2
Rtotal

1
RR
1
1


1 2
Rtotal R1 R2
R1 R2

Example1:ThermalResistanceNetwork
Considerthecombinedseriesparallelarrangementshowninfigurebelow.Assumingone
dimensionalheattransfer,determinetherateofheattransfer.

M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer5

A1

k1

T1

A3

k3

h,T

k2

A2

Insulation
L1

L3

Q1

R1

Q
T1

R2
R3

Rconv

Q2

Fig.4:Schematicforexample1.
Solution:
Therateofheattransferthroughthiscompositesystemcanbeexpressedas:

T1 T
Rtotal

Rtotal R12 R3 Rconv

RR
1 2 R3 Rconv
R1 R2

Twoapproximationscommonlyusedinsolvingcomplexmultidimensionalheattransfer
problems by transfer problems by treating them as one dimensional, using the thermal
resistancenetwork:
1Assumeanyplanewallnormaltothexaxistobeisothermal,i.e.temperaturetovaryin
onedirectiononlyT=T(x)
2Assumeanyplaneparalleltothexaxistobeadiabatic,i.e.heattransferoccursinthex
directiononly.
These two assumptions result in different networks (different results). The actual result
liesbetweenthesetworesults.

HeatConductioninCylindersandSpheres
Steadystateheattransferthroughpipesisinthenormaldirectiontothewallsurface(no
significant heat transfer occurs in other directions). Therefore, the heat transfer can be
M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer6

modeled as steadystate and onedimensional, and the temperature of the pipe will
dependonlyontheradialdirection,T=T(r).
Since,thereisnoheatgenerationinthelayerandthermalconductivityisconstant,the
Fourierlawbecomes:

Qcond
, cyl kA

dT
dr

(W )

A 2rL

T2

r2
Qcond,cyl

r1
T1

Fig.5:Steady,onedimensionalheatconductioninacylindricallayer.
Afterintegration:
r2

r1

Qcond
, cyl

A 2rL

T1

Qcond
,cyl 2kL

Qcond
,cyl

Rcyl

T2

dr kdT
T1 T2
ln r2 / r1

T T2
1
Rcyl

ln r2 / r1
2kL

whereRcylistheconductionresistanceofthecylinderlayer.
Following the analysis above, the conduction resistance for the spherical layer can be
found:

M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer7


Qcond
, sph

Rsph

T1 T2
Rsph

r r
2 1
4 r1 r2 k

Theconvectionresistanceremainsthesameinbothcylindricalandsphericalcoordinates,
Rconv = 1/hA. However, note that the surface area A = 2rL (cylindrical) and A = 4r2
(spherical)arefunctionsofradius.
Example2:Multilayercylindricalthermalresistancenetwork
SteamatT,1=320Cflowsinacastironpipe[k=80W/m.C]whoseinnerandouter
diameterareD1=5cmandD2=5.5cm,respectively.Thepipeiscoveredwitha3cm
thickglasswoolinsulation[k=0.05W/m.C].HeatislosttothesurroundingsatT,2=5C
bynaturalconvectionandradiation,withacombinedheattransfercoefficientofh2=18
W/m2. C. Taking the heat transfer coefficient inside the pipe to be h1 = 60 W/m2K,
determinetherateofheatlossfromthesteamperunitlengthofthepipe.Alsodetermine
thetemperaturedropacrossthepipeshellandtheinsulation.
Assumptions:
Steadystateandonedimensionalheattransfer.
Solution:
TakingL=1m,theareasofthesurfacesexposedtoconvectionare:
A1=2r1L=0.157m2
A2=2r2L=0.361m2
1
1

0.106 C / W
2
2
h1 A1
60 W / m . C 0.157m
ln r2 / r1
R1 R pipe
0.0002 C / W
2k1 L
Rconv ,1

R2 Rinsulation

ln r3 / r2
2.35 C / W
2k 2 L

Rconv , 2

1
0.154 C / W
h2 A2

Rtotal Rconv ,1 R1 R2 Rconv , 2 2.61 C / W

M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer8

T3

r3
Qcond,cyl
r2
r1
T1

h2,T,2

r1

T2

h1,T,1

Insulation

T,1

Rconv,1

T1

R1

T2

T3

R2

Rconv,2

T,2

Fig.6:Schematicforexample1.
Thesteadystaterateofheatlossfromthesteambecomes

T ,1 T , 2
Rtotal

120.7 W

(per m pipe length)

Thetotalheatlossforagivenlengthcanbedeterminedbymultiplyingtheabovequantity
bythepipelength.
Thetemperaturedropacrossthepipeandtheinsulationare:

Tpipe Q R pipe 120.7 W 0.0002 C / W 0.02 C

Tinsulation Q Rinsulation 120.7 W 2.35 C / W 284 C

Note that the temperature difference (thermal resistance) across the pipe is too small
relativetootherresistancesandcanbeignored.

CriticalRadiusofInsulation
Toinsulateaplanewall,thethickertheinsulator,thelowertheheattransferrate(since
theareaisconstant).However,forcylindricalpipesorsphericalshells,addinginsulation
resultsinincreasingthesurfaceareawhichinturnsresults inincreasingtheconvection
heattransfer.Asaresultofthesetwocompetingtrendstheheattransfermayincreaseor
decrease.

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T1 T
T1 T

1
Rins Rconv ln r2 / r1

2r2 L h
2kL
r2

Insulation

r1

Qcritical

rcritical=k/h

Qbare

r1

r2

rcritical

Fig.7:Criticalradiusofinsulation.

ThevariationofQwiththeouterradiusoftheinsulationreachesamaximumthatcanbe
determinedfromdQ/dr2=0.Thevalueofthecriticalradiusforthecylindricalpipesand
sphericalshellsare:

k
h
2k

rcr ,cylinder
rcr , spherer

( m)

( m)

Notethatformostapplications,thecriticalradiusissosmall.Thus,wecaninsulatehot
water or steam pipes without worrying about the possibility of increasing the heat
transferbyinsulatingthepipe.

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HeatGenerationinSolids
Conversion of some form of energy into heat energy in a medium is called heat
generation.Heatgenerationleadstoatemperaturerisethroughoutthemedium.
Someexamplesofheatgenerationareresistanceheatinginwires,exothermicchemical
reactions in solids, and nuclear reaction. Heat generation is usually expressed per unit
volume(W/m3).
In most applications, we are interested in maximum temperature Tmax and surface
temperatureTsofsolidswhichareinvolvedwithheatgeneration.
ThemaximumtemperatureTmaxinasolidthatinvolvesuniformheatgenerationwilloccur
atalocationfurthestawayfromtheoutersurfacewhentheoutersurfaceismaintained
ataconstanttemperature,Ts.

Tmax

Tmax
Ts

Ts
T
Heatgeneration
Symmetryline

Fig.8:Maximumtemperaturewithheatgeneration.
ConsiderasolidmediumofsurfaceareaA,volumeV,andconstantthermalconductivityk,
whereheatisgeneratedataconstantrateofgperunitvolume.Heatistransferredfrom
thesolidtothesurroundingsmediumatT.Understeadyconditions,theenergybalance
forthesolidcanbeexpressedas:
rateofheattransfer
fromthesolid

rateofenergygeneration
withinthesolid

Q=gV(W)
From the Newtons law of cooling, Q= hA (Ts T). Combining these equations, a
relationshipforthesurfacetemperaturecanbefound:

Ts T

g V

hA

M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer11

Usingtheaboverelationship,thesurfacetemperaturecanbecalculatedforaplanewall
ofthickness2L,alongcylinderofradiusr0,andasphereofradiusr0,asfollows:
gL
Ts,plane wall T
h

g r0

Ts,cylinder T
2h
g r0
Ts,sphere T
3h

Notethattheriseintemperatureisduetoheatgeneration.
Using the Fouriers law, we can derive a relationship for the center (maximum)
temperatureoflongcylinderofradiusr0.

dT
g Vr
dr
After integrating,

Ar 2rL

kAr

Tmax T0 Ts

Vr r 2 L

g r02
4k

where T0 is the centerline temperature of the cylinder (Tmax). Using the approach, the
maximumtemperaturecanbefoundforplanewallsandspheres.
g r02
Tmax,cylinder
4k
g L2

Tmax,plane wall
2k
g r02
Tmax,sphere
6k

HeatTransferfromFinnedSurfaces
From the Newtons law of cooling, Qconv = h A (Ts T), the rate of convective heat
transferfromasurfaceatatemperatureTscanbeincreasedbytwomethods:
1)Increasingtheconvectiveheattransfercoefficient,h
2)IncreasingthesurfaceareaA.
Increasingtheconvectiveheattransfercoefficientmaynotbepracticaland/oradequate.
An increase in surface area by attaching extended surfaces called fins to the surface is
moreconvenient.
Finnedsurfacesarecommonlyusedinpracticetoenhanceheattransfer.Intheanalysisof
thefins,weconsidersteadyoperationwithnoheatgenerationinthefin.Wealsoassume
thattheconvectionheattransfercoefficienthtobeconstantanduniformovertheentire
surfaceofthefin.
M.BahramiENSC388(F09)SteadyConductionHeatTransfer12

h,T
Tb

Tb

T
0

Fig.9:Temperatureofafindropsgraduallyalongthefin.
Inthelimitingcaseofzerothermalresistance(k),thetemperatureofthefinwillbe
uniformatthebasevalueofTb.Theheattransferfromthefinwillbemaximizedinthis
case:
Q fin ,max hA fin Tb T

Finefficiencycanbedefinedas:

fin

Q fin
Q

fin , max

actual heat transfer rate from the fin


ideal heat transfer rate from the fin (if the entire fin were at base temperature)

whereAfinistotalsurfaceareaofthefin.Thisenablesustodeterminetheheattransfer
fromafinwhenitsefficiencyisknown:
Q fin fin Q fin ,max fin hA fin Tb T

FinefficiencyforvariousprofilescanbereadfromFig.1042,1043inCengelsbook.
Thefollowingmustbenotedforaproperfinselection:
the longer the fin, the larger the heat transfer area and thus the higher the rate of
heattransferfromthefin
thelargerthefin,thebiggerthemass,thehighertheprice,andlargerthefluidfriction

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also,thefinefficiencydecreaseswithincreasingfinlengthbecauseofthedecreasein
fintemperaturewithlength.

FinEffectiveness
The performance of fins is judged on the basis of the enhancement in heat transfer
relativetothenofincase,andexpressedintermsofthefineffectiveness:

fin

Q fin
Q

no fin

Q fin

hAb Tb T

heat transfer rate from the fin

heat transfer rate from the surface area of A b

fin

1
1

fin acts as insulation


fin does not affect heat transfer
fin enhances heat transfer

ForasufficientlylongfinofuniformcrosssectionAc,thetemperatureatthetipofthefin
will approach the environment temperature, T. By writing energy balance and solving
thedifferentialequation,onefinds:

T x T
hp
exp x
Tb T
kAc

Qlong

fin

hpkAc Tb T

whereAcisthecrosssectionalarea,xisthedistancefromthebase,andpisperimeter.
Theeffectivenessbecomes:

long fin

kp

hAc

Toincreasefineffectiveness,onecanconclude:
thethermalconductivityofthefinmaterialmustbeashighaspossible
theratioofperimetertothecrosssectionalareap/Acshouldbeashighaspossible
the use of fin is most effective in applications that involve low convection heat
transfercoefficient,i.e.naturalconvection.

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