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ATC 72

Proceedings of

Workshop on tall building seismic


design and analysis issues

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Applied Technology Council


In collaboration with
Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center
Prepared for
Building Seismic Safety Council
of the National Institute of Building Sciences
Funded by
Federal Emergency Management Agency

Applied Technology Council


The Applied Technology Council (ATC) is a nonprofit, tax-exempt corporation established in 1973 through
the efforts of the Structural Engineers Association of California. ATCs mission is to develop state-of-theart, user-friendly engineering resources and applications for use in mitigating the effects of natural and
other hazards on the built environment. ATC also identifies and encourages needed research and develops
consensus opinions on structural engineering issues in a non-proprietary format. ATC thereby fulfills a
unique role in funded information transfer.
ATC is guided by a Board of Directors consisting of representatives appointed by the American Society of
Civil Engineers, the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations, the Structural Engineers
Association of California, the Structural Engineers Association of New York, the Western Council of
Structural Engineers Associations, and four at-large representatives concerned with the practice of structural
engineering. Each director serves a three-year term.
Project management and administration are carried out by a full-time Executive Director and support staff.
Project work is conducted by a wide range of highly qualified consulting professionals, thus incorporating
the experience of many individuals from academia, research, and professional practice who would not be
available from any single organization. Funding for ATC projects is obtained from government agencies
and from the private sector in the form of tax-deductible contributions.
2007-2008 Board of Directors
Patrick Buscovich, President
James R. Harris, Vice President
David A. Hutchinson, Secretary/Treasurer
Christopher P. Jones, Past President
Gregory G. Deierlein
Ramon Gilsanz
Lawrence G. Griffis
Eve Hinman

Steven Kuan
Marc L. Levitan
Manny Morden
H. John Price
James Robinson
Spencer Rogers
Charles H. Thornton

ATC Disclaimer
While the information presented in this report is believed to be correct, ATC assumes no
responsibility for its accuracy or for the opinions expressed herein. The material presented in this
publication should not be used or relied upon for any specific application without competent
examination and verification of its accuracy, suitability, and applicability by qualified professionals.
User of information from this publication assume all liability arising from such use.

Cover Illustration: Courtesy of Joseph Maffei, Rutherford & Chekene, San Francisco, California

ATC-72
Proceedings of
Workshop on Tall Building Seismic Design
and Analysis Issues
Prepared by
APPLIED TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL
201 Redwood Shores Pkwy, Suite 240
Redwood City, California 94065
www.ATCouncil.org
in collaboration with
PACIFIC EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING RESEARCH CENTER (PEER)
Berkeley, California
Prepared for
BUILDING SEISMIC SAFETY COUNCIL (BSSC)
of the
National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS)
Washington, DC
Funded by
FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY (FEMA)
Washington, DC
TASK 7 PROJECT CORE GROUP
James O. Malley (Technical Director)
Gregory Deierlein
Helmut Krawinkler
Joseph R. Maffei
Mehran Pourzanjani,
John Wallace
Jon A. Heintz
May 1, 2007

Preface
In October 2006, the Applied Technology Council (ATC) began work on a
contract assisting the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center
(PEER) in developing guidelines for the seismic design of tall buildings as
part of the PEER Tall Buildings Initiative. The purpose of this work was to
prepare recommended guidelines for modeling the behavior of tall building
structural systems and acceptance values for use in seismic design. Shortly
thereafter, ATC secured additional funding on behalf of PEER from the
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), through the Building
Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) of the National Institute of Building
Sciences, to conduct a workshop in support of this effort. This additional
funding was allocated to the specific task of identifying and prioritizing
seismic design and analytical challenges related to tall buildings, which were
to be addressed by the eventual recommended guidelines.
The purpose of the Workshop on Tall Building Seismic Design and Analysis
Issues was to solicit the opinions and collective recommendations of leading
practitioners, regulators, and researchers actively involved in design,
permitting, and construction of tall buildings. The outcome of this workshop
is a prioritized list of the most important tall building modeling and
acceptance criteria issues needing resolution, based on the discussion of the
multi-disciplinary stakeholders in attendance. This list will be used as the
basis for future work in developing recommended guidelines for tall building
design as part of the PEER Tall Buildings Initiative.
ATC gratefully acknowledges the work of the ATC-72/PEER Task 7 Project
Core Group, including Jim Malley, Greg Deierlein, Helmut Krawinkler, Joe
Maffei, Mehran Pourzanjani, and John Wallace, for their efforts in planning
and conducting this workshop. The affiliations of these individuals are
included in the list of Workshop Participants provided in Appendix A.
ATC also gratefully acknowledges Claret Heider (BSSC) and Michael
Mahoney (FEMA) for their input and guidance in the completion of this
report, Peter N. Mork for ATC report production services, and Charles H.
Thornton as ATC Board Contact on this project.
Jon A. Heintz
ATC Director of Projects

ATC-72

Christopher Rojahn
ATC Executive Director

Preface

iii

Table of Contents
Preface ........................................................................................................... iii
List of Figures ............................................................................................... vii
List of Tables ................................................................................................. ix
1. INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................1
1.1 General.............................................................................................1
1.2 Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center Tall
Buildings Initiative ..........................................................................2
1.3 Issues in Tall Building Design .........................................................3
1.4 Workshop Purpose ...........................................................................5
2. PRE-WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES .............................................................7
2.1 Workshop Planning .........................................................................7
2.2 Development of PEER Task 7 Scope of Work ................................7
2.3 Identification and Invitation of Workshop Participants ...................8
2.4 Collection of Pre-Workshop Issues .................................................8
3. WORKSHOP PROGRAM ........................................................................9
3.1 Workshop Format and Agenda ........................................................9
3.2 Workshop Description .....................................................................9
4. WORKSHOP FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS ................................13
4.1 Breakout Group 1 Report on Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer Issues ...............................................................................13
4.2 Breakout Group 2 Report on Capacity Design Issues ...................14
4.3 Breakout Group 3 Report on General Structural Issues ................14
4.4 Breakout Group 4 Report on Shear Wall Issues ............................15
4.5 Prioritization of Issues ...................................................................16
4.6 Use of Workshop Findings and Conclusions.................................17
APPENDIX A WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS ..........................................19
APPENDIX B PLENARY PRESENTATIONS ...........................................23
Applied Technology Council Projects and Report Information ....................63
Applied Technology Council Directors .........................................................83

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Table of Contents

List of Figures
Figure 3-1

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Agenda - Workshop on Tall Building Seismic Design


and Analysis Issues, January 30, 2007, San Francisco,
California. ............................................................................11

List of Figures

vii

List of Tables
Table 4-1

Highest Priority Tall Building Modeling and Acceptance


Criteria Needs ......................................................................16

Table 4-2

Intermediate Priority Tall Building Modeling and


Acceptance Criteria Needs...................................................17

Table 4-3

Lower Priority Tall Building Modeling and Acceptance


Criteria Needs ......................................................................18

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List of Tables

ix

Chapter 1

1.1

Introduction

General

The development of seismic design provisions and construction practice has


been based primarily on an understanding of the anticipated behavior of lowto moderate-rise construction. In extrapolating design and detailing
provisions for use in high-rise construction, many structural systems have
been limited in height or not permitted where combinations of spectral
response acceleration parameters, site class, and building occupancy result in
Seismic Design Categories D or higher, as defined in ASCE 7-05 Minimum
Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.
The West Coast of the United States has been confronted with a major
upsurge in the construction of buildings as tall as 1000 feet that involve a
variety of unusual configurations, innovative structural systems, and high
performance materials. Recent trends in high-rise residential construction
have resulted in structural systems that challenge the limits of current seismic
design provisions and procedures. Questions have arisen regarding the
applicability of prescriptive code provisions to tall buildings, and whether or
not prescriptive provisions can adequately ensure acceptable performance of
this class of structure.
Building departments, with active input from peer review committees and
advisory groups, have been considering performance-based methods to
assess the adequacy of these new designs. At the same time, committees of
professional organizations and others have also been working to define
appropriate design methods for tall buildings. Use of alternative
performance-based design procedures has led to challenges in the plan check
and enforcement process, and use of currently available performance-based
analytical methods has led to questions regarding the ability of these methods
to reliably predict performance of tall structural systems.
The seismic design of tall buildings, or buildings exceeding 160 feet in
height, introduces new challenges that need to be met through consideration
of scientific, engineering, and regulatory issues specific to the modeling,
analysis, and acceptance criteria appropriate for these unique structural
systems.

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1: Introduction

1.2

Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center


Tall Buildings Initiative

The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is leading a


multi-year collaborative effort, called the Tall Buildings Initiative, to develop
performance-based seismic design guidelines for tall buildings. Guidelines
resulting from this initiative are intended to promote consistency in design
approaches, facilitate design and review, and help ensure that tall building
designs meet safety and performance objectives consistent with the intent of
current building codes and the expectations of various stakeholder groups.
Major collaborators on the PEER Tall Buildings Initiative include (in
alphabetical order):

Applied Technology Council (ATC),

California Geological Survey,

Charles Pankow Foundation,

Department of Building Inspection, City & County of San Francisco


(SFDBI),

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council (LATBSDC),

Los Angeles Department of Building and Safety (LADBS),

Building Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) of the National Institute of


Building Sciences (NIBS),

National Science Foundation (NSF),

Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) (Lead


Organization),

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC),

Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC),

Structural Engineers Association of Northern California (SEAONC), and

United States Geological Survey (USGS).

The Tall Buildings Initiative includes consideration of performance


objectives, ground motion selection and scaling, modeling, acceptance
criteria, and soil-foundation-structure interaction issues specific to the design
of tall buildings. Guideline development activities are organized around the
following tasks:

Task 1 - Establish and Operate the Tall Buildings Project Advisory


Committee (T-PAC)

Task 2 - Develop consensus on performance objectives

1: Introduction

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Task 3 - Assessment of ground motion selection and scaling procedures

Task 4 - Synthetically generated ground motions

Task 5 - Review and validation of synthetically generated ground


motions

Task 6 - Guidelines on selection and modification of ground motions for


design

Task 7 - Guidelines on modeling and acceptance values

Task 8 - Input ground motions for tall buildings with subterranean levels

Task 9 - Presentations at conferences, workshops, seminars

Task 10 - Development of a design framework and publication of design


guidelines

1.3

Issues in Tall Building Design

The following scientific, engineering, and regulatory issues specific to tall


building design have been identified as part of the PEER Tall Buildings
Initiative. These issues form the basis of the major technical development
areas to be addressed by the Tall Buildings Initiative.
Building concepts and materials. Functional requirements for tall
residential buildings have led to new building configurations and systems
that do not meet the prescriptive definitions and requirements of current
building codes. These include efficient framing systems with reduced
redundancy as compared with more conventional buildings. High-strength
materials and specialized products are also being proposed to help meet the
unique challenges introduced by these structural systems.
Performance objectives and hazard considerations. High occupancy
levels, associated safety considerations, and interest in re-occupancy
following an earthquake have led to a reconsideration of performance
objectives and ground shaking hazards. As a minimum, a building must be
safe for rare (low-probability, long-return period) ground shaking demands,
and must remain safe for significant aftershocks. However, there is
increasing concern that serviceability for more frequent events should be
considered as well. For very long vibration periods characteristic of tall
buildings, special treatment of design ground motions is needed to ensure
that these motions are representative in their damage potential, including
consideration of duration and long-period energy content, so that designs
based on them will safely represent the anticipated effects of future
earthquakes. While equivalence to building code minimum performance
requirements is likely to be the basic objective, there is no consensus on how

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1: Introduction

to translate that performance objective into specific engineering demands and


capacity checks in a performance-based procedure.
Ground motion time histories. The selection, scaling and spectral
modification of ground motion time histories to represent a design response
spectrum has a large impact on the results of nonlinear analyses.
Earthquakes that dominate the seismic hazard in San Francisco, especially at
sites near the San Andreas Fault, are for larger magnitudes and closer
distances than are available in existing databases of strong motion
recordings. This indicates a need to establish rational procedures for time
history selection, scaling and modification. Validated seismological methods
can be used to generate ground motion time histories that incorporate nearfault rupture directivity effects and basin effects to appropriately represent
the duration and long period energy content of these large design events.
Modeling, simulation, and acceptance criteria. Current codes, although
legally applicable to tall buildings, are based on, and emphasize design
requirements for, low- to moderate-rise construction. As such, they fall short
in conveying specific modeling, analysis, and acceptance criteria for very tall
buildings because the dynamic and mechanical aspects of response that
control the behavior of tall buildings are different from those of shorter
buildings. Specialized engineering procedures, consensus-based and backed
by research and experience, are needed. Criteria should appropriately
address aspects of reliability of safety, capital preservation, re-occupancy,
and functionality.
Input ground motions for tall buildings with subterranean levels. It is
common practice to configure tall buildings with several levels below grade.
Interaction between the soil, foundation, and structure is expected to
significantly affect the character and intensity of the motion that is input to
the superstructure. The issue is to define the input ground motions for tall
buildings with subterranean levels considering this interaction.
Instrumentation. Tall building instrumentation can serve multiple
purposes, including rapid occupancy evaluation following an earthquake,
confirmation that building performance has met design expectations, and
basic research leading to improved design criteria and analytical methods.
Guidelines are needed for building instrumentation plans, and for data
utilization following an earthquake.

1: Introduction

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1.4

Workshop Purpose

The Workshop on Tall Building Seismic Design and Analysis Issues was
conducted as an integral part of PEER Task 7, and is related to the
development of guidelines on modeling and acceptance values for tall
buildings. The purpose of this workshop was to help identify design and
modeling issues of critical importance to various tall building stakeholder
groups, and to establish priorities for issues that should be addressed by the
Task 7 work. The outcome of this workshop is a prioritized list of the most
important tall building modeling and acceptance criteria issues needing
resolution, based on the opinions of practitioners, regulators, and researchers
in attendance, all of whom are actively involved in design, permitting, and
construction of tall buildings.

ATC-72

1: Introduction

Chapter 2

2.1

Pre-Workshop Activities

Workshop Planning

Workshop planning was conducted by the PEER Task 7 Project Core Group.
Planning efforts included an initial brainstorming of tall building modeling
and acceptance criteria issues, development of an initial draft scope for the
Task 7 effort, identification and invitation of leading experts in design,
permitting and construction of tall buildings, and collection of issues from
invited participants in advance of the workshop. Issues collected in advance
were used to structure the agenda for the workshop, including initial
introductory presentations and the format for breakout discussions.
2.2

Development of PEER Task 7 Scope of Work

Development of the PEER Task 7 scope of work involved coordination with


the overall Tall Buildings Initiative effort and an initial brainstorming of tall
building modeling and acceptance criteria issues. Task 7 Project Core Group
members developed these initial issues into a task description and
preliminary outline for deliverables that were distributed to workshop
participants as part of the pre-workshop invitation materials.
As defined in pre-workshop materials, PEER Task 7 is intended to develop
practical guidance for acceptance criteria and for nonlinear modeling of tall
buildings constructed using reinforced concrete and steel materials.
Recommended guidance is expected to cover such topics as stiffness,
strength, deformation capacity, hysteretic models, and implementation of
nonlinear response-history (NLRH) analysis. It is also expected to cover
guidance on appropriate parameters for use with capacity design procedures,
including capacity-reduction factors and determination of overstrength
demands from NLRH analysis. Recommended criteria are expected to
appropriately address aspects of reliability, safety, capital preservation, reoccupancy, and functionality. Assessment of uncertainties is deemed an
essential part of this effort.
The PEER Task 7 deliverable is envisioned to be a report that is included as
part of the overall Tall Buildings Initiative report. The target audience for
the eventual report and recommended guidance will be practicing structural

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2: Pre-Workshop Activities

engineers and building officials actively involved in the design and review of
tall buildings for which seismic design is important.
2.3

Identification and Invitation of Workshop


Participants

Workshop participation was by invitation only, and the distribution of


participants was structured to be multidisciplinary. PEER Task 7 Project
Core Group members identified leading experts involved in the design,
research, permitting, and construction of tall buildings. Targeted participants
included practicing engineers, researchers, and code officials. Proposed
invitees were reviewed by members of the PEER Tall Buildings Project
Advisory Committee (T-PAC), Michael Mahoney at FEMA, and Claret
Heider at BSSC. Letters of invitation were sent to the final list of agreed
upon invitees, along with a workshop agenda, summary of the PEER Tall
Buildings Initiative, preliminary list of tall building modeling and acceptance
criteria issues, and a call for input on additional tall building issues to be
submitted in advance of the workshop. In all, 35 individuals participated in
the workshop, including members of the Tall Buildings Project Advisory
Committee and the PEER Task 7 Project Core Group. A list of workshop
participants is included in Appendix A.
2.4

Collection of Pre-Workshop Issues

In response to pre-workshop materials, invited participants submitted more


than 100 written comments. Many comments contained multiple design and
analysis concerns on the part of the participants, resulting in over 500
individual tall building issues collected before the workshop. This input was
used to set the workshop structure, seed workshop discussion, and target
workshop content. It formed the basis of workshop introductory
presentations and served as the starting point for focused breakout
discussions. A brief summary of these issues can be found in the plenary
presentations contained in Appendix B. The subset of these issues that rose
to the top in workshop discussions are reported in Chapter 4, Workshop
Findings and Conclusions.

2: Pre-Workshop Activities

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Chapter 3

3.1

Workshop Program

Workshop Format and Agenda

The workshop format was structured around an initial plenary session of


introductory presentations, a series of focused breakout discussions, and
overall group prioritization of the resulting issues. Based on input received
from invited participants in advance of the workshop, discussions were
centered on four topical areas: (1) foundation modeling/base transfer issues;
(2) capacity design; (3) general structural issues; and (4) shear wall issues.
The workshop agenda is shown in Figure 3-1.
3.2

Workshop Description

Introductory presentations in the initial plenary session included an overview


of the PEER Tall Buildings Initiative, a discussion of the goals and
objectives of PEER Task 7, identification of existing gaps in knowledge with
regard to tall building modeling and acceptance criteria, and an overview of
other activities related to the development of design criteria for tall buildings.
These included the Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council
(LATBSDC) effort to develop their consensus document, Alternative
Procedure for Seismic Analysis and Design of Tall Buildings Located in the
Los Angeles Region, and the City of San Francisco Department of Building
Inspection (SFDBI) effort to develop their Administrative Bulletin AB-083,
Requirements and Guidelines for the Seismic Design and Review of New Tall
Buildings using Non-Prescriptive Seismic-Design Procedures. The plenary
session also included open discussion to allow participants to raise general
issues of importance. Introductory presentations are provided for reference
in Appendix B.
In a second plenary session, presentations were structured to orient
participants to the specific modeling and acceptance criteria issues planned
for the breakout sessions. These included a report on tall building
performance objectives (from PEER Task 2), a report on foundation
modeling issues (from PEER Task 8), and a series of presentations on the
pre-workshop issues collected from participants in advance of the workshop.
Issues were grouped into one of the four main topical areas for presentation
(foundation modeling/base transfer, capacity design, general structural, and
shear walls) as well as a fifth topic of general crosscutting issues involving

ATC-72

3: Workshop Program

reporting, documentation, and peer review. Pre-workshop issue


presentations are provided for reference in Appendix B.
The four topical areas served as focal points for breakout discussions, with
one topical area assigned to each breakout. To ensure multi-disciplinary
discussion among the practitioner, researcher, and code official stakeholder
groups in attendance, participants were assigned to each breakout group for
the first half of the discussion period. During the second half of the
discussion period, participants were permitted to move between breakout
groups.
Breakout groups were led by members of the PEER Task 7 Project Core
Group. Leaders were instructed to review the collection of pre-workshop
issues with the breakout participants, discuss and clarify issues for common
understanding, and to identify the most important issues in each topical area
for reporting back the overall group.
Participants reconvened in a plenary session for breakout reporting, in which
recorders presented the subset of pre-workshop issues that were identified by
each breakout group as the most important needs in each focus area. To
establish priorities across all focus areas, issues reported by the breakout
groups were balloted by the overall combined group. Each participant was
allowed five votes for identifying and assigning priorities among the issues.
Results are reported in Chapter 4, Workshop Findings and Conclusions.

10

3: Workshop Program

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Figure 3-1

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Agenda - Workshop on Tall Building Seismic Design and Analysis Issues, January 30,
2007, San Francisco, California.

3: Workshop Program

11

Chapter 4

4.1

Workshop Findings and


Conclusions

Breakout Group 1 Report on Foundation


Modeling/Base Transfer Issues

Breakout Group 1 was charged with reviewing and discussing pre-workshop


issues related to foundation modeling and load transfers at the base of the
structure. The following issues were identified as the highest priority needs
in this focus area:

Guidance on how to model the podium (stiff base structure below the
high-rise tower superstructure) including diaphragm stiffness, wall
stiffness, and foundation stiffness.

Guidance on how to properly address podiums that extend above grade,


including differences from the recommended treatment of below-grade
podiums or basements.

Guidance on how to properly address hillside sites with respect to the


effective height of the building, potential unbalanced soil forces, and
unsymmetrical basement wall configurations.

Recommendations for performance-based equivalencies to code-based


foundation design.

Information on whether or not current foundation modeling practices


adequately capture tall building system behavior.

Recommendations on whether or not foundation components should be


required to remain elastic.

Information on calculated uplift at the foundation that could be


considered acceptable.

Information on how boundary condition assumptions (i.e., base-fixity)


affect the design of the superstructure (e.g. drift limits).

Information on how much foundation rotation really affects the overall


response of the superstructure.

Appropriate tests for determining realistic geotechnical parameters.

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4: Workshop Findings and Conclusions

13

4.2

Realistic dispersions that can be expected in geotechnical parameters and


recommendations on how this information should be used in tall building
design.
Breakout Group 2 Report on Capacity Design
Issues

Breakout Group 2 was charged with reviewing and discussing pre-workshop


issues related to capacity design. The following issues were identified as the
highest priority needs in this focus area:

A clearly defined capacity design philosophy for tall buildings.

Guidance on capacity protection factors, limit-state demands, and


necessary margins.

Guidance on how to properly quantify properties of inelastic


components, including dispersion in those properties.

Guidance on unintentional slab outrigger effects that should be


considered in tall building design.

Guidance on capacity design of foundations.

Guidance on capacity design of diaphragms.

Strategies to achieve capacity design for tall buildings, including


hierarchies of behavior modes.

4.3

Breakout Group 3 Report on General Structural


Issues

Breakout Group 3 was charged with reviewing and discussing pre-workshop


issues related to general structural analysis considerations and acceptance
criteria. The following issues were identified as the highest priority needs in
this focus area:

14

Guidance on how to include damping in structural models.

Specification of minimum strength criteria for tall buildings.

Guidance on modeling of P-delta effects and component deterioration.

Definition of performance objectives that are acceptable to tall building


stakeholder groups.

Acceptance criteria for all structural systems and components used in tall
building design.

Guidance on how to properly model components including, initial


stiffness, yield strength, and post-yield degradation.

4: Workshop Findings and Conclusions

ATC-72

Guidance on how to properly model outrigger systems (systems with


horizontal components that extend out to columns or walls that are not
part of the main lateral-force-resisting core).

Guidance on the determination of axial forces and their effects on walls


and columns, including the effects of vertical acceleration.

Guidance on what should be included in the structural model to


properly simulate tall building behavior.

4.4

Breakout Group 4 Report on Shear Wall Issues

Breakout Group 4 was charged with reviewing and discussing pre-workshop


issues related to analysis and design of concrete shear walls. The following
issues were identified as the highest priority issues in this focus area:

Guidance on flexure-shear interaction, including shear through the


compression zone and wall geometry effects.

Guidance on gravity system compatibility with the lateral-force-resisting


system, including slab deformation demands and column/wall force
demands.

Guidance on coupling beam performance at service level demands (i.e.,


damage states at 10%, 20%, 30% of capacity)

Recommendations on wall detailing both inside and outside the plastichinge region, including confinement based on strain demands.

Guidance on effective initial stiffness for walls and coupling beams for
service level and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) level
demands.

Information on calibration of structural models with wall/coupling beam


component testing using frame or fiber elements.

Guidance on the length of the plastic-hinge region, and force and


ductility demands outside of the region.

Wall acceptance criteria for strain, displacement, rotation, and strength at


service level demands.

Guidance on direct-displacement-based design (setting of acceptable


strain limits) in lieu of traditional force-based design.

R-factors for Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) level analyses for systems
using only concrete shear wall cores.

Load combinations that should be used to determine the area of


reinforcing steel in a wall.

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4: Workshop Findings and Conclusions

15

Axial restraint on coupling beam behavior including kinematics, posttensioning, and the contribution of the floor slab.

Recommendations on splices in longitudinal wall reinforcing.

Recommendations on wall reinforcing anchorage to foundations

4.5

Prioritization of Issues

Issues identified by each breakout group as the most important needs in each
focus area were balloted by the overall combined group to establish priorities
across all focus areas. Issues were assigned to one of three overall priority
ranges (highest, intermediate, or lower priority) as identified in the tables that
follow.
The overall highest priority needs, identified by a cluster of issues with the
four highest vote totals, are shown in Table 4-1. Interestingly enough, this
short list includes one issue from each of the four focus areas.
Table 4-1

Highest Priority Tall Building Modeling and Acceptance Criteria Needs


Need
Focus Area

Guidance on how to model the podium (stiff base structure below


the high-rise tower superstructure) including diaphragm stiffness,
wall stiffness, and foundation stiffness.

Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer

Guidance on flexure-shear interaction, including shear through the


compression zone and wall geometry effects.

Shear Walls

A clearly defined capacity design philosophy for tall buildings.

Capacity Design

Guidance on how to include damping in structural models.

General Structural

Intermediate priority needs, identified by a cluster of issues with mid-range


vote totals, are shown in Table 4-2. This list also includes representation
from each focus area, although general structural analysis and acceptance
criteria issues are in the majority in this range.
Lower priority needs, identified by a cluster of issues receiving the lowest
vote totals, are shown in Table 4-3. Issues that did not receive votes in
overall plenary balloting are not included in the priority rankings, and preworkshop issues that did not meet with consensus in breakout discussions are
not reported. Summary information including these other issues can be
found in the pre-workshop issue presentations provided in Appendix B.
Of the 41 high priority needs for each focus area identified in breakout group
discussions, 29 received at least one vote in overall plenary balloting. The
priority rankings of Table 4-1, Table 4-2, and Table 4-3 include the top six

16

4: Workshop Findings and Conclusions

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out of eleven foundation modeling/base transfer needs, the top six out of
seven capacity design needs, the top eight out of nine general structural
needs, and the top nine out of fourteen shear wall needs identified in the
preceding sections.
Table 4-2

Intermediate Priority Tall Building Modeling and Acceptance Criteria Needs


Need
Focus Area

Specification of minimum strength criteria for tall buildings.

General Structural

Guidance on capacity protections factors, limit-state demands, and


necessary margins.

Capacity Design

Guidance on how to properly quantify properties of inelastic


components, including dispersion in those properties.

Capacity Design

Recommendations for performance-based equivalencies to codebased foundation design.

Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer

Guidance on modeling of P-delta effects and component


deterioration.

General Structural

Guidance on gravity system compatibility with the lateral-forceresisting system, including slab deformation demands and
column/wall force demands.

Shear Walls

Definition of performance objectives that are acceptable to tall


building stakeholder groups.

General Structural

4.6

Use of Workshop Findings and Conclusions

The prioritized needs identified in Table 4-1, Table 4-2, and Table 4-3 will
be reviewed by PEER Task 7 Project Core Group members. These needs
will serve as the basis for a literature search on the state of available
knowledge, and collection of emerging research on modeling techniques and
acceptance criteria applicable to the analysis and design of tall buildings.
This effort will ultimately result in a report, to be included as part of an
overall PEER Tall Buildings Initiative report, that outlines recommendations
for modeling of tall building structural systems and components, and
provides recommended acceptance values for use in design. It is envisioned
that this effort will address as many of the specific needs identified in this
workshop as possible, subject to limitations in available information and
funding.

ATC-72

4: Workshop Findings and Conclusions

17

Table 4-3

18

Lower Priority Tall Building Modeling and Acceptance Criteria Needs


Need
Focus Area

Guidance on how to properly address hillside sites with respect to the


effective height of the building, potential unbalanced soil forces, and
unsymmetrical basement wall configurations.

Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer

Information on whether or not current foundation modeling practices


adequately capture tall building system behavior.

Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer

Recommendations on whether or not foundation components should


be required to remain elastic.

Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer

Acceptance criteria for all structural systems and components used in


tall building design.

General Structural

Guidance on coupling beam performance at service level demands


(i.e., damage states at 10%, 20%, 30% of capacity)

Shear Walls

Guidance on unintentional slab outrigger effects that should be


considered in tall building design.

Capacity Design

Guidance on capacity design of foundations.

Capacity Design

Guidance on how to properly model components including, initial


stiffness, yield strength, and post-yield degradation.

General Structural

Guidance on how to properly model outrigger systems (systems with


horizontal components that extend out to columns or walls that are
not part of the main lateral-force-resisting core).

General Structural

Guidance on the determination of axial forces and their effects on


walls and columns, including the effects of vertical acceleration.

General Structural

Recommendations on wall detailing both inside and outside the


plastic-hinge region, including confinement based on strain demands.

Shear Walls

Guidance on effective initial stiffness for walls and coupling beams


for service level and Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) level
demands.

Shear Walls

Information on calibration of structural models with wall/coupling


beam component testing using frame or fiber elements.

Shear Walls

Guidance on capacity design of diaphragms.

Capacity Design

Information on calculated uplift at the foundation that could be


considered acceptable.

Foundation Modeling/Base
Transfer

Guidance on the length of the plastic-hinge region, and force and


ductility demands outside of the region

Shear Walls

Wall acceptance criteria for strain, displacement, rotation, and


strength at service level demands.

Shear Walls

Guidance on direct-displacement-based design (setting of acceptable


strain limits) in lieu of traditional force-based design.

Shear Walls

4: Workshop Findings and Conclusions

ATC-72

Appendix A

Workshop Participants

PEER Task 7 Project Core Group Participants


Greg Deierlein
Stanford University
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
240 Terman Engineering Center
Stanford, California 94305

James O. Malley (Project Technical Director)


Degenkolb Engineers
35 Montgomery Street, Suite 500
San Francisco, California 94104
Mehran Pourzanjani
Saiful/Bouquet Inc.
385 E. Colorado Boulevard, Suite 200
Pasadena, California 91101

Jon A. Heintz
Applied Technology Council
201 Redwood Shores Pkwy., Suite 240
Redwood City, California 94065

John Wallace
University of California, Los Angeles
Dept. of Civil Engineering
5731 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles, California 90095-1593

Helmut Krawinkler
Stanford University
Civil Engineering Department
Stanford, California 94305-4020
Joseph Maffei
Rutherford & Chekene
55 Second Street, Suite 600
San Francisco, California 94105

PEER Tall Buildings Project Advisory Committee Participants


Jack Moehle (Principal Investigator)
Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Ctr
UC Berkeley, 325 Davis Hall MC1792
Berkeley, California 94720-1792

Ray Lui
Department of Building Inspection
1660 Mission Street, 2nd Floor
San Francisco, California 94103

Yousef Bozorgnia
Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Ctr
UC Berkeley, 325 Davis Hall MC1792
Berkeley, California 94720-1792

Mark Moore
Forell/Elsesser Engineers Inc.
160 Pine Street, 6th Floor
San Francisco, California 94111

Marshall Lew
MACTEC Engineering & Consulting, Inc.
200 Citadel Drive
Los Angeles, California 90040
Invited Participants
Lawrence Griffis
Walter P. Moore & Associates, Inc.
1221 MoPac Expressway, Suite 355
Austin, Texas 78746

ATC-72

Robert Hanson
Federal Emergency Management Agency
2926 Saklan Indian Drive
Walnut Creek, California 94595-3911

A: Workshop Participants

19

John Hooper
Magnusson Klemencic Associates
1301 Fifth Avenue, Suite 3200
Seattle, Washington 98101

Graham Powell
Graham H. Powell, Inc.
1190 Brown Avenue
Lafayette, California 94549

Moh Huang
California Geological Survey
801 K Street, MS 13-35
Sacramento, California 95814

John Price
Curry Price Court
444 Camino Del Rio South, #201
San Diego, California 92108

Dave Hutchinson
Buehler & Buehler Structural Engineers
600 Q Street, Suite 200
Sacramento, California 95814

Christopher Rojahn
Applied Technology Council
201 Redwood Shores Pkwy., Suite 240
Redwood City, California 94065

Leonard Joseph
Thornton-Tomasetti
2415 Campus Drive, Suite 110
Irvine, California 92612

Derrick Roorda
DeSimone Consulting Engineers
10 United Nations Plaza, Suite 410
San Francisco, California 94102

Charles Kircher
Kircher & Associates, Consulting Engineers
1121 San Antonio Road, Suite D-202
Palo Alto, California 94303-4311

Tom Sabol
Englekirk & Sabol, Consulting Structural Engrs
2116 Arlington Avenue
Los Angeles, California 90018-9998

Eric Lemkuhl
KPFF Consulting Engineers
3131 Camino Del Rio North, Suite 1080
San Diego, California 92108

Gregg Schrader
City of Bellevue, WA
Planning & Community Development
450 110th Ave. NE
Bellevue, Washington 98009

Nico Luco
U.S. Geological Survey
P.O. Box 25046, Mail Stop 966
Denver, Colorado 80225
Steve Mahin
University of California at Berkeley
777 Davis Hall
Berkeley, California 94720-1710
Neville Matthias
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP
One Front Street, Suite 2500
San Francisco, California 94111
Farzad Naeim
John A. Martin & Associates, Inc.
1212 S. Flower Street, 4th Floor
Los Angeles, California 90015
Steve Pfeiffer
City of Seattle, Washington
PO Box 34019
Seattle, Washington 98124-4019

20

Constantine Shuhaibar
Shuhaibar Engineers
1288 Columbus Avenue, Suite 290
San Francisco, California 94133
Jonathan Stewart
University of California, Los Angeles
Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering
5731 Boelter Hall
Los Angeles, California 90095-1593
Nabih Youssef
Nabih Youssef & Associates
800 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 510
Los Angeles, California 90017
Atila Zekioglu
Ove Arup & Partners
2440 S. Sepulveda Blvd., Suite 180
Los Angeles, California 90064

A: Workshop Participants

ATC-72

Breakout Group 1: Foundation Modeling/Base Transfer


Marshall Lew
James O. Malley (Chair)
Steve Pfeiffer

Jon A. Heintz (Recorder)


Moh Huang
David Hutchinson
Leonard Joseph
Breakout Group 2: Capacity Design

Neville Matthias
John Price
Constantine Shuhaibar
Nabih Youssef

Greg Deierlein (Recorder)


Robert Hanson
Eric Lemkuhl
Joseph Maffei (Chair)

Breakout Group 3: General Structural Analysis and Acceptance Criteria


Ray Lui
Mehran Pourzanjani (Recorder)
Graham Powell
Derrick Roorda

Larry Griffis
John Hooper
Helmut Krawinkler (Chair)
Nico Luco
Breakout Group 4: Shear Walls
Charles Kircher
Steve Mahin
Mark Moore (Recorder)
Tom Sabol

ATC-72

Greg Schrader
John Wallace (Chair)
Atila Zekioglu

A: Workshop Participants

21

Appendix B

B.1

Plenary Presentations

Introductory Presentations

PEER Tall Buildings Initiative, Jack Moehle ................................................25


Task 7 Goals and Objectives, Jim Malley......................................................26
Seismic/Structural Design Issues for Tall Buildings, Joe Maffei ..................28
An Alternative Procedure for Seismic Analysis and Design of Tall
Buildings Located in the Los Angeles Region, Farzad Naeim ......................36
Task 2 Develop Consensus Performance Objectives, Charlie Kircher .......41
Task 8 Input Ground Motions for Tall Buildings with Subterranean
Levels, Jonathan Stewart ...............................................................................43
B.2

Summary Presentations on Pre-Workshop Issues

Capacity Design Issues for Tall Buildings, Joe Maffei..................................47


Base Load Transfer Issues, Jim Malley .........................................................51
General Structural Issues and Frames, Helmut Krawinkler ...........................53
Element/System Modeling - Walls, John Wallace.........................................57
Advance Workshop Input - Other Issues, Jon Heintz ....................................61

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

23

PEER Tall Buildings Initiative

Jack Moehle
Principal Investigator
January 30, 2007

Tall Buildings Initiative


9/06

12/06

3/07

6/07

9/07

12/07

3/08

6/08

9/08

Task 1 - Tall Buildings Initiative Project Advisory Committee (TPAC)


Task 2 Performance objectives
Task 3 Building pilot studies
Task 4 Synthetic ground motions
Task 5 Review synthetic ground motions

Task 6 GM
Guidelines

Task 7 Guidelines on modeling and acceptance


principles and deemed-to-comply values
Task 8 SFSI
Task 8b SFSI
Bldgs. w/ Sub. Levels
Cont. Studies
Future tasks a Development of
design framework
Future tasks b Development of
design guidelines

Related activities.
LATBSDC Alternative Procedures
SFDBI AB083
J. Moehle
Task 7 Workshop
30 January 2007

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

25

Task 7 Guidelines for Design,


Including Modeling and Acceptance
Values

PEER Tall Buildings Initiative

Team Members

Task 7 Goals and Objectives


Jim Malley
TBI Workshop
January 30, 2007

Task 7 Guidelines for Design,


Including Modeling and Acceptance
Values
Task Description Develop practical
guidance for acceptance criteria and
nonlinear modeling.

Helmut Krawinkler Stanford


Greg Deierlein Stanford
John Wallace UCLA
Joe Maffei Rutherford & Chekene
Mehran Pourzanjani Saiful/Bouquet
Jon Heintz ATC
Jim Malley - Degenkolb

Task 7 Guidelines for Design,


Including Modeling and Acceptance
Values (Cont.)
Not ALL topics related to design, modeling
and acceptance criteria can be addressed!
Topics will be selected (with the help of
your input) could include:

R/C and Steel


Priority on R/C due to amount of residential projects
either underway or in planning

Task 7 Guidelines for Design,


Including Modeling and Acceptance
Values (Cont.)
Additional topics could include:
Guidance on capacity design, overstrength
demands from NLRH, podium force transfer,
etc.
Considering safety, capital preservation, reoccupancy and functionality
To be developed within uncertainty assessment
framework

ATC-72

Stiffness, strength and deformation capacity


Hysteretic models for NLRH
Implementation in software for NLRH

Task 7 -Significant Issues to be Addressed


(Our first pass)
General structural issues (effective damping,
cyclic deterioration, post-capping stiffness, e.g.)
Podium force transfer
Capacity design concepts
Modeling of various systems and elements (core
walls, frames, coupling beams, etc.)
Foundation modeling (with Task 8)
January workshop of designers, researchers,
regulators and other interested parties to identify
specific issues to be addressed (This is US!)

B: Plenary Presentations

26

Task 7 - Deliverable
Report of findings. Tentative title is
Guidelines for the seismic/structural
design of tall buildings
Sounds like the entire project report, eh?
Dont be fooled. Task 7 will only write our part!

Target audience
Practicing structural engineers and building officials
involved in the design and review of tall buildings
So, its a technical document, not a legislative document

Tentative Outline (Presented by Joe Maffei)

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

27

Seismic/structural design issues


for tall buildings

January 2007
Joe Maffei

TALL BUILDING DESIGN ISSUES

Todays tall buildings

Research applicable to tall buildings

Component tests

Need for benchmarks on analysis assumptions

Serviceability acceptance criteria

Effective concrete stiffness

Minimum base shear

Other issues

Straw man report outline

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

TYPES OF
OCCUPANCY

CONDO

HOTEL

EXAMPLES OF CONCRETE-WALL HIGH-RISES

RETAIL

PARKING

WASHINGTON
MUTUAL | SEATTLE
ART MUSEUM

STEEL GRAVITY
FRAMING

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

28

COMPONENT TESTS

APPLICABLE RESEARCH

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

29

COMPONENT
TESTS

Test Facility and Test Structure


z 7 Story full-scale
building slice
z Reinforced concrete
structural wall
z NEES Large HighPerformance Outdoor
Shake Table at
UCSDs Englekirk
Structural Engineering
Center

UCSD Wall

Typical High-Rise Core Wall

UCSD WALL vs. HIGH-RISE WALL BUILDING

32 ft
12 ft

tw = 8 in
60 ft

tw = 36 in

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Test Regime

ATC-72

ag (g)

1.0
0.8
0.6

EQ3:
Essentially
linear

Sf-vnuy-lgn

EQ1

0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
5.0

10.0
t (sec)

ag (g)

Acceleration (g)

ag (g)

0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0
1.0

0.0

5.0

10.0
t (sec)

EQ3

0.8
0.6
0.4

10000
8000
6000

20.0

Sf-vnuy-tr

EQ2

0.6

15.0

15.0

20.0

Nor-w hox-lgn

0.2
0.0
-0.2

Base Moment [kip-ft]

1.0

0.0

0.8

4000
2000

-17.5

-12.5

-7.5

0
-2.5
-2000

-6000

-0.8
-1.0

1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0

0.0

5.0

10.0

15.0

2.5

7.5

12.5

17.5

-4000

-0.4
-0.6

ag (g)

z Testing at the NEES@UCSD


Large High-Performance
Outdoor Shake Table between
October 2005 and January
2006
z Structure tested under
increase intensity historical
earthquake records and with
low-intensity band-clipped
white noise in between
earthquake tests

20.0

EQ4: Non-linear

t (sec)

EQ4

Nor-Sylm ar-360

-8000
-10000

0.0

5.0

10.0
t (sec)

Time (sec)

15.0

20

20.0

B: Plenary Presentations

Roof Displacement [in]

30

EQ4:

EQ4:

Test EQ4
PGA = 0.93g

Building
Buildings Response to Sylmar
Earthquake EQ4
EQ4

Sensors
z 600+ sensors deployed on the building,
shake table and surrounding soil

z Performance levels anticipated were met:

DC Coupled Accelerometers
Displacement transducers
Strain gauges
Load cells
Oil pressure transducers

z First time use of 50Hz, 3 mm resolution,


real-time GPS displacement sensors

Cosmetic damage at the base of the wall


Reinforcement strains reached 2.7%
Peak roof-drift ratio was 2.1%
Residual crack widths less than 1/20th of an inch
Negligible residual displacements (1/2 in. at the
roof )

z The building slice could perhaps not be


immediately occupied but only required
minimum repairs

z 17 videos feeds streamed through


NEEScentral

UCSD Wall

Elastic ETABS Model

Blind Prediction Results - EQ3 - Shear Force Envelope


First 4 teams of each category
7
Measured

Floor

5
4
3
2
1
Z

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

Shear Force (kips)


RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

31

EQ3

EFFECTIVE STIFFNESS

Wall: Eeff = 0.2Ec

Slab: Eeff = 0.1Ec

Roof Displacement [in]

6
4
2
0
40

45

50

55

60

-2
-4
-6

UCSD Test
ETABS

-8

Time [s]
RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

MINIMUM BASE SHEAR


0.12

Seattle SF Salt Lake

0.08

1997 UBC

MINIMUM BASE SHEAR

ASCE 7-02

0.04
ASCE 7-05

0.00
0.0

0.3

0.6

0.9

1.2

S1

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

EFFECT ON SPECTRAL DISPLACEMENT DEMAND

EFFECT OF EQ 30-7 ON SPECTRA SHAPE

100
80

0.8

Sd, inches

Sa

1.2

A
0.4

Eq. 30-7

60

CODE SPECTRUM

40
20

UBC EQ. 30-7

0.0

0.0

ATC-72

1.0

2.0

3.0
T

4.0

5.0

6.0

T, sec
RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

B: Plenary Presentations

32

MINIMUM BASE SHEAR

100
Imperial Valley EQ

90

Imperial Valley EQ

Spectral Displacement, Sd (in)

0.12

Landers EQ

80

Seattle SF Salt Lake

Northridge EQ

70

Tabas EQ
1997 UBC R.S.

60

0.08

1997 UBC Equation 30-7

50
40

0.04

30

ASCE 7-05

20

0.00

10

0.0

0
0

3
Period, T (seconds)

Seattle

SF

0.9

1.2

S1

Salt Lake

T=6

140

Sd, inches

0.6

P- EFFECT ON LATERAL CAPACITY

DISPLACEMENT DEMAND VS. S1


160

0.3

Vmin

120

T=5

100
80
ASCE 7-05
Soil type B

60

hR

T=4

40
20

Vmin

0
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

S1

MR,min = Vmin hr

LIMIT P- REDUCTION IN LATERAL CAPACITY

V
P-

OTHER DESIGN ISSUES


Vmin

MCE drift
RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

33

NLRH INPUT

NLRH ANALYSIS AT MCE

7 horizontal ground
motion pairs
14 response-history runs

Use expected strengths of materials, e.g.,


fy = 70 ksi

MCE analysis directly gives overstrength


demands on elements designed to remain
elastic

Model element strengths at a gravity load


of 1.0D + Lexp

Include inherent torsion but not accidental


torsion

GRN 180
GRN 270
GRN 180

GRN 270
RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

DETAIL GRAVITY
SYSTEMS FOR
INDUCED DRIFT

MAT SLAB SHEAR REINFORCEMENT


Deep unreinforced
sections have
reduced Vc

Design slab-column
connections for ACI 2005
21.11.5.
Use method (b), with
additional consideration of
bottom and integrity
reinforcement

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

TASK GROUP 7 DELIVERABLE

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

34

Introduction, including background, objectives,


scope, relationship to other tasks

General discussion of seismic design issues of


particular to tall buildings (overview of things like
wind versus seismic, long period, podium effects,
poor applicability of pushover)
Preliminary design considerations for selected
building types [eg concrete wall, others?]

Use of NLRH analysis (does not include selection


and scaling of records, which is a separate task)

CONCLUSIONS

A large number of important design issues.


Need for benchmarking of analysis
assumptions.
Modeling and acceptance issues intertwined
with design issues.
(For now) limited scope and funding of Task 7.
Task 7 report?

issue papers

guidelines

design recommendations

provisions

3
4

15

5-10 Other selected issues in tall building design, either


NLRH issues, system design issues, or component
issues. Assume 6 of these times 20 pages each

120

11

Annotated bibliography on other issues, by topic

WHAT STIFFNESS ARE WE MODELING?


475y linear response

Reduction
by Reff

475y NL
response

Vmin

2475y NL
response
Roof Displacement

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

35

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

AN ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE
FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND
DESIGN OF TALL BUILDINGS
LOCATED IN THE LOS ANGELES
REGION

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council


The Council expresses its gratitude to the following
distinguished experts who also contributed to the
development of this document:
Mr. Ron Klemencic, President, Magnusson Klemencic Associates. Seattle, WA
Prof. Helmut Krawinkler, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA
Mr. Joe Maffei, Structural Engineer, Rutherford & Chekene, Oakland, CA
Dr. Mike Mehrain, Principal Structural Engineer, URS Corporation, Los Angeles, CA
Prof. Jack Moehle, University of California, Berkeley and Director of PEER Center, Berkeley, CA
Prof. Graham Powell, Professor Emeritus, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA
Mr. Gary Searer, Structural Engineer, Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Emeryville, CA
Dr. Paul Somerville, Principal Seismologist, URS Corporation, Pasadena, CA

A Consensus Document

Prof. John Wallace, University of California, Los Angeles, CA

December 2005

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

AN ALTERNATIVE PROCEDURE
FOR SEISMIC ANALYSIS AND
DESIGN OF TALL BUILDINGS
LOCATED IN THE LOS ANGELES
REGION

Link to the Document

A Consensus Document
December 2005

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

1. INTENT, SCOPE, JUSTIFICATION, AND


METHODOLOGY

INTENT: Provide an alternate, performancebased approach for seismic design and


analysis of tall buildings

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

METHODOLOGY:

Essentially a performance based approach


which embodies the performance goals
provided in:

SCOPE: Limited to tall buildings (total height


of 160 feet or more).

The 1999 SEAOC BlueBook

JUSTIFICATION: Codes Alternative Analysis


Clause [Section 16.29.10.1 of the 2002 City of
Los Angeles Building Code (2002-LABC)].

A number of latest provisions from the ASCE 7-05,


the upcoming 2006-IBC, and the FEMA-356
documents.

Three levels of ground motion and performance are


considered:

METHODOLOGY: Performance Based Approach


with three levels of analysis.

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

Serviceability

Life-Safety

Collapse Prevention

36

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

SERVICEABILITY:

LIFE-SAFETY:

The service level design earthquake is taken


as an event having a 50% probability of
being exceeded in 30 years (43 year return
period).

For this level, the building structural


members are designed without a reduction
factor (R = 1).

This evaluation is not contained in current


code requirements.

The objective is to produce a structure that


remains serviceable following such event.

This is a code-level seismic evaluation.

The life-safety level design earthquake is


taken as an event having a 10% probability
of being exceeded in 50 years (475 year
return period).

For this level of earthquake, building code


requirements are strictly followed with a
small number of carefully delineated
exceptions and modifications.

The prescriptive connection detailing


conforms to the requirements of the code.

Standard code load combinations and


material code standards are used.

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

COLLAPSE-PREVENTION:

The collapse-prevention level earthquake is taken as


an event having a 2% probability of being exceeded in
50 years (2,475 year return period) with a
deterministic limit.

This is larger than the current 2002-LABC MCE event


which has a return period of 975 years.

Evaluation is performed using nonlinear response


history analyses.

Demands are checked against both structural


members of the lateral force resisting system and
other structural members.

Nonstructural components are not evaluated at this


level.

Our procedure is consistent with, but


more stringent than SEAOC PBD
Framework (1999)
MCE level event is consistent with
ASCE 7-05

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

2.00

0.40

2500 Year
2000 Year
980 Year
475 Year
100 Year
75 Year
50 Year
25 Year

1.80
1.60
1.40

2500 Year
2000 Year
980 Year
475 Year
100 Year
75 Year
50 Year
25 Year

0.35

0.30

0.25

SA (g)

1.20

SA (g)

SEAOC PBD Framework (1999)

1.00
0.80

0.20

0.15

0.60
0.10

0.40
0.05

0.20
0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

0.00
3.00

8.00

3.50

4.00

4.50

Figure C.2-1. Mean values of spectral acceleration obtained from three


attenuation relations.
1.
2.
3.

ATC-72

Abrahamson and Silva (1997)


Boore, Joyner and Fumal (1997)
Sadigh (1997)

5.00

5.50

6.00

6.50

7.00

7.50

8.00

Period (sec.)

Period (sec.)

Figure C.2-1. Mean values of spectral acceleration obtained from three


attenuation relations.
1.
2.
3.

Abrahamson and Silva (1997)


Boore, Joyner and Fumal (1997)
Sadigh (1997)

B: Plenary Presentations

37

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

70.00

60.00

SD (in.)

50.00

40.00

Summary of Basic Requirements

2500 Year
2000 Year
980 Year
475 Year
100 Year
75 Year
50 Year
25 Year

Evaluation
Step

Ground
Motion
Intensity1

Type of
Analysis

50/30

LDP2

3D4

1.0

10/50

LDP2

3D4

Per
2002-LABC

2/505

NDP3

3D4

N/A

No.

30.00

Type of
Mathematical
Model

Reduction
Factor (R)

Accidental
Torsion
Considered
?

Material
Reduction
Factors ()

Material
Strength

No

1.0

Expected

Yes

Per
2002-LABC

Specified

1.0

Expected

20.00
1
3

10.00

0.00
0.00

1.00

2.00

3.00

4.00

5.00

6.00

7.00

probability of exceedance in percent / number of years


nonlinear dynamic procedure
with deterministic limit per ASCE 7-05 and 2006-IBC

2
4

linear dynamic procedure


three-dimensional

8.00

Period (sec.)

Figure C.2-1. Mean values of spectral displacement (inches) from three


attenuation relations.
1.
2.
3.

Abrahamson and Silva (1997)


Boore, Joyner and Fumal (1997)
Sadigh (1997)

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Step 1: Serviceability Requirement

Step 1: Serviceability Requirement

Ground Motion:

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

50% probability of being exceeded in 30 years


Not be reduced by the quantity R.
Site-specific elastic design response spectrum
The spectrum shall be developed for 5% damping, unless
a different value is shown to be consistent with the
anticipated structural behavior at the intensity of shaking
established for the site.

Mathematical Model

Step 1: Serviceability Requirement

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Ground Motion:

None of the members exceed the applicable LRFD limits


for steel members or USD limits for concrete members
( = 1.0).
Note that the design spectral values shall not be reduced
by the quantity R.

3D mathematical model

Description of Analysis & Design Procedure

Code DBE
Reduced by the quantity R per Code.
Site-specific elastic design response spectrum

Mathematical Model

Elastic response spectrum analysis


Structural analysis and design shall be performed in
accordance with all relevant 2002-LABC provisions except
for the provisions specifically excluded in Section 2.4 of
this document.

Acceptability Criteria

ATC-72

(1)
(2)

Step 2: Life-Safety Requirement

Acceptability Criteria

Elastic response spectrum analysis


At least 90 percent of the participating mass included
Complete Quadratic Combination (CQC) method used.
Response Parameters shall not be reduced.
Inclusion of accidental torsion is not required.
The following load combinations shall be used:
1.0D + 0.5L + 1.0Ex + 0.3Ey
1.0D + 0.5L + 0.3Ex + 1.0Ey

3D mathematical model required


The stiffness properties used in the analysis and general
mathematical modeling shall be in accordance with 2002LABC Section 1630.1.2.
Expected material strengths may be used.

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Description of Analysis Procedure

B: Plenary Presentations

The structure shall satisfy all relevant 2002-LABC


requirements except the provisions explicitly identified in
Section 2.4 of this document

38

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Step 3: Collapse-Prevention Requirement

Ground Motion:

ASCE 7-05 MCE


7 Pairs or more time-histories required
Selection and scaling according to ASCE 7-05

Mathematical Model

3D nonlinear model
P- effects included
All elements and components that in combination
represent more than 15% of the total initial stiffness of
the building, or a particular story, shall be included in the
mathematical model.
The hysteretic behavior of elements shall be modeled
consistent with suitable laboratory test data or applicable
modeling parameters for nonlinear response analyses
published in FEMA-356.
Various degradations must be modeled if relevant
Exception invoked.
Use expected strength considering material overstrength.

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Step 3: Collapse-Prevention Requirement

Description of Analysis Procedure:

Step 3: Collapse-Prevention Requirement

3D nonlinear response history analyses


For each ground motion pair, the structure shall be
analyzed for the effects of the following loads and
excitations:
1.0D
1.0D
1.0D
1.0D

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

+
+
+
+

0.5L
0.5L
0.5L
0.5L

+ 1.0Ex
+ 1.0Ex
- 1.0Ex
- 1.0Ex

+ 1.0Ey
- 1.0Ey
+ 1.0Ey
- 1.0Ey

Acceptability Criteria
EXCEPTION

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Inclusion of accidental torsion is not required.

Acceptability Criteria

Capacity > Demand

Demand = Average of 7.
Capacity = FEMA-356 Primary CP values for NL response
unless Exception invoked.

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Step 3: Collapse-Prevention Requirement

Acceptability Criteria

Larger deformation capacities may be used only if


substantiated by appropriate laboratory tests and
approved by the Peer Review Panel and the Building
Official.
If FEMA-356 Primary Collapse Prevention deformation
capacities are exceeded, strength degradation,
stiffness degradation and hysteretic pinching shall be
considered and
base shear capacity of the structure shall not fall
below 90% of the base shear capacity at deformations
corresponding to the FEMA-356 Primary Collapse
Prevention limits.

Collector elements shall be provided and must be


capable of transferring the seismic forces
originating in other portions of the structure to the
element providing the resistance to those forces.
Every structural component not included in the
seismic forceresisting system shall be able to
resist the gravity load effects, seismic forces, and
seismic deformation demands identified in this
section.
Components not included in the seismic force
resisting system shall be deemed acceptable if their
deformation does not exceed the corresponding
Secondary Life Safety values published in FEMA356 for nonlinear response procedures.

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

EXCLUSIONS

For buildings analyzed and designed according to the


provisions of this document:

1.

The seismic force amplification factor, 0, in 2002-LABC


formula 30-2 is set to unity (0 = 1.0).

2.

The Reliability/Redundancy Factor, , as provided by


2002-LABC formula 30-3 is set to unity
( = 1.0).

3.

Static 2002-LABC formulas 30-6 and 30-7 do not apply.


Instead in Step 2, the seismic base shear (V) shall not
be taken less than 0.025W where W is the effective
seismic weight.

V = 0.11 Ca I W

V = 0.025 W

0.8 Z N V I
V=
W
R

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

39

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

Los Angeles Tall Buildings Structural Design Council

EXCLUSIONS

For buildings analyzed and designed


according to the provisions of this
document:

Questions?

4. Method A (2002-LABC Sec. 1630.2.2.1)

does not apply. Results obtained by


Method B or more advanced analysis are
not bound by Method A.

5. The limit on calculated story drift of


0.020/T1/3 specified in 2002-LABC
1630.10.2 does not apply.

6. The height limitations of 2002-LABC Table


16-N do not apply.

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

40

Task 2 Goals/Objectives
PEER Tall Buildings Initiative

The goal of this task is to develop seismic


performance objectives appropriate for tall buildings
that are the subject of this initiative.

Task 2 Develop Consensus


Performance Objectives

The primary occupancy of the buildings will be


residential but other occupancies may be considered
if different objectives appear to be indicated.

Charlie Kircher
for Bill Holmes

The performance objectives shall be described in


formats to be useful both to the general public and to
researchers and engineers performing design and
analysis.

January 30, 2007

January 30, 2007

Task 2 Researchers
Principal
Rutherford & Chekene
San Francisco

Dr. Charles Kircher, PE

Principal
Kircher & Associates
Palo Alto

Mr. Lawrence Kornfield

Chief Building Inspector


City and County of San Francisco
Department of Building Inspection

Identify and interview stakeholders individually


Hold workshop (with stakeholders and others)
Stakeholders (by perspective):
Legal (regulatory) San Francisco attorney

Prof. William Petak

Professor Emeritus
University of Southern California
Los Angeles

Mr. Nabih Youssef, SE

President
Nabih Youssef & Associates
Los Angeles

PEER Tall Building Project


Task 2 - Performance Objectives

Legal (condo) private practice attorney


Financial (insurance) industry representative
Financial (lenders) mortgage banker
Owners (short-term) developer representative
Owners (long-term) condo association, BOMA reps.
Social Impacts land use/planning expert
Economic Impacts urban economist
3

January 30, 2007

Finalize Work Plan (Core Group)

Done

2.2

Obtain Input from Stakeholders

Mid-February

Tall Building Damage and Loss Scenarios (Kircher)

Develop Background Material

Done

Conduct Interviews

Underway

2.3

Formulate Straw-man Performance


Objective

Late February
(01-12-07)

2.4

Hold Stakeholders Workshop and Other


Review

March 14
(02-02-07)

2.5

Develop Recommended Performance


Objective

Mid-April
(03-02-07)

2.6

Prepare Final Report

Mid-May
(03-30-07)

ATC-72

PEER Tall Building Project


Task 2 - Performance Objectives

Building Code Performance Overview (Petak)

Schedule

2.1

January 30, 2007

PEER Tall Building Project


Task 2 - Performance Objectives

Task 2 Background Material

Task 2 Work Plan and Schedule


Subtask

Task 2 Approach Engage Stakeholders

Mr. William Holmes, SE

January 30, 2007

PEER Tall Building Project


Task 2 - Performance Objectives

Core-wall Condominium Buildings (Kircher)


Steel Office Buildings (Youssef)

Interview Outline and Response Form (Holmes)


Describe project background (PEER research project)
Discuss background material (Code safety objectives)
Ask questions - Appropriate performance (normal of better than
Code If so, whats it worth)?
Ask questions Interviewers perspective (personal or professional
perspective)?
Prepare Interview Summary
5

January 30, 2007

B: Plenary Presentations

PEER Tall Building Project


Task 2 - Performance Objectives

41

Damage and Loss Scenarios


(expected damage to 40 tall buildings due major and
moderate earthquake ground motions)
Major Earthquake - One in Ten Chance of Occurring During the Life of the Structure
Expected No. of Bldgs in each Structural Damage State
Hypothetical
Performance
None/Slight Moderate
Extensive
Complete
Collapse
Level A
20
15
4
1
0
Level B
19
9
7
4
1
Level C
12
6
9
9
4
Moderate Earthquake - Likely to Occur at Least Once During the Life of the Structure
Expected No. of Bldgs in each Structural Damage State
Hypothetical
Performance
None/Slight Moderate
Extensive
Complete
Collapse
Level A
38
2
0
0
0
Level B
38
2
0
0
0
Level C
35
3
2
0
0
January 30, 2007

ATC-72

PEER Tall Building Project


Task 2 - Performance Objectives

B: Plenary Presentations

42

Team

Task 8 - Foundation Modeling

Input Ground Motions for Tall


Buildings with Subterranean Levels
Jonathan P. Stewart
University of California, Los Angeles

C.B. Crouse, URS, Seattle, WA


Marshall Lew, MACTEC, Los Angeles, CA
Atsushi Mikami, University of Tokushima, Japan
Farhang Ostadaan, Bechtel, San Francisco, CA
Ertugrul Taciroglu, UCLA

State of Practice

Project Plan and Schedule


Group meeting (Nov 30 2006): review
state-of-art/practice; identify knowledge
shortcomings and research needs
JPS + ET drafts preliminary report (Jan
07)
Committee review
Final report ready Mar 07

Substructure Approach to
Integrating SSI into Structural
Response Analyses

State of Practice
Free field motions
applied at ground
level (M. Lew; LA
practice
Free-field motion
applied at base level
(CB Crouse; Seattle
practice)
Conclusion: ground motion reductions generally not
being accounted for, otherwise practice is inconsistent

ATC-72

Free field motions


applied at ground
level (M. Lew; LA
practice)

Step 1: Kinematic
interaction (FIM)
Step 2: Impedance
function (stiffness &
damping)
Step 3: Response
analysis of structure
with imp. fn. to FIM

B: Plenary Presentations

43

Substructure Approach to
Integrating SSI into Structural
Response Analyses

Transfer Functions to Obtain FIM


H(f)=uf(f)/ug(f)
Complex-valued
Analytical solutions:

Step 1: Kinematic
interaction (FIM)
Step 2: Impedance
function (stiffness &
damping)
Step 3: Response
analysis of structure
with imp. fn. to FIM

Finite element
solutions - SASSI

Analytical Solutions
1.2

1.2

Translation

Rocking

0.6
0.4
0.2

1.0

0.8

0.8

uFIM/ug

rFIM/u g

Approximation
Halfspace
Finite soil layer

1.0

0.6

0.4

0.4

0.2

0.2

0.0

0.0

0.6
0.4
0.2

e/r = 1
2

a0

a0=r/Vs

Analytical Solutions
1.2

0.0

a0

a0=r/Vs

Modified from Elsabee and Morray (1977) and Day (1977)

Modified from Elsabee and Morray (1977) and Day (1977)

Comparisons to Data

1.2

Translation

0.8

rFIM/u g

0.8

Humbolt Bay Power Plant, e/r = 2.9

Rocking
1.0

Approximation
Halfspace

0.6

4.00

[ Site 03 - NS (pt) : Translation ]

3.00

0.6

| H3 |

1.0

uFIM/ug

0.8

0.6

e/r = 0.5
0.0

Rocking
1.0

Approximation
Halfspace
Finite soil layer

rFIM/u g

Translation

uFIM/ug

Analytical Solutions

1.2

0.8

ug

uf

Day (1977): rigid


cylindrical foundation
in elastic halfspace
Elsabee and Morray
(1977): similar, but
visco-elastic soil layer
over rigid base

1.2
1.0

2.00
1.00

0.4

0.4

0.00
4.00

0.2

| H3 |

0.2

e/r = 2
0.0

[ Site 03 - EW (pt) : Translation ]

3.00
2.00
1.00

a0=r/Vs

0.0

a0

0.00
0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

f (Hz)

Modified from Elsabee and Morray (1977) and Day (1977)

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

44

Another Approach

Comparisons to Data
Lotung LSST, e/r = 0.9

Seismic response of
pile foundations
Free-field
displacement
imposed on pile

4.00

[ Site 46 - NS : Translation ]

| H3 |

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
4.00

[ Site 46 - EW : Translation ]

| H3 |

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
4.00

[ Site 46 - NS : Rocking ]

| H3 |

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
4.00

[ Site 46 - EW : Rocking ]

| H3 |

3.00
2.00
1.00
0.00
0.00

2.00

First mode frequency

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

f (Hz)

Question

Question

Are kinematic interaction effects important for tall buildings?

Are theoretical models based on rigid cylinders sufficient?

Effect concentrated at low periods


Likely not significant at first mode period
May affect loss estimates, but not likely collapse
potential
Resolve with simulations

Argument for:
Model captures basic physics of GM reduction with
depth
Compares well to available data (translation).
Rotation results mixed.

Argument against:
Model doesnt account for flexible basement walls
Analyzed data set not exhaustive

Proposed Research Tasks


Simulations
Investigate significance of
KI
Evaluate impact of different
modeling assumptions

ATC-72

Proposed Research Tasks


Simulations
Data analyses
Comparisons of rigid
cylinder models to data

B: Plenary Presentations

ug

uf

45

Proposed Research Tasks


ugs

Simulations
Data analyses
Comparisons of rigid
cylinder models to data
Verification of rigid-body
displacement/rotation of
foundation

uf

u gs = (?)e f + u f

Will provide insight into significance


of basement wall flexibility

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

46

Capacity design issues for tall


buildings

WORKSHOP INPUT ON CAPACITY DESIGN

Tom Sabol column/beam strength ratios

Mark Moore wall flexure vs shear, and


shear demand on walls below podium

Mark Moore wall yielding above


designated hinge zone

Mark Moore flexural overstrength of walls


and maximum demands on elastic
elements

January 2007
Joe Maffei

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

TWO-STAGE DESIGN

CAPACITY DESIGN

Determine the strengths at hinging locations


using the building code requirements

Code (DBE) level earthquake R factor

Minimum base shear

Engineer designs where and how


nonlinear response will occur.

Capacity design is a pre-requisite to


nonlinear analysis.

All other actions are designed to remain elastic


under MCE level ground motions:

Wall shear, shear friction, wall flexure outside of


intended yield locations, floor and roof diaphragms
and collectors and connections, foundation
perimeter walls, foundations, etc.
Check drift limits

CANTILEVER WALL

Plastic hinge
location

CAPACITY DESIGN | CONCRETE WALLS

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

47

DESIGN WALLS TO BE FLEXURE-GOVERNED


COUPLED WALL

Plastic hinge
locations

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

PROTECT AGAINST
SHEAR FAILURE

In a tall building, a shear failure is a story mechanism.


1-Story Building

12-Story Building
hn = 112

hn = 13

Include inelasticdynamic amplification


effects

2 component
deformation
= 1.5% drift

2 component
deformation
= 0.2% drift

Drift = D / hn

PREVENT SLIDING
SHEAR FAILURE

PREVENT YIELDING
OUTSIDE OF
INTENDED HINGE
LOCATION

[ACI 2005]
[Blue Book 402.7, p. 66]
[Paulay & Priestley, p. 393]

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

48

ROOF

14 NLRH RUNS
Roof
Displ.
Ft.

13th

Min
Max
Mean
m+
c.o.v.

2.1
6.7
4.2
5.4
0.29

Pushover

Wall
Shear at
Base
Kips

Wall
Moment
at 13th
1000xK-ft.

7600
29700
15500
22200
0.43

513
1080
900
1090
0.21

5500

760

CAPACITY DESIGN | MOMENT FRAMES


DUAL SYSTEM
FOUNDATIONS

BASE

MOMENT FRAME STRUCTURES

Existing requirements for strong-column/weakbeam are usually not adequate to prevent story
mechanisms.

Use Blue Book recommendation, or NLRH


analysis.

MOMENT FRAME
BEHAVIOR

SEAOC Blue Book


1999
RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

GLOBAL STRONG-COLUMN, WEAK-BEAM


STRONG-COLUMN,
WEAK BEAM

Formula is based on the sum of moment strengths


for the columns and beams framing into a level.
Mn Columns below Mn Beam left and right

MB
Blue Book
Commentary
C402.5

ATC-72

MC

B: Plenary Presentations

MB

MC

MB

MB

MC

MB

MB

MC

49

DUAL SYSTEM

Wall Moment
Diagram

Desired
mechanism

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

DUAL SYSTEM

BRACKET STIFFNESS
ASSUMPTIONS AT BASE
Upper-bound
backstay
Lower-bound
backstay

Undesirable
mechanism
RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

RUTHERFORD & CHEKENE

POSSIBLE FOCUS AREAS FOR TASK 7


Strong

column weak beam


Dual systems
Appropriate capacity protection
factors
Other?

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

50

Description of the Issue


Base Load Transfer Issues
Jim Malley
TBI Workshop
January 30, 2007

Large force transfer required due to large


discrepancy in stiffness

So, How Has this Been Done in


the Past?
Assume rigid support at the ground floor
level

Get huge transfer forces in ground floor


diaphragm
Negative shears in interior walls and frames?

Design the below grade box for the base


reaction
Simple, huh?

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer

Relative stiffness between walls (or frames)


and basement walls
Actual stiffness of diaphragm with openings
properly addressed
Multiple below grade diaphragms
How much can they help with the transfer?

Purely elastic diaphragm(s) at all times?


Proper consideration of above grade system
capacity (pushover, NLRH, etc.)

ATC-72

Most tall buildings have at least one


basement level
Often the below grade footprint is larger
than the tower, with solid basement
retaining walls
Offsets therefore between SLRS and
basement walls

So, Whats the Big Deal?


Forces get HUGE if you try to assume a
completely rigid support and try to take the
forces out in one diaphragm
And this is just the code base shear

Try putting on the Omega factor or use the element


capacity

Modeling the diaphragm with openings for


garage ramps, vertical transport, etc.
True force transfer is much more complicated
(Ignorance is bliss!)

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer (Cont.)
Interaction with supporting soils (Rocking,
passive pressure, etc.)
When is SSI really needed or helpful?

Multiple towers above a single base


Have fun with that!

Sloping sites with one side open. What


about two sides?
Parking structure ramps acting as struts?

B: Plenary Presentations

51

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer (Cont.)

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer (Cont.)

Are vertical offsets in ground floor


diaphragm important?
What about the change in wall openings
below grade?
Are the dreaded parameter studies needed to
bound the solution? If so, on what
parameters?

Podium Effects: Therein is one of my main


concerns. For a typical podium that has
perimeter walls on two or three sides above
grade and retaining walls on all four sides for
the below grade structure, the wall
overturning resistance is partially afforded by
coupling of slabs. This we've all seen in our
analysis. This generates shear reversals and
very large demands on the diaphragm.

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer (Cont.)

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer (Cont.)

In reality I believe this load path is not as


stiff, and, fortunately, the demands will not be
as high as the analysis indicates. This can be
somewhat overcome with detailed modeling
of the diaphragms, walls, and SSI, and a
parameter study. But I doubt the designers or
the peer reviewers really spend the time, or
have a good understanding for each case of
this complex issue. What parameter studies
I've seen do not address this in my humble
opinion.

The main issue with the podium is that core


openings change at these levels during the
design, the openings complicate the core wall
behavior, the podium may have ramps and
other complex geometric issues. All these
issues make me concerned that they get
overlooked, even after going through a peer
review process. I'm not convinced that a peer
review solves these and other modeling
issues..

Issues to be Considered in Base


Transfer (Cont.)
. I'll close my rant on this issue by
suggesting that at the least the approach of
how and what to do be somewhat prescribed
in regards to core openings, podium
geometry issues (diaphragms, walls and
ramps), shear reversals, and last but not least
important SSI.
Simple, indeed!

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

52

Objectives of Present Phase


1. Develop recommendations for modeling of structural
components and systems.

General Structural Issues


(and Frames)

Focus on selected topics such as stiffness, strength,


deformation capacity, hysteretic models, and implementation
in software for nonlinear response-history (NLRH) analysis.

2. Develop recommendations for acceptance criteria


3. We have to address a number of global issues

Helmut Krawinkler

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

P-Delta

Cyclic deterioration

Capacity design criteria

Dynamic amplification (shear, moments, axial forces, PHs in


columns)

Minimum base shear

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Systems to be Considered

System Issues
TALL BUILDINGS

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Concrete core
Steel braced frame core
Steel shear wall core
RC frames only
Steel frames only
Core with RC flat plate and columns (without PT)
Core with RC flat plate and columns (with PT)
Core with RC moment frames
Core with steel moment frames
Core with composite frames
Core with outriggers
Tubular structures RC
Tubular structures steel
Others

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Design/Assessment Options
Equiv. Static Force Procedure
Designing for an elastic code base shear and elastic drift limit will
result in structures with vastly different damage potential and
collapse probability

Linear Dynamic Procedure


Still the same problems, except accounts for higher mode effects

Nonlinear Static Procedure (Pushover)


Problems with higher mode effects
Does not detect dynamic redistribution problems such as shear
force amplification in wall structures
Does not capture collapse potential

P-Delta and Deterioration


P-Delta and collapse safety depend on
Period of structure (elastic stiffness)
Post-elastic hardening stiffness
Monotonic and cyclic deterioration
Stiffness of gravity system

Nonlinear Response History Analysis


Addresses most of the issues, BUT needs performance criteria
and good judgment in component modeling
TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

ATC-72

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

B: Plenary Presentations

53

IDAs to Collapse
P-Delta Included, no Deterioration

IDAs to Collapse
P-Delta Included, with Deterioration

Sa(T1)/g vs MAXIMUM ROOF DRIFT ANGLE, =0.1

Sa(T1)/g vs MAXIMUM ROOF DRIFT ANGLE, =0.1

N=18, T1=3.6, BH, Peak Oriented Model, LMSR-N, =5%,


s=0.03, c/y=inf., c=N.A., s,c,k,a=Inf, =0

N=18, T1=3.6, BH, Peak Oriented Model, LMSR-N, =5%,


s=0.03, c/y=4, c=-0.10, s,c,k,a=Inf, =0
0.6

0.4

0.4
Sa(T1)/g

Sa(T1)/g

0.6

0.2

0.2
Median
84th
Individual

Median
84th
Individual

0
0

0.03

0.06

0.09

0.12

0.15

0.03

Maximum Roof Drift Angle, s,max

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

0.09

0.12

0.15

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Median IDAs to Collapse


P-Delta without and with Deterioration
Sa (T1)/g vs Median Max ROOF DRIFT ANGLE, =0.1

Dynamic Amplification

N=18, T1 =3.6, BH, Peak Oriented Model, LMSR-N, =5%,


s =0.03, c /y =var., c =var., s,c,k,a =Inf, =0

0.6

Strong column criteria


Amplification of story shear forces
and moments in shear walls
Amplification of axial forces (due to
OTM amplification)
Dynamic floor diaphragm forces

c /y = inf. (no deterioration)


c /y = 4, c = -0.1
Sa (T1 )/g

0.06

Maximum Roof Drift Angle, s,max

0.4

0.2

0
0

0.03

0.06

0.09

0.12

0.15

Maximum Roof Drift Angle, roof,max

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Amplification of Shear Demand in


Tall Wall Structures

Dependence of Strong Column Factor on R


9-Story, T1 = 0.9 sec.

st

Median of Shear Magnication @ 1 Story

MAXIMUM STRONG COLUMN FACTOR

Shear Wall, N=16, T=1.6sec, =var. , p=0.02, Mc/My=1.1, pc=large

N=9, T1 =0.9, =0.05, Peak-oriented model, =0.015, BH, K1 , S1 , LMSR-N

2/50

Median

= 0.250
= 0.125

84th percentile

12

0.75

16th percentile

10
8

Sa/g

[Sa (T1 )/g]/

Individual responses

14

10/50

0.5

6
4

0.25

50/50

2
0
0

0
0

Max. Strong Column Factor Over the Height, (2M c /Mp,b )f,max

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

ATC-72

V1st/W

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

B: Plenary Presentations

54

Design Considerations

Component Modeling Issues - General

Minimum base shear


Explicit consideration of dynamic amplification in
design
Are present R-factors meaningful for tall buildings?
Explicit design for specific performance objectives
Redundancy factor?
Overstrength factor?
Code design period?
Accidental torsion?
Limitations on height?

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Representative material properties (central value,


measure of dispersion)
Fiber element models and/or point plastic hinge
models?
Constant or variable elastic stiffness for
serviceability?
Effective elastic stiffness for collapse safety
Strength
Cap point (monotonic versus cyclic)
Post capping tangent stiffness is it needed?
Cyclic deterioration should it be considered?
Hysteretic model (bilinear, peak oriented, pinched,
others)
Bi-axial effects for columns

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Structural Component Behavior

General Load-Deformation Model


1. Backbone Curve (based on monotonic behavior):

10

Load (kips)

5
Fyp
Fyn

Fc
Fy

Ks
Kpc

c
Monotonic

Fr = Fy
Ke

-5

ISO
y

-10
-6

-4

-2

Displacement (in)

Acceptance Criteria

UCI G12 OSB


Fy=8.2 kips, y=0.45 in, s=0.047, c=-0.081, u=1.94, c/y=5.44

Load (kips)

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

Structural Component Behavior

Which performance levels?


Serviceability:

10
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10

-4

r
pc

2. Deterioration Modeling

U.C. San Diego

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

c
p

-2

U.C. San4Diego

Strain?
Crack width?
Interstory drift?
Damage measures

Collapse prevention

Component deformation?
Cyclic deterioriation?
Probability of collapse (collapse fragility curves)?
Incorporation of uncertainties?

Displacement (in)
TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

ATC-72

Capping point moves!

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

B: Plenary Presentations

55

Todays Objectives

Define scope
Set priorities
Define where to start and where to
stop
Focus is on TALL BUILDINGS

TBI Workshop, 1/30/07

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

56

Issues, Walls

Element/System Modeling - Walls

Effective (cracked) linear stiffness


DBE, MCE, ACI-318, Flange contribution
Influence of concrete in tension

Detailing
Core confinement requirements (excessive)
Variable Reqts (e.g., bar size, strain demand)
Outside of the hinge zone (higher modes)

John Wallace

University of California, Los Angeles

Shear - openings, demand variation


Hybrid walls: R-value (always 5.5)

PEER Center Tall Buildings Workshop


January 30, 2007

Stiffness SMIP Data

Ten Story Building in San Jose, California


Instrumented: Base, 6th Floor, and Roof
Moderate Intensity Ground Motions Loma Prieta

4.53 m (14.88 ft)

5 @ 10.97 m (36 ft)

8.84 m (29 ft)

8.84 m (29 ft)

Ten Story Building in San Jose, California


Roof longitudinal response Loma Prieta
0.5Ig including soil springs (modest)

Displacement (in.)

Response Correlation Studies

1.68 m
(5.5 ft)

1.5

Analysis - 0.5Ig
Measured

-1.5
0

PLAN VIEW: CSMIP BUILDING 57356

10

Time (sec)

20

30

Model Assessment RW2

Fiber Section Model

Fiber model material stress vs strain


Lateral Flexural Drift (%)

Actual cross section

-2

Steel Fibers

Typically use a more refined mesh where yielding is anticipated;


however,
Nonlinear strains tend to concentrate in a single element, thus, typically
use an element length that is approximately equal to the plastic hinge
length (e.g., 0.5lw). Might need to calibrate them first (this is essential).
Calibration of fiber model with test results, or at least a plastic hinge
model, is needed to impose a reality check on the element size and
integration points used.
5

ATC-72

Pax

150

-1

-0.5

0.07Ag f 'c
Plat , top

100

0.5

1.5

Stiffness:
0.5EIg

Test
Analysis

RW2

50
0
-50

Pax (kN)

Concrete Fibers

Lateral Load, Plat (kN)

200

-1.5

-100
-150

500
400
300
200
100
0

-200
-80

-60

-40

-20

20

40

60

Top Flexural Displacement, top (mm)

B: Plenary Presentations

80

57

Core/Flanged Walls

General Wall Models/FE Models


e.g., PERFORM:

Flexure - fiber model (2-directions)


Shear - Trilinear backbone relation
Flexibility to model complex wall
geometry

Flexure/Axial

Shear

Model Assessment TW2

Experimental Results: 4 thick

Fiber model material stress vs strain


Lateral Flexural Drift (%)
-2

-1.5

Test
Analysis
0.5%
1.0%
2.0%
2.5%

0.01
0.005

200

1.5

Test
C
Analysis

Plat , top

300

TW2

100
0
-100
-200

T
C

-300
-400

750
500
250
0

10

Compressive Strain Limits


Shear-Flexure Interaction

2.5%

TW2

0.015

0.5

Pax (kN)

Lateral Load, Plat (kN)

Flange Concrete Strain (LVDTs)

0.02

Model Assessment TW2


0.025

-0.5

Pax 0.075Ag f c'

400

Thomsen & Wallace, ASCE JSE, April 2004.


Displacement-based design of T-shape

-1

2.0%

2.5%
2.0%

C
0

X 2 Factor
-0.005
-600

-400

-200

200

400

Distance along Flange from Web (mm)

ATC-72

600

11

B: Plenary Presentations

12

58

Height, m

Nonlinear response
30

30

20

20

10

10

Design values?

Linear SRSS/R
Nonlinear 1.0 x Design
Nonlinear 1.5 x Design
Nonlinear 2.0 x Design

ROOF
Roof
drift, ft

13th

Minimum
Maximum
Mean (m)
m+
c.o.v.
Nonlinear
static

4000 8000 12000 16000 20000

Moment, kN-m

1000

2000

2.1
6.7
4.2
5.4
0.23

Wall
Wall
moment at
base
th
shear, k 13 floor,
1000 x k-ft
7600
29700
15500
22200
0.43

513
1080
900
1090
0.21

5500

760

(b) Summary of results

3000

Shear, kN

BASE
13

after Priestley and Amaris, 2003

Link Beams

(a) Building elevation

Link Beams

15

Issues, Continued

16

Upcoming Tests: 318-08 Details

Link beams

14

12 x 15 3 ft long beams (1/2 scale)

Calibration of models (Stiff/Strength/Detail)


Steel encased design and detailing
New ACI 318-08 detailing requirements
Impact of post-tensioning on strength
Testing relatively small scale beams

Slab-column connections

Punching

17

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

18

59

Test Results Sliding Shear

Slab Column Frames

100
P=0
P=0.025Agf'c (105 psi)

-50

steel testin g fra me

strong wall

Wall Shear (kips)

P=0.05Agf'c (210 psi)

50

specimen
horizontal
actuator

ve rtical
actuato r

vertical
actuator

strong floor

-100
-4

-2

Lateral Top Displacement (in.)

~1/3 scale shake table test specimen

19

PT Slab: Test Results

Issues, Continued

Drift Ratio (Total Rotation) at Punching

0.09
Ref: Kang & Wallace, ACI 103(4), 2006

Beam-Column Frames

Cyclic load history

0.08

Best fit relation


Monotonic load history

0.07

Best fit relation (All)

impact of pt on beam strength

Joint design (strut-&-tie)

New anchorage systems

Higher-axial load

0.06
(Best-Fit Line)
plus one Res

ASCE-41 w/continuity

0.05

20

0.04

(P> 0.35Agfc)

0.03

FEMA 356

0.02

Biaxial behavior

0.01
ACI 318-05 21.11.5 Limit

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Gravity Shear Ratio (Vg /Vc), where Vc = (0.29f'c1/2+0.3fpc)bod

ATC-72

21

B: Plenary Presentations

22

60

Advance Feedback
Advance Workshop Input
Other Issues

More than 100 written comments


More than 500 individual issues
Categories
Integration with Performance Objectives
Foundation modeling
Capacity Design
Base Load Transfers
General Structural Issues
Element/System Modeling

Jon A. Heintz
Applied Technology Council

Advance Feedback

Other Input
General comments
There are probably an infinite number of
technical questions that could be
asked
Your task list hits most of my favorites
I applaud the effort to assemble this
research topic and bring together the
different stake holders to advance the
state of the art..

Other

Other Input

Other Input

General comments
we have serious concerns about the
particular direction and focus of Task Group 7
As a practitioner, I have some real concerns
about how the information that comes out of
this will be used and applied in practice.
We must ensure that we do not raise the bar
so high that only a few can jump over it
we do not support an agenda that attempts
to define a how to approach to specific
systems and/or element design

ATC-72

General comments
We believe the TBI efforts should be clearly
focused in four areas:
Define appropriate demand levels
Define performance expectations and consistent,
quantifiable acceptance criteria
Provide guiding design principles (i.e., capacity
design strategies)
Provide modeling guidelines which promote
consistency in the industry

B: Plenary Presentations

61

Other Input

Other Input

Performance

Performance

What level of minimum seismic performance


should we be designing Tall Buildings for?
What can be done so that the contribution to
our cities is not a tall building stock that can
not be economically repaired after an EQ?
Is it appropriate or necessary to have
serviceability requirements for these
structures?

I strongly believe that tall buildings should


have a higher Importance Factor due to their
high occupancy and cost
It is easy to promote the emotional argument
that tall buildings are important and therefore
should be held to some higher standard.
However, it has not been scientifically
demonstrated that a problem exists

Other Input

Other Input

Peer Review

Peer Review

Is it the design engineers responsibility to


show that every behavior of the building is
correctly accounted for, or is it the reviewing
engineers responsibility to identify
deficiencies in the design?
some jurisdictions are confused between
peer review and plan check, and some
consultants are offering to perform both... I
suggest requiring Peer Review and Plan
Check be performed by separate entities,
and defining the scope of each.

the design of most tall buildings is


controlled more by serviceability criteria
such as interstory drift and perception to
motion than strength limit statesthat are
not (and probably never will be) mandated
by code but are a matter of quality
imposed on the building by an engineer and
his client
we do not want a situation to develop
where Peer Reviews are mandated and the
guidelines for design acceptance are
arbitrary or undefined

Other Input
In Summary
Distilling these [issues] into a manageable
set so we can focus on the most important
ones will be a significant, but necessary,
challenge
I have great confidence that a consensus
approach will yield guidelines that can be
supported across the profession

ATC-72

B: Plenary Presentations

62

Applied Technology Council


Projects and Report Information
One of the primary purposes of the Applied
Technology Council is to develop resource
documents that translate and summarize useful
information to practicing engineers. This includes
the development of guidelines and manuals, as
well as the development of research
recommendations for specific areas determined by
the profession. ATC is not a code development
organization, although ATC project reports often
serve as resource documents for the development
of codes, standards and specifications.
Applied Technology Council conducts
projects that meet the following criteria:
1. The primary audience or benefactor is the
design practitioner in structural engineering.
2. A cross section or consensus of engineering
opinion is required to be obtained and
presented by a neutral source.
1. The project fosters the advancement of
structural engineering practice.
Brief descriptions of completed ATC projects and
reports are provided below. Funding for projects
is obtained from government agencies and taxdeductible contributions from the private sector.
ATC-1: This project resulted in five papers that
were published as part of Building Practices for
Disaster Mitigation, Building Science Series 46,
proceedings of a workshop sponsored by the
National Science Foundation (NSF) and the
National Bureau of Standards (NBS). Available
through the National Technical Information
Service (NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road,
Springfield, VA 22151, as NTIS report No.
COM-73-50188.
ATC-2: The report, An Evaluation of a Response
Spectrum Approach to Seismic Design of
Buildings, was funded by NSF and NBS and was
conducted as part of the Cooperative Federal
Program in Building Practices for Disaster
Mitigation. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1974, 270 Pages)

ATC-72

ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the


applicability and cost of the response spectrum
approach to seismic analysis and design that
was proposed by various segments of the
engineering profession. Specific building
designs, design procedures and parameter
values were evaluated for future application.
Eleven existing buildings of varying
dimensions were redesigned according to the
procedures.
ATC-3: The report, Tentative Provisions for the
Development of Seismic Regulations for Buildings
(ATC-3-06), was funded by NSF and NBS. The
second printing of this report, which includes
proposed amendments, is available through the
ATC office. (Published 1978, amended 1982, 505
pages plus proposed amendments)
ABSTRACT: The tentative provisions in this
document represent the results of a concerted
effort by a multi-disciplinary team of 85
nationally recognized experts in earthquake
engineering. The provisions serve as the basis
for the seismic provisions of the 1988 and
subsequent issues of the Uniform Building
Code and the NEHRP Recommended
Provisions for the Development of Seismic
Regulation for New Building and Other
Structures. The second printing of this
document contains proposed amendments
prepared by a joint committee of the Building
Seismic Safety Council (BSSC) and the NBS.
ATC-3-2: The project, Comparative Test
Designs of Buildings Using ATC-3-06 Tentative
Provisions, was funded by NSF. The project
consisted of a study to develop and plan a program
for making comparative test designs of the ATC3-06 Tentative Provisions. The project report was
written to be used by the Building Seismic Safety
Council in its refinement of the ATC-3-06
Tentative Provisions.
ATC-3-4: The report, Redesign of Three
Multistory Buildings: A Comparison Using ATC3-06 and 1982 Uniform Building Code Design
Provisions, was published under a grant from

ATC Projects and Report Information

63

NSF. Available through the ATC office.


(Published 1984, 112 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report evaluates the cost and
technical impact of using the 1978 ATC-3-06
report, Tentative Provisions for the
Development of Seismic Regulations for
Buildings, as amended by a joint committee of
the Building Seismic Safety Council and the
National Bureau of Standards in 1982. The
evaluations are based on studies of three
existing California buildings redesigned in
accordance with the ATC-3-06 Tentative
Provisions and the 1982 Uniform Building
Code. Included in the report are
recommendations to code implementing
bodies.
ATC-3-5: This project, Assistance for First
Phase of ATC-3-06 Trial Design Program Being
Conducted by the Building Seismic Safety
Council, was funded by the Building Seismic
Safety Council to provide the services of the ATC
Senior Consultant and other ATC personnel to
assist the BSSC in the conduct of the first phase of
its Trial Design Program. The first phase provided
for trial designs conducted for buildings in Los
Angeles, Seattle, Phoenix, and Memphis.
ATC-3-6: This project, Assistance for Second
Phase of ATC-3-06 Trial Design Program Being
Conducted by the Building Seismic Safety
Council, was funded by the Building Seismic
Safety Council to provide the services of the ATC
Senior Consultant and other ATC personnel to
assist the BSSC in the conduct of the second phase
of its Trial Design Program. The second phase
provided for trial designs conducted for buildings
in New York, Chicago, St. Louis, Charleston, and
Fort Worth.
ATC-4: The report, A Methodology for Seismic
Design and Construction of Single-Family
Dwellings, was published under a contract with the
Department of Housing and Urban Development
(HUD). Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1976, 576 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report presents the results of
an in-depth effort to develop design and
construction details for single-family
residences that minimize the potential
economic loss and life-loss risk associated
with earthquakes. The report: (1) discusses
the ways structures behave when subjected to
seismic forces, (2) sets forth suggested design
criteria for conventional layouts of dwellings
constructed with conventional materials, (3)
64

presents construction details that do not


require the designer to perform analytical
calculations, (4) suggests procedures for
efficient plan-checking, and (5) presents
recommendations including details and
schedules for use in the field by construction
personnel and building inspectors.
ATC-4-1: The report, The Home Builders Guide
for Earthquake Design, was published under a
contract with HUD. Available through the ATC
office. (Published 1980, 57 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report is an abridged version
of the ATC-4 report. The concise, easily
understood text of the Guide is supplemented
with illustrations and 46 construction details.
The details are provided to ensure that houses
contain structural features that are properly
positioned, dimensioned and constructed to
resist earthquake forces. A brief description is
included on how earthquake forces impact on
houses and some precautionary constraints are
given with respect to site selection and
architectural designs.
ATC-5: The report, Guidelines for Seismic
Design and Construction of Single-Story Masonry
Dwellings in Seismic Zone 2, was developed under
a contract with HUD. Available through the ATC
office. (Published 1986, 38 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report offers a concise
methodology for the earthquake design and
construction of single-story masonry
dwellings in Seismic Zone 2 of the United
States, as defined by the 1973 Uniform
Building Code. The Guidelines are based in
part on shaking table tests of masonry
construction conducted at the University of
California at Berkeley Earthquake
Engineering Research Center. The report is
written in simple language and includes basic
house plans, wall evaluations, detail drawings,
and material specifications.
ATC-6: The report, Seismic Design Guidelines
for Highway Bridges, was published under a
contract with the Federal Highway Administration
(FHWA). Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1981, 210 pages)
ABSTRACT: The Guidelines are the
recommendations of a team of sixteen
nationally recognized experts that included
consulting engineers, academics, state and
federal agency representatives from
throughout the United States. The Guidelines

ATC Projects and Report Information

ATC-72

embody several new concepts that were


significant departures from then existing
design provisions. Included in the Guidelines
are an extensive commentary, an example
demonstrating the use of the Guidelines, and
summary reports on 21 bridges redesigned in
accordance with the Guidelines. In 1991 the
guidelines were adopted by the American
Association of Highway and Transportation
Officials as a standard specification.
ATC-6-1: The report, Proceedings of a Workshop
on Earthquake Resistance of Highway Bridges,
was published under a grant from NSF. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1979, 625
pages)
ABSTRACT: The report includes 23 state-ofthe-art and state-of-practice papers on
earthquake resistance of highway bridges.
Seven of the twenty-three papers were
authored by participants from Japan, New
Zealand and Portugal. The Proceedings also
contain recommendations for future research
that were developed by the 45 workshop
participants.
ATC-6-2: The report, Seismic Retrofitting
Guidelines for Highway Bridges, was published
under a contract with FHWA. Available through
the ATC office. (Published 1983, 220 pages)
ABSTRACT: The Guidelines are the
recommendations of a team of thirteen
nationally recognized experts that included
consulting engineers, academics, state
highway engineers, and federal agency
representatives. The Guidelines, applicable
for use in all parts of the United States,
include a preliminary screening procedure,
methods for evaluating an existing bridge in
detail, and potential retrofitting measures for
the most common seismic deficiencies. Also
included are special design requirements for
various retrofitting measures.
ATC-7: The report, Guidelines for the Design of
Horizontal Wood Diaphragms, was published
under a grant from NSF. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1981, 190 pages)
ABSTRACT: Guidelines are presented for
designing roof and floor systems so these can
function as horizontal diaphragms in a lateral
force resisting system. Analytical procedures,
connection details and design examples are
included in the Guidelines.

ATC-72

ATC-7-1: The report, Proceedings of a Workshop


on Design of Horizontal Wood Diaphragms, was
published under a grant from NSF. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1980, 302
pages)
ABSTRACT: The report includes seven papers
on state-of-the-practice and two papers on
recent research. Also included are
recommendations for future research that were
developed by the 35 workshop participants.
ATC-8: This report, Proceedings of a Workshop
on the Design of Prefabricated Concrete Buildings
for Earthquake Loads, was funded by NSF.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1981, 400 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report includes eighteen
state-of-the-art papers and six summary
papers. Also included are recommendations
for future research that were developed by the
43 workshop participants.
ATC-9: The report, An Evaluation of the Imperial
County Services Building Earthquake Response
and Associated Damage, was published under a
grant from NSF. Available through the ATC
office. (Published 1984, 231 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report presents the results of
an in-depth evaluation of the Imperial County
Services Building, a 6-story reinforced
concrete frame and shear wall building
severely damaged by the October 15, 1979
Imperial Valley, California, earthquake. The
report contains a review and evaluation of
earthquake damage to the building; a review
and evaluation of the seismic design; a
comparison of the requirements of various
building codes as they relate to the building;
and conclusions and recommendations
pertaining to future building code provisions
and future research needs.
ATC-10: This report, An Investigation of the
Correlation Between Earthquake Ground Motion
and Building Performance, was funded by the
U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1982, 114
pages)
ABSTRACT: The report contains an in-depth
analytical evaluation of the ultimate or limit
capacity of selected representative building
framing types, a discussion of the factors
affecting the seismic performance of
buildings, and a summary and comparison of

ATC Projects and Report Information

65

seismic design and seismic risk parameters


currently in widespread use.
ATC-10-1: This report, Critical Aspects of
Earthquake Ground Motion and Building Damage
Potential, was co-funded by the USGS and the
NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1984, 259 pages)
ABSTRACT: This document contains 19 stateof-the-art papers on ground motion, structural
response, and structural design issues
presented by prominent engineers and earth
scientists in an ATC seminar. The main theme
of the papers is to identify the critical aspects
of ground motion and building performance
that currently are not being considered in
building design. The report also contains
conclusions and recommendations of working
groups convened after the Seminar.
ATC-11: The report, Seismic Resistance of
Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls and Frame
Joints: Implications of Recent Research for
Design Engineers, was published under a grant
from NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1983, 184 pages)
ABSTRACT: This document presents the
results of an in-depth review and synthesis of
research reports pertaining to cyclic loading of
reinforced concrete shear walls and cyclic
loading of joints in reinforced concrete frames.
More than 125 research reports published
since 1971 are reviewed and evaluated in this
report. The preparation of the report included
a consensus process involving numerous
experienced design professionals from
throughout the United States. The report
contains reviews of current and past design
practices, summaries of research
developments, and in-depth discussions of
design implications of recent research results.
ATC-12: This report, Comparison of United
States and New Zealand Seismic Design Practices
for Highway Bridges, was published under a grant
from NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1982, 270 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report contains summaries of
all aspects and innovative design procedures
used in New Zealand as well as comparison of
United States and New Zealand design
practice. Also included are research
recommendations developed at a 3-day
workshop in New Zealand attended by 16 U.S.

66

and 35 New Zealand bridge design engineers


and researchers.
ATC-12-1: This report, Proceedings of Second
Joint U.S.-New Zealand Workshop on Seismic
Resistance of Highway Bridges, was published
under a grant from NSF. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1986, 272 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains written
versions of the papers presented at this 1985
workshop as well as a list and prioritization of
workshop recommendations. Included are
summaries of research projects being
conducted in both countries as well as state-ofthe-practice papers on various aspects of
design practice. Topics discussed include
bridge design philosophy and loadings; design
of columns, footings, piles, abutments and
retaining structures; geotechnical aspects of
foundation design; seismic analysis
techniques; seismic retrofitting; case studies
using base isolation; strong-motion data
acquisition and interpretation; and testing of
bridge components and bridge systems.
ATC-13: The report, Earthquake Damage
Evaluation Data for California, was developed
under a contract with the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA). Available through
the ATC office. (Published 1985, 492 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report presents expertopinion earthquake damage and loss estimates
for industrial, commercial, residential, utility
and transportation facilities in California.
Included are damage probability matrices for
78 classes of structures and estimates of time
required to restore damaged facilities to preearthquake usability. The report also
describes the inventory information essential
for estimating economic losses and the
methodology used to develop loss estimates
on a regional basis.
ATC-13-1: The report, Commentary on the Use
of ATC-13 Earthquake Damage Evaluation Data
for Probable Maximum Loss Studies of California
Buildings, was developed with funding from
ATCs Henry J. Degenkolb Memorial Endowment
Fund. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 2002, 66 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report provides guidance to
consulting firms who are using ATC-13
expert-opinion data for probable maximum
loss (PML) studies of California buildings.
Included are discussions of the limitations of

ATC Projects and Report Information

ATC-72

the ATC-13 expert-opinion data, and the


issues associated with using the data for PML
studies. Also included are three appendices
containing information and data not included
in the original ATC-13 report: (1) ATC-13
model building type descriptions, including
methodology for estimating the expected
performance of standard, nonstandard, and
special construction; (2) ATC-13 Beta damage
distribution parameters for model building
types; and (3) PML values for ATC-13 model
building types.
ATC-14: The report, Evaluating the Seismic
Resistance of Existing Buildings, was developed
under a grant from the NSF. Available through
the ATC office. (Published 1987, 370 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report, written for practicing
structural engineers, describes a methodology
for performing preliminary and detailed
building seismic evaluations. The report
contains a state-of-practice review; seismic
loading criteria; data collection procedures; a
detailed description of the building
classification system; preliminary and detailed
analysis procedures; and example case studies,
including nonstructural considerations.
ATC-15: The report, Comparison of Seismic
Design Practices in the United States and Japan,
was published under a grant from NSF. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1984, 317
pages)
ABSTRACT: The report contains detailed
technical papers describing design practices in
the United States and Japan as well as
recommendations emanating from a joint
U.S.-Japan workshop held in Hawaii in
March, 1984. Included are detailed
descriptions of new seismic design methods
for buildings in Japan and case studies of the
design of specific buildings (in both
countries). The report also contains an
overview of the history and objectives of the
Japan Structural Consultants Association.
ATC-15-1: The report, Proceedings of Second
U.S.-Japan Workshop on Improvement of Building
Seismic Design and Construction Practices, was
published under a grant from NSF. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1987, 412
pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains 23 technical
papers presented at this San Francisco
workshop in August, 1986, by practitioners

ATC-72

and researchers from the U.S. and Japan.


Included are state-of-the-practice papers and
case studies of actual building designs and
information on regulatory, contractual, and
licensing issues.
ATC-15-2: The report, Proceedings of Third
U.S.-Japan Workshop on Improvement of Building
Structural Design and Construction Practices, was
published jointly by ATC and the Japan Structural
Consultants Association. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1989, 358 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains 21 technical
papers presented at this Tokyo, Japan,
workshop in July, 1988, by practitioners and
researchers from the U.S., Japan, China, and
New Zealand. Included are state-of-thepractice papers on various topics, including
braced steel frame buildings, beam-column
joints in reinforced concrete buildings,
summaries of comparative U. S. and Japanese
design, and base isolation and passive energy
dissipation devices.
ATC-15-3: The report, Proceedings of Fourth
U.S.-Japan Workshop on Improvement of Building
Structural Design and Construction Practices, was
published jointly by ATC and the Japan Structural
Consultants Association. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1992, 484 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains 22 technical
papers presented at this Kailua-Kona, Hawaii,
workshop in August, 1990, by practitioners
and researchers from the United States, Japan,
and Peru. Included are papers on
postearthquake building damage assessment;
acceptable earth-quake damage; repair and
retrofit of earthquake damaged buildings;
base-isolated buildings, including
Architectural Institute of Japan
recommendations for design; active damping
systems; wind-resistant design; and summaries
of working group conclusions and
recommendations.
ATC-15-4: The report, Proceedings of Fifth U.S.Japan Workshop on Improvement of Building
Structural Design and Construction Practices, was
published jointly by ATC and the Japan Structural
Consultants Association. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1994, 360 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains 20 technical
papers presented at this San Diego, California
workshop in September, 1992. Included are
papers on performance goals/acceptable

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damage in seismic design; seismic design


procedures and case studies; construction
influences on design; seismic isolation and
passive energy dissipation; design of irregular
structures; seismic evaluation, repair and
upgrading; quality control for design and
construction; and summaries of working group
discussions and recommendations.
ATC-16: This project, Development of a 5-Year
Plan for Reducing the Earthquake Hazards Posed
by Existing Nonfederal Buildings, was funded by
FEMA and was conducted by a joint venture of
ATC, the Building Seismic Safety Council and the
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. The
project involved a workshop in Phoenix, Arizona,
where approximately 50 earthquake specialists
met to identify the major tasks and goals for
reducing the earthquake hazards posed by existing
nonfederal buildings nationwide. The plan was
developed on the basis of nine issue papers
presented at the workshop and workshop working
group discussions. The Workshop Proceedings
and Five-Year Plan are available through the
Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C
Street, S.W., Washington, DC 20472.
ATC-17: This report, Proceedings of a Seminar
and Workshop on Base Isolation and Passive
Energy Dissipation, was published under a grant
from NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1986, 478 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report contains 42 papers
describing the state-of-the-art and state-of-thepractice in base-isolation and passive energydissipation technology. Included are papers
describing case studies in the United States,
applications and developments worldwide,
recent innovations in technology development,
and structural and ground motion issues. Also
included is a proposed 5-year research agenda
that addresses the following specific issues:
(1) strong ground motion; (2) design criteria;
(3) materials, quality control, and long-term
reliability; (4) life cycle cost methodology;
and (5) system response.
ATC-17-1: This report, Proceedings of a Seminar
on Seismic Isolation, Passive Energy Dissipation
and Active Control, was published under a grant
from NCEER and NSF. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1993, 841 pages)
ABSTRACT: The 2-volume report documents
70 technical papers presented during a twoday seminar in San Francisco in early 1993.
Included are invited theme papers and
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competitively selected papers on issues related


to seismic isolation systems, passive energy
dissipation systems, active control systems
and hybrid systems.
ATC-18: The report, Seismic Design Criteria for
Bridges and Other Highway Structures: Current
and Future, was developed under a grant from
NCEER and FHWA. Available through the ATC
office. (Published, 1997, 151 pages)
ABSTRACT: Prepared as part of NCEER
Project 112 on new highway construction, this
report reviews current domestic and foreign
design practice, philosophy and criteria, and
recommends future directions for code
development. The project considered bridges,
tunnels, abutments, retaining wall structures,
and foundations.
ATC-18-1: The report, Impact Assessment of
Selected MCEER Highway Project Research on
the Seismic Design of Highway Structures, was
developed under a contract from the
Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake
Engineering Research (MCEER, formerly
NCEER) and FHWA. Available through the ATC
office. (Published, 1999, 136 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report provides an in-depth
review and assessment of 32 research reports
emanating from the MCEER Project 112 on
new highway construction, as well as
recommendations for future bridge seismic
design guidelines. Topics covered include:
ground motion issues; determining structural
importance; foundations and soils;
liquefaction mitigation methodologies;
modeling of pile footings and drilled shafts;
damage-avoidance design of bridge piers,
column design, modeling, and analysis;
structural steel and steel-concrete interface
details; abutment design, modeling, and
analysis; and detailing for structural
movements in tunnels.
ATC-19: The report, Structural Response
Modification Factors was funded by NSF and
NCEER. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1995, 70 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report addresses structural
response modification factors (R factors),
which are used to reduce the seismic forces
associated with elastic response to obtain
design forces. The report documents the basis
for current R values, how R factors are used
for seismic design in other countries, a rational

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means for decomposing R into key


components, a framework (and methods) for
evaluating the key components of R, and the
research necessary to improve the reliability of
engineered construction designed using R
factors.
ATC-20: The report, Procedures for
Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings,
was developed under a contract from the
California Office of Emergency Services (OES),
California Office of Statewide Health Planning
and Development (OSHPD) and FEMA.
Available through the ATC office (Published
1989, 152 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report provides procedures
and guidelines for making on-the-spot
evaluations and decisions regarding continued
use and occupancy of earthquake damaged
buildings. Written specifically for volunteer
structural engineers and building inspectors,
the report includes rapid and detailed
evaluation procedures for inspecting buildings
and posting them as inspected (apparently
safe, green placard), limited entry (yellow)
or unsafe (red). Also included are special
procedures for evaluation of essential
buildings (e.g., hospitals), and evaluation
procedures for nonstructural elements, and
geotechnical hazards.
ATC-20-1: The report, Field Manual:
Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings,
Second Edition, was funded by Applied
Technology Council. Available through the ATC
office (Published 2004, 143 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report, a companion Field
Manual for the ATC-20 report, summarizes
the postearthquake safety evaluation
procedures in a brief concise format designed
for ease of use in the field. The Second
Edition has been updated to include improved
versions of the posting placards and evaluation
forms, as well as more detailed information on
steel moment-frame buildings, mobile homes,
and manufactured housing. It also includes
new information on barricading and provides a
list of internet resources pertaining to
postearthquake safety evaluation.
ATC-20-2: The report, Addendum to the ATC-20
Postearthquake Building Safety Procedures was
published under a grant from the NSF and funded
by the USGS. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1995, 94 pages)

ATC-72

ABSTRACT: This report provides updated


assessment forms, placards, including a
revised yellow placard (restricted use) and
procedures that are based on an in-depth
review and evaluation of the widespread
application of the ATC-20 procedures
following five earthquakes occurring since the
initial release of the ATC-20 report in 1989.
ATC-20-3: The report, Case Studies in Rapid
Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Buildings,
was funded by ATC and R. P. Gallagher
Associates. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1996, 295 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains 53 case
studies using the ATC-20 Rapid Evaluation
procedure. Each case study is illustrated with
photos and describes how a building was
inspected and evaluated for life safety, and
includes a completed safety assessment form
and placard. The report is intended to be used
as a training and reference manual for building
officials, building inspectors, civil and
structural engineers, architects, disaster
workers, and others who may be asked to
perform safety evaluations after an
earthquake.
ATC-20-T: The Postearthquake Safety
Evaluation of Buildings Training CD was
developed by FEMA to replace the 1993 ATC-20T Training Manual that included 160 35-mm
slides. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 2002, 230 PowerPoint slides with
Speakers Notes)
ABSTRACT: This Training CD is intended to
facilitate the presentation of the contents of the
ATC-20 and ATC-20-2 reports in a 4-hour
training seminar. The Training CD contains
230 slides of photographs, schematic drawings
and textual information. Topics covered
include: posting system; evaluation
procedures; structural basics; wood frame,
masonry, concrete, and steel frame structures;
nonstructural elements; geotechnical hazards;
hazardous materials; and field safety.
ATC-21: The report, Second Edition, Rapid
Visual Screening of Buildings for Potential
Seismic Hazards: A Handbook, was developed
under a contract from FEMA. Available through
the ATC office, or from FEMA by contacting 1800-480-2520, as FEMA 154 Second Edition.
(Published 2002, 161 pages)

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ABSTRACT: This report describes a rapid


visual screening procedure for identifying
those buildings that might pose serious risk of
loss of life and injury, or of severe curtailment
of community services, in case of a damaging
earthquake. The screening procedure utilizes
a methodology based on a "sidewalk survey"
approach that involves identification of the
primary structural load-resisting system and its
building material, and assignment of a basic
structural hazards score and performance
modifiers based on the observed building
characteristics. Application of the
methodology identifies those buildings that are
potentially hazardous and should be analyzed
in more detail by a professional engineer
experienced in seismic design. In the Second
Edition, the scoring system has been revised
and the Handbook has been shortened and
focused to ease its use.
ATC-21-1: The report, Rapid Visual Screening of
Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards:
Supporting Documentation, Second Edition, was
developed under a contract from FEMA.
Available through the ATC office, or from FEMA
by contacting 1-800-480-2520, as FEMA 155
Second Edition. (Published 2002, 117 pages)
ABSTRACT: Included in this report is the
technical basis for the updated rapid visual
screening procedure of ATC-21, including (1)
a summary of the results from the efforts to
solicit user feedback, and (2) a detailed
description of the development effort leading
to the basic structural hazard scores and the
score modifiers.
ATC-21-2: The report, Earthquake Damaged
Buildings: An Overview of Heavy Debris and
Victim Extrication, was developed under a
contract from FEMA. (Published 1988, 95 pages)
ABSTRACT: Included in this report, a
companion volume to the first edition of the
ATC-21 and ATC-21-1 reports, is state-of-theart information on (1) the identification of
those buildings that might collapse and trap
victims in debris or generate debris of such a
size that its handling would require special or
heavy lifting equipment; (2) guidance in
identifying these types of buildings, on the
basis of their major exterior features, and (3)
the types and life capacities of equipment
required to remove the heavy portion of the
debris that might result from the collapse of
such buildings.

70

ATC-21-T: The report, Rapid Visual Screening of


Buildings for Potential Seismic Hazards Training
Manual Second Edition, was developed under a
contract with FEMA. Available through the ATC
office. (Published 2004, 148 pages and
PowerPoint presentation on companion CD)
ABSTRACT: This training manual and CD is
intended to facilitate the presentation of the
contents of the FEMA 154 report (Second
Edition). The training materials consist of 120
slides in PowerPointTM format and a
companion training presentation narrative
coordinated with the presentation. Topics
covered include: description of procedure,
building behavior, building types, building
scores, occupancy and falling hazards, and
implementation.
ATC-22: The report, A Handbook for Seismic
Evaluation of Existing Buildings (Preliminary),
was developed under a contract from FEMA.
(Originally published in 1989; revised by BSSC
and published as FEMA 178: NEHRP Handbook
for the Seismic Evaluation of Existing Buildings in
1992, 211 pages; revised by ASCE for FEMA and
published as FEMA 310: Handbook for the
Seismic Evaluation of Buildings a Prestandard
in 1998, 362 pages; revised and published as
ASCE 31-03, a standard of the American Society
of Civil Engineers, in 2003). Available through
ASCE, Reston, Virginia.
ABSTRACT: The ATC-22 handbook provides a
methodology for seismic evaluation of
existing buildings of different types and
occupancies in areas of different seismicity
throughout the United States. The
methodology, which has been field tested in
several programs nationwide, utilizes the
information and procedures developed for the
ATC-14 report and documented therein. The
handbook includes checklists, diagrams, and
sketches designed to assist the user.
ATC-22-1: The report, Seismic Evaluation of
Existing Buildings: Supporting Documentation,
was developed under a contract from FEMA.
(Published 1989, 160 pages)
ABSTRACT: Included in this report, a
companion volume to the ATC-22 report, are
(1) a review and evaluation of existing
buildings seismic evaluation methodologies;
(2) results from field tests of the ATC-14
methodology; and (3) summaries of
evaluations of ATC-14 conducted by the
National Center for Earthquake Engineering

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Research (State University of New York at


Buffalo) and the City of San Francisco.
ATC-23A: The report, General Acute Care
Hospital Earthquake Survivability Inventory for
California, Part A: Survey Description, Summary
of Results, Data Analysis and Interpretation, was
developed under a contract from the Office of
Statewide Health Planning and Development
(OSHPD), State of California. Available through
the ATC office. (Published 1991, 58 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report summarizes results
from a seismic survey of 490 California acute
care hospitals. Included are a description of
the survey procedures and data collected, a
summary of the data, and an illustrative
discussion of data analysis and interpretation
that has been provided to demonstrate
potential applications of the ATC-23 database.
ATC-23B: The report, General Acute Care
Hospital Earthquake Survivability Inventory for
California, Part B: Raw Data, is a companion
document to the ATC-23A Report and was
developed under the above-mentioned contract
from OSHPD. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1991, 377 pages)
ABSTRACT: Included in this report are
tabulations of raw general site and building
data for 490 acute care hospitals in California.
ATC-24: The report, Guidelines for Seismic
Testing of Components of Steel Structures, was
jointly funded by the American Iron and Steel
Institute (AISI), American Institute of Steel
Construction (AISC), National Center for
Earthquake Engineering Research (NCEER), and
NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1992, 57 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report provides guidance for
most cyclic experiments on components of
steel structures for the purpose of consistency
in experimental procedures. The report
contains recommendations and companion
commentary pertaining to loading histories,
presentation of test results, and other aspects
of experimentation. The recommendations are
written specifically for experiments with slow
cyclic load application.
ATC-25: The report, Seismic Vulnerability and
Impact of Disruption of Lifelines in the
Conterminous United States, was developed under
a contract from FEMA. Available through the
ATC office. (Published 1991, 440 pages)

ATC-72

ABSTRACT: Documented in this report is a


national overview of lifeline seismic
vulnerability and impact of disruption.
Lifelines considered include electric systems,
water systems, transportation systems, gas and
liquid fuel supply systems, and emergency
service facilities (hospitals, fire and police
stations). Vulnerability estimates and impacts
developed are presented in terms of estimated
first approximation direct damage losses and
indirect economic losses.
ATC-25-1: The report, A Model Methodology for
Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability and Impact of
Disruption of Water Supply Systems, was
developed under a contract from FEMA.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1992, 147 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report contains a practical
methodology for the detailed assessment of
seismic vulnerability and impact of disruption
of water supply systems. The methodology has
been designed for use by water system
operators. Application of the methodology
enables the user to develop estimates of direct
damage to system components and the time
required to restore damaged facilities to preearthquake usability. Suggested measures for
mitigation of seismic hazards are also
provided.
ATC-26: This project, U.S. Postal Service
National Seismic Program, was funded under a
contract with the U.S. Postal Service (USPS).
Under this project, ATC developed and submitted
to the USPS the following interim documents,
most of which pertain to the seismic evaluation
and rehabilitation of USPS facilities:
ATC-26 Report, Cost Projections for the U. S.
Postal Service Seismic Program (completed
1990)
ATC-26-1 Report, United States Postal
Service Procedures for Seismic Evaluation of
Existing Buildings (Interim) (Completed 1991)
ATC-26-2 Report, Procedures for Postdisaster Safety Evaluation of Postal Service
Facilities (Interim) (Published 1991, 221
pages, available through the ATC office)
ATC-26-3 Report, Field Manual: Postearthquake Safety Evaluation of Postal
Buildings (Interim) (Published 1992, 133
pages, available through the ATC office)

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71

ATC-26-3A Report, Field Manual: Post


Flood and Wind Storm Safety Evaluation of
Postal Buildings (Interim) (Published 1992,
114 pages, available through the ATC office)
ATC-26-4 Report, United States Postal
Service Procedures for Building Seismic
Rehabilitation (Interim) (Completed 1992)
ATC-26-5 Report, United States Postal
Service Guidelines for Building and Site
Selection in Seismic Areas (Interim)
(Completed 1992)
ATC-28: The report, Development of
Recommended Guidelines for Seismic
Strengthening of Existing Buildings, Phase I:
Issues Identification and Resolution, was
developed under a contract with FEMA.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1992, 150 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report identifies and provides
resolutions for issues that will affect the
development of guidelines for the seismic
strengthening of existing buildings. Issues
addressed include: implementation and
format, coordination with other efforts, legal
and political, social, economic, historic
buildings, research and technology, seismicity
and mapping, engineering philosophy and
goals, issues related to the development of
specific provisions, and nonstructural element
issues.
ATC-29: The report, Proceedings of a Seminar
and Workshop on Seismic Design and
Performance of Equipment and Nonstructural
Elements in Buildings and Industrial Structures,
was developed under a grant from NCEER and
NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1992, 470 pages)
ABSTRACT: These Proceedings contain 35
papers describing state-of-the-art technical
information pertaining to the seismic design
and performance of equipment and
nonstructural elements in buildings and
industrial structures. The papers were
presented at a seminar in Irvine, California in
1990. Included are papers describing current
practice, codes and regulations; earthquake
performance; analytical and experimental
investigations; development of new seismic
qualification methods; and research, practice,
and code development needs for specific
elements and systems. The report also includes

72

a summary of a proposed 5-year research


agenda for NCEER.
ATC-29-1: The report, Proceedings of a Seminar
on Seismic Design, Retrofit, and Performance of
Nonstructural Components, was developed under
a grant from NCEER and NSF. Available through
the ATC office. (Published 1998, 518 pages)
ABSTRACT: These Proceedings contain 38
technical papers presented at a seminar in San
Francisco, California in 1998. The paper
topics include: observed performance in
recent earthquakes; seismic design codes,
standards, and procedures for commercial and
institutional buildings; seismic design issues
relating to industrial and hazardous material
facilities; design analysis, and testing; and
seismic evaluation and rehabilitation of
conventional and essential facilities, including
hospitals.
ATC-29-2: The report, Proceedings of Seminar
on Seismic Design, Performance, and Retrofit of
Nonstructural Components in Critical Facilities,
was developed under a grant from MCEER and
NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 2003, 574 pages)
ABSTRACT: These Proceedings contain 43
papers presented at a seminar in Newport
Beach, California, in 2003. The purpose of
the Seminar was to present state-of-the-art
technical information pertaining to the seismic
design, performance, and retrofit of
nonstructural components in critical facilities
(e.g., computer centers, hospitals,
manufacturing plants with especially
hazardous materials, and museums with
fragile/valuable collection items). The
technical papers address the following topics:
current practices and emerging codes; seismic
design and retrofit; risk and performance
evaluation; system qualification and testing;
and advanced technologies.
ATC-30: The report, Proceedings of Workshop
for Utilization of Research on Engineering and
Socioeconomic Aspects of 1985 Chile and Mexico
Earthquakes, was developed under a grant from
the NSF. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1991, 113 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report documents the
findings of a 1990 technology transfer
workshop in San Diego, California, cosponsored by ATC and the Earthquake
Engineering Research Institute. Included in

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the report are invited papers and working


group recommendations on geotechnical
issues, structural response issues, architectural
and urban design considerations, emergency
response planning, search and rescue, and
reconstruction policy issues.
ATC-31: The report, Evaluation of the
Performance of Seismically Retrofitted Buildings,
was developed under a contract from the National
Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST,
formerly NBS) and funded by the USGS.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1992, 75 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report summarizes the results
from an investigation of the effectiveness of
229 seismically retrofitted buildings, primarily
unreinforced masonry and concrete tilt-up
buildings. All buildings were located in the
areas affected by the 1987 Whittier Narrows,
California, and 1989 Loma Prieta, California,
earthquakes.
ATC-32: The report, Improved Seismic Design
Criteria for California Bridges: Provisional
Recommendations, was funded by the California
Department of Transportation (Caltrans).
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1996, 215 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report provides
recommended revisions to the then-current
Caltrans Bridge Design Specifications (BDS)
pertaining to seismic loading, structural
response analysis, and component design.
Special attention is given to design issues
related to reinforced concrete components,
steel components, foundations, and
conventional bearings. The recommendations
are based on recent research in the field of
bridge seismic design and the performance of
Caltrans-designed bridges in the 1989 Loma
Prieta and other recent California earthquakes.
ATC-32-1: The report, Improved Seismic Design
Criteria for California Bridges: Resource
Document, was funded by Caltrans. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1996, 365
pages; also available on CD-ROM)
ABSTRACT: This report, a companion to the
ATC-32 Report, documents pertinent
background material and the technical basis
for the recommendations provided in ATC-32,
including potential recommendations that
showed some promise but were not adopted.
Topics include: design concepts; seismic

ATC-72

loading, including ARS design spectra;


dynamic analysis; foundation design; ductile
component design; capacity protected design;
reinforcing details; and steel bridges.
ATC-33: The reports, NEHRP Guidelines for the
Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 273),
NEHRP Commentary on the Guidelines for the
Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings (FEMA 274),
and Example Applications of the NEHRP
Guidelines for the Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings (FEMA 276), were developed under a
contract with the Building Seismic Safety Council,
for FEMA. (Published 1997, Guidelines, 440
pages; Commentary, 492 pages; Example
Applications, 295 pages.) FEMA 273 and portions
of FEMA 274 have been revised by ASCE for
FEMA as FEMA 356 Prestandard and
Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of
Buildings. Available through FEMA by contacting
1-800-480-2520 (Published 2000, 509 pages)
ABSTRACT: Developed over a 5-year period
through the efforts of more than 60 paid
consultants and several hundred volunteer
reviewers, these documents provide nationally
applicable, state-of-the-art guidance for the
seismic rehabilitation of buildings. The
FEMA 273 Guidelines contain several new
features that depart significantly from previous
seismic design procedures used to design new
buildings: seismic performance levels and
rehabilitation objectives; simplified and
systematic rehabilitation methods; new linear
static and nonlinear static analysis procedures;
quantitative specifications of component
behavior; and procedures for incorporating
new information and technologies, such as
seismic isolation and energy dissipation
systems, into rehabilitation.
ATC-34: The report, A Critical Review of
Current Approaches to Earthquake Resistant
Design, was developed under a grant from
NCEER and NSF. Available through the ATC
office. (Published, 1995, 94 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report documents the history
of U. S. codes and standards of practice,
focusing primarily on the strengths and
deficiencies of current code approaches. Issues
addressed include: seismic hazard analysis,
earthquake collateral hazards, performance
objectives, redundancy and configuration,
response modification factors (R factors),
simplified analysis procedures, modeling of
structural components, foundation design,

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73

nonstructural component design, and risk and


reliability. The report also identifies goals that
a new seismic code should achieve.
ATC-35: This report, Enhancing the Transfer of
U.S. Geological Survey Research Results into
Engineering Practice was developed under a
cooperative agreement with the USGS. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1994, 120
pages)
ABSTRACT: The report provides a program of
recommended technology transfer activities
for the USGS; included are recommendations
pertaining to management actions,
communications with practicing engineers,
and research activities to enhance
development and transfer of information that
is vital to engineering practice.
ATC-35-1: The report, Proceedings of Seminar
on New Developments in Earthquake Ground
Motion Estimation and Implications for
Engineering Design Practice, was developed
under a cooperative agreement with USGS.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1994, 478 pages)
ABSTRACT: These Proceedings contain 22
technical papers describing state-of-the-art
information on regional earthquake risk
(focused on five specific regionsNorthern
and Southern California, Pacific Northwest,
Central United States, and northeastern North
America); new techniques for estimating
strong ground motions as a function of
earthquake source, travel path, and site
parameters; and new developments
specifically applicable to geotechnical
engineering and the seismic design of
buildings and bridges.

characterization and ground motion


attenuation.
ATC-35-3: The report, Proceedings: Workshop
on Improved Characterization of Strong Ground
Shaking for Seismic Design, was developed under
a cooperative agreement with USGS. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1999, 75
pages)
ABSTRACT: These Proceedings document the
technical presentations and findings of a
workshop in Rancho Bernardo, California in
1997 on the Ground Motion Initiative (GMI)
component of the ATC-35 Project. The
workshop focused on identifying needs and
developing improved representations of
earthquake ground motion for use in seismic
design practice, including codes.
ATC-37: The report, Review of Seismic Research
Results on Existing Buildings, was developed in
conjunction with the Structural Engineers
Association of California and California
Universities for Research in Earthquake
Engineering under a contract from the California
Seismic Safety Commission (SSC). Available
through the Seismic Safety Commission as Report
SSC 94-03. (Published, 1994, 492 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report describes the state of
knowledge of the earthquake performance of
nonductile concrete frame, shear wall, and
infilled buildings. Included are summaries of
90 recent research efforts with key results and
conclusions in a simple, easy-to-access format
written for practicing design professionals.

ATC-35-2: The report, Proceedings: National


Earthquake Ground Motion Mapping Workshop,
was developed under a cooperative agreement
with USGS. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1997, 154 pages)

ATC-38: This report, Database on the


Performance of Structures near Strong-Motion
Recordings: 1994 Northridge, California,
Earthquake, was developed with funding from the
USGS, the Southern California Earthquake Center
(SCEC), OES, and the Institute for Business and
Home Safety (IBHS). Available through the ATC
office. (Published 2000, 260 pages, with CD-ROM
containing complete database).

ABSTRACT: These Proceedings document the


technical presentations and findings of a
workshop in Los Angeles in 1995 on several
key issues that affect the preparation and use
of national earthquake ground motion maps
for design. The following four key issues
were the focus of the workshop: ground
motion parameters; reference site conditions;
probabilistic versus deterministic basis, and
the treatment of uncertainty in seismic source

ABSTRACT: The report documents the


earthquake performance of 530 buildings
within 1000 feet of sites where strong ground
motion was recorded during the 1994
Northridge, California, earthquake (31
recording sites in total). The project required
the development of a suitable survey form, the
training of licensed engineers for the survey,
the selection of the surveyed areas, and the
entry of the survey data into an electronic

74

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ATC-72

relational database. The full database is


contained in the ATC-38 CD-ROM. The
ATC-38 database includes information on the
structure size, age and location; the structural
framing system and other important structural
characteristics; nonstructural characteristics;
geotechnical effects, such as liquefaction;
performance characteristics (damage);
fatalities and injuries; and estimated time to
restore the facility to its pre-earthquake
usability. The report and CD also contain
strong-motion data, including acceleration,
velocity, and displacement time histories, and
acceleration response spectra.
ATC-40: The report, Seismic Evaluation and
Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, was developed
under a contract from the California Seismic
Safety Commission. Available through the ATC
office. (Published, 1996, 612 pages)
ABSTRACT: This 2-volume report provides a
state-of-the-art methodology for the seismic
evaluation and retrofit of concrete buildings.
Specific guidance is provided on the following
topics: performance objectives; seismic
hazard; determination of deficiencies; retrofit
strategies; quality assurance procedures;
nonlinear static analysis procedures; modeling
rules; foundation effects; response limits; and
nonstructural components. In 1997 this report
received the Western States Seismic Policy
Council Overall Excellence and New
Technology Award.
ATC-41 (SAC Joint Venture, Phase 1): This
project, Program to Reduce the Earthquake
Hazards of Steel Moment-Resisting Frame
Structures, Phase 1, was funded by FEMA and
OES and conducted by a Joint Venture partnership
of SEAOC, ATC, and CUREe. Under this Phase 1
program SAC prepared the following documents:
SAC-94-01, Proceedings of the Invitational
Workshop on Steel Seismic Issues, Los
Angeles, September 1994 (Published 1994,
155 pages, available through the ATC office)
SAC-95-01, Steel Moment-Frame Connection
Advisory No. 3 (Published 1995, 310 pages,
available through the ATC office)
SAC-95-02, Interim Guidelines: Evaluation,
Repair, Modification and Design of Welded
Steel Moment-Frame Structures (FEMA 267
report) (Published 1995, 215 pages, available
through ATC and by calling FEMA: 1-800480-2520)

ATC-72

SAC-95-03, Characterization of Ground


Motions During the Northridge Earthquake of
January 17, 1994 (Published 1995, 179
pages, available through the ATC office)
SAC-95-04, Analytical and Field
Investigations of Buildings Affected by the
Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994
(Published 1995, 2 volumes, 900 pages,
available through the ATC office)
SAC-95-05, Parametric Analytical
Investigations of Ground Motion and
Structural Response, Northridge Earthquake
of January 17, 1994 (Published 1995, 274
pages, available through the ATC office)
SAC-95-06, Surveys and Assessment of
Damage to Buildings Affected by the
Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994
(Published 1995, 315 pages, available through
the ATC office)
SAC-95-07, Case Studies of Steel Moment
Frame Building Performance in the
Northridge Earthquake of January 17, 1994
(Published 1995, 260 pages, available through
the ATC office)
SAC-95-08, Experimental Investigations of
Materials, Weldments and Nondestructive
Examination Techniques (Published 1995, 144
pages, available through the ATC office)
SAC-95-09, Background Reports:
Metallurgy, Fracture Mechanics, Welding,
Moment Connections and Frame systems,
Behavior (FEMA 288 report) (Published 1995,
361 pages, available through ATC and by
calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520)
SAC-96-01, Experimental Investigations of
Beam-Column Subassemblages, Part 1 and 2
(Published 1996, 2 volumes, 924 pages,
available through the ATC office)
SAC-96-02, Connection Test Summaries
(FEMA 289 report) (Published 1996, available
through ATC and by calling FEMA: 1-800480-2520)
ATC-41-1 (SAC Joint Venture, Phase 2): This
project, Program to Reduce the Earthquake
Hazards of Steel Moment-Resisting Frame
Structures, Phase 2, was funded by FEMA and
conducted by a Joint Venture partnership of
SEAOC, ATC, and CUREe. Under this Phase 2
program SAC prepared the following documents:

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75

SAC-96-03, Interim Guidelines Advisory No.


1 Supplement to FEMA 267 Interim
Guidelines (FEMA 267A Report) (Published
1997, 100 pages, and superseded by FEMA350 to 353.)
SAC-99-01, Interim Guidelines Advisory No.
2 Supplement to FEMA-267 Interim
Guidelines (FEMA 267B Report, superseding
FEMA-267A). (Published 1999, 150 pages,
and superseded by FEMA-350 to 353.)
FEMA-350, Recommended Seismic Design
Criteria for New Steel Moment-Frame
Buildings. (Published 2000, 190 pages,
available through ATC and by calling FEMA:
1-800-480-2520)
FEMA-351, Recommended Seismic
Evaluation and Upgrade Criteria for Existing
Welded Steel Moment-Frame Buildings.
(Published 2000, 210 pages, available through
ATC and by calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520)
FEMA-352, Recommended Postearthquake
Evaluation and Repair Criteria for Welded
Steel Moment-Frame Buildings. (Published
2000, 180 pages, available through ATC and
by calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520)
FEMA-353, Recommended Specifications and
Quality Assurance Guidelines for Steel
Moment-Frame Construction for Seismic
Applications. (Published 2000, 180 pages,
available through ATC and by calling FEMA:
1-800-480-2520)
FEMA-354, A Policy Guide to Steel MomentFrame Construction. (Published 2000, 27
pages, available through ATC and by calling
FEMA: 1-800-480-2520)
FEMA-355A, State of the Art Report on Base
Materials and Fracture. (Published 2000, 107
pages; available on CD-ROM through ATC
and by calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520.
Printed version also available through ATC).
FEMA-355B, State of the Art Report on
Welding and Inspection. (Published 2000, 185
pages; available on CD-ROM through ATC
and by calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520.
Printed version also available through ATC).
FEMA-355C, State of the Art Report on
Systems Performance of Steel Moment Frames
Subject to Earthquake Ground Shaking.
(Published 2000, 322 pages; available on CDROM through ATC and by calling FEMA:

76

1-800-480-2520. Printed version also available


through ATC).
FEMA-355D, State of the Art Report on
Connection Performance. (Published 2000,
292 pages; available on CD-ROM through
ATC and by calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520.
Printed version also available through ATC).
FEMA-355E, State of the Art Report on Past
Performance of Steel Moment-Frame
Buildings in Earthquakes. (Published 2000,
190 pages; available on CD-ROM through
ATC and by calling FEMA: 1-800-480-2520.
Printed version also available through ATC).
FEMA-355F, State of the Art Report on
Performance Prediction and Evaluation of
Steel Moment-Frame Structures. (Published
2000, 347 pages; available on CD-ROM
through ATC and by calling FEMA: 1-800480-2520. Printed version also available
through ATC).
ATC-43: The reports, Evaluation of EarthquakeDamaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings,
Basic Procedures Manual (FEMA 306),
Evaluation of Earthquake-Damaged Concrete and
Masonry Wall Buildings, Technical Resources
(FEMA 307), and The Repair of Earthquake
Damaged Concrete and Masonry Wall Buildings
(FEMA 308), were developed for FEMA under a
contract with the Partnership for Response and
Recovery, a Joint Venture of Dewberry & Davis
and Woodward-Clyde. Available on CD-ROM
through ATC; printed versions available through
FEMA by contacting 1-800-480-2520 (Published,
1998, Evaluation Procedures Manual, 270 pages;
Technical Resources, 271 pages, Repair
Document, 81 pages)
ABSTRACT: Developed by 26 nationally
recognized specialists in earthquake
engineering, these documents provide field
investigation techniques, damage evaluation
procedures, methods for performance loss
determination, repair guides and
recommended repair techniques, and an indepth discussion of policy issues pertaining to
the repair and upgrade of earthquake damaged
buildings. The documents have been
developed specifically for buildings with
primary lateral-force-resisting systems
consisting of concrete bearing walls or
masonry bearing walls, and vertical-loadbearing concrete frames or steel frames with
concrete or masonry infill panels. The
intended audience includes design engineers,

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ATC-72

building owners, building regulatory officials,


and government agencies.
ATC-44: The report, Hurricane Fran, North
Carolina, September 5, 1996: Reconnaissance
Report, was funded by the Applied Technology
Council. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 1997, 36 pages)
ABSTRACT: Written for an intended audience
of design professionals and regulators, this
report contains information on hurricane size,
path, and rainfall amounts; coastal impacts,
including storm surges and waves, forces on
structures, and the role of erosion; the role of
beach nourishment in reducing wave energy
and crest height; building code requirements;
observations and interpretations of damage to
buildings, including the effect of debris acting
as missiles; and lifeline performance.
ATC-45: The Field Manual, Safety Evaluation of
Buildings After Wind Storms and Floods was
developed with funding from ATC, the ATC
Endowment Fund, and the Institute for Business
and Home Safety (Published 2004, 132 pages).
ABSTRACT: The Field Manual provides
guidelines and procedures to determine
whether damaged or potentially damaged
buildings are safe for use after wind storms or
floods, or if entry should be restricted or
prohibited. Formatted as an easy-to-use pocket
guide, the Manual is intended to be used by
structural engineers, building inspectors, and
others involved in postdisaster building safety
assessments. Advice is provided on evaluating
structural, geotechnical, and nonstructural
risks. Also included are procedures for Rapid
Safety Evaluation, procedures for Detailed
Safety Evaluation, information on how to deal
with owners and occupants of damaged
buildings, information on field safety for those
making damage assessments, and example
applications of the procedures.
ATC-48 (ATC/SEAOC Joint Venture Training
Curriculum): The training curriculum, Built to
Resist Earthquakes, The Path to Quality Seismic
Design and Construction for Architects,
Engineers, and Inspectors, was developed under a
contract with the California Seismic Safety
Commission and prepared by a Joint Venture
partnership of ATC and SEAOC. Available
through the ATC office (Published 1999, 314
pages)

ATC-72

ABSTRACT: Bound in a three-ring notebook,


the curriculum contains training materials
pertaining to the seismic design and retrofit of
wood-frame buildings, concrete and masonry
construction, and nonstructural components.
Included are detailed, illustrated, instructional
material (lessons) and a series of multi-part
Briefing Papers and Job Aids to facilitate
improvement in the quality of seismic design,
inspection, and construction.
ATC-49: The 2-volume report, Recommended
LRFD Guidelines for the Seismic Design of
Highway Bridges; Part I: Specifications and Part
II: Commentary and Appendices, were developed
under the ATC/MCEER Joint Venture partnership
with funding from the Federal Highway
Administration (Published 2003, Part I, 164 pages
and Part II, 294 pages)
ABSTRACT: The Recommended Guidelines
are based on significant enhancements in the
state of knowledge and state of practice
resulting from research investigations and
lessons learned from earthquakes over the last
15 years. The Guidelines consist of
specifications, commentary, and appendices
developed to be compatible with the existing
load-and-resistance-factor design (LRFD)
provisions for highway bridges published by
the American Association of State Highway
and Transportation Officials (AASHTO). The
new, updated, provisions are nationally
applicable and cover all seismic zones, as well
as all bridge construction types and materials.
They reflect the latest design philosophies and
design approaches that will result in highway
bridges with a high level of seismic
performance.
ATC-49-1: The document, Liquefaction Study
Report, Recommended LRFD Guidelines for the
Seismic Design of Highway Bridges, was
developed under the ATC/MCEER Joint Venture
partnership with funding from the Federal
Highway Administration (Published 2003, 208
pages)
ABSTRACT: This report documents a
comprehensive study of the effects of
liquefaction and the associated hazards
lateral spreading and flow. It contains detailed
discussions on: (1) recommended procedures
to evaluate liquefaction potential and lateral
spread effects; (2) ground mitigation design
approaches and procedures to evaluate the
beneficial effects of pile pinning in straining

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77

lateral spread; (3) study results from two


bridge sites (one in the western U. S. and one
in the central U. S.) that provide an assessment
of liquefaction effects based on several types
of analyses; an assessment of implications of
predicted lateral spread/flow using a pushovertype analysis; and development and evaluation
of structural and/or geotechnical mitigation
alternatives; and (4) study conclusions,
including cost implications.
ATC-49-2: The report, Design Examples,
Recommended LRFD Guidelines for the Seismic
Design of Highway Bridges, was developed under
the ATC/MCEER Joint Venture partnership with
funding from the Federal Highway Administration
(Published 2003, 316 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report contains two design
examples that illustrate use of the
Recommended LRFD Guidelines for the
Seismic Design of Highway Bridges. These
design examples are the eighth and ninth in a
series originally developed for the Federal
Highway Administration (FHWA) to illustrate
the use of the American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials
(AASHTO) Division 1-A Standard
Specifications for Highway Bridges. The
design examples contain flow charts and
detailed step-by-step procedures,
including: preliminary design; basic
requirements; determination of seismic design
and analysis procedure; determination of
elastic seismic forces and displacements;
determination of design forces; design
displacements and checks; design of structural
components; design of foundations; design of
abutments; and consideration of liquefaction.
ATC-51: The report, U.S.-Italy Collaborative
Recommendations for Improved Seismic Safety of
Hospitals in Italy, was developed under a contract
with Servizio Sismico Nazionale of Italy (Italian
National Seismic Survey). Available through the
ATC office. (Published 2000, 154 pages)
ABSTRACT: Developed by a 14-person team of
hospital seismic safety specialists and
regulators from the United States and Italy, the
report provides an overview of hospital
seismic risk in Italy; six recommended shortterm actions and four recommended long-term
actions for improving hospital seismic safety
in Italy; and supplemental information on (a)
hospital seismic safety regulation in
California, (b) requirements for nonstructural

78

components in California and for buildings


regulated by the Office of U. S. Foreign
Buildings, and (c) current seismic evaluation
standards in the United States.
ATC-51-1: The report, Recommended U.S.-Italy
Collaborative Procedures for Earthquake
Emergency Response Planning for Hospitals in
Italy, was developed under a contract with
Servizio Sismico Nazionale of Italy (Italian
National Seismic Survey, NSS). Available
through the ATC office. (Published 2002, 120
pages)
ABSTRACT: The report addresses one of the
short-term recommendations planning for
emergency response and postearthquake
inspection made in the first phase of the
ATC-51 project. The report contains: (1)
descriptions of current procedures and
concepts for emergency response planning in
the United States and Italy, (2) an overview of
relevant procedures for both countries for
evaluating and predicting the seismic
vulnerability of buildings, including
procedures for postearthquake inspection, (3)
recommended procedures for earthquake
emergency response planning and
postearthquake assessment of hospitals, to be
implemented through the use of a
Postearthquake Inspection Notebook and
demonstrated through the application on two
representative hospital facilities; and (4)
recommendations for emergency response
training, postearthquake inspection training,
and the mitigation of seismic hazards.
ATC-51-2: The report, Recommended U.S.-Italy
Collaborative Guidelines for Bracing and
Anchoring Nonstructural Components in Italian
Hospitals, was developed under a contract with the
Department of Civil Protection, Italy. (Published
2003, 164 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report supports one of the
short-term recommendations implement
bracing and anchorage for new installations of
nonstructural components made in the first
phase of the ATC-51 project. The report
contains: (1) technical background
information, including an overview of
nonstructural component damage in prior
earthquakes;(2) generalized recommendations
for assessment of nonstructural components
and recommended performance objectives and
requirements; (3) specific recommendations
pertaining to twenty-seven different types of

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ATC-72

nonstructural components; (4) design


examples that illustrate in detail how a
structural engineer evaluates and designs the
retrofit of a nonstructural component; (5)
additional seismic design considerations for
nonstructural components; and (6) guidance
pertaining to the design and selection of
devices for seismic anchorage.
ATC-52: The project, Development of a
Community Action Plan for Seismic Safety
(CAPSS), City and County of San Francisco, was
conducted under a contract with the San Francisco
Department of Building Inspection. Under Phase I,
completed in 2000, ATC defined the tasks to be
conducted under Phase II, a multi-year ATC effort
that commenced in 2001. The Phase II tasks
include: (1) development of a reliable estimate of
the size and nature of the impacts a large
earthquake will have on San Francisco; (2)
development of technically sound consensus-based
guidelines for the evaluation and repair of San
Franciscos most vulnerable building types; and
(3) identification, definition, and ranking of other
activities to reduce the seismic risks in the City
and County of San Francisco.
ATC-53: The report, Assessment of the NIST 12Million-Pound (53 MN) Large-Scale Testing
Facility, was developed under a contract with
NIST. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 2000, 44 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report documents the
findings of an ATC Technical Panel engaged
to assess the utility and viability of a 30-yearold, 12-million pound (53 MN) Universal
Testing Machine located at NIST headquarters
in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Issues addressed
include: (a) the merits of continuing operation
of the facility; (b) possible improvements or
modifications that would render it more useful
to the earthquake engineering community and
other potential large-scale structural research
communities; and (c) identification of specific
research (seismic and non-seismic) that might
require the use of this facility in the future.
ATC-54: The report, Guidelines for Using
Strong-Motion Data and ShakeMaps in
Postearthquake Response, was developed under a
contract with the California Geological Survey.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
2005, 222 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report addresses two main
topics: (1) effective means for using
computer-generated ground motion maps
ATC-72

(ShakeMaps) in postearthquake emergency


response; and (2) procedures for rapidly
evaluating (on a near-real-time basis) strongmotion data from ground sites and
instrumented buildings, bridges, and dams to
determine the potential for earthquake-induced
damage in those structures. The document
also provides guidance on the form, type, and
extent of data to be collected from structures
in the vicinity of strong-motion recordings,
and pertinent supplemental information,
including guidance on replacement of strongmotion instruments in/on and near buildings,
bridges, and dams.
ATC-55: The report, FEMA 440, Improvement of
Nonlinear Static Seismic Analysis Procedures, was
developed under a contract with FEMA.
Available through FEMA or the ATC office.
(Published 2005, 152 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report presents the results of a
four year study carried out to develop
guidelines for improved application of the
Coefficient Method, as detailed in the FEMA356 Prestandard and Commentary for the
Seismic Rehabilitation of Buildings, and the
Capacity Spectrum Method, as detailed in the
ATC-40 Report, Seismic Evaluation and
Retrofit of Concrete Buildings. The report
also addresses improved application of
nonlinear static analysis procedures in general,
including new procedures for incorporating
soil-structure interaction effects, and options
for addressing multiple-degree-of-freedom
effects. An example application of the
recommended nonlinear static analysis
procedures is included to illustrate use of the
procedures in estimating the maximum
displacement of a model building.
ATC-56: The report, FEMA 389, Primer for
Design Professionals: Communicating with
Owners and Managers of New Buildings on
Earthquake Risk, was developed under a contract
with FEMA. Available through FEMA or the
ATC office. (Published 2004, 194 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report has been developed to
facilitate the process of educating building
owners and managers about seismic risk
management tools that can be effectively and
economically employed by them during the
building development phasefrom site
selection through design and constructionas
well as the operational phase. Written
principally for design professionals (architects

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79

and structural engineers), the document


introduces and discusses (1) seismic risk
management and the means to develop a risk
management plan; (2) guidance for identifying
and assessing earthquake-related hazards
during the site selection process; (3) emerging
concepts in performance-based seismic
design; and (4) seismic design and
performance issues related to six specific
building occupanciescommercial office
facilities, commercial retail facilities, light
manufacturing facilities, healthcare facilities,
local schools (kindergarten through grade 12),
and higher education facilities (universities).
ATC-56-1: The report, FEMA 427, Primer for
Design of Commercial Buildings to Mitigate
Terrorist Attacks Providing Protection to People
and Buildings, was developed under a contract
with FEMA. Available through FEMA or the
ATC office. (Published 2003, 106 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report provides guidance to
building designers, owners and state and local
governments to mitigate the effects of hazards
resulting from terrorist attacks on new
buildings. While the guidance provided
focuses principally on explosive attacks and
design strategies to mitigate the effects of
explosions, the document also addresses
design strategies to mitigate the effects of
chemical, biological and radiological attacks.
Qualitative discussions are provided on the
following topics: terrorist threats; weapons
effects, building damage, design approach,
design guidance, occupancy types, and cost
considerations.
ATC-57: The report, The Missing Piece:
Improving Seismic Design and Construction
Practices, was developed under a contract with
NIST. Available through the ATC office.
(Published 2003, 102 pages)
ABSTRACT: The report was developed to
provide a framework for eliminating the
technology transfer gap that has emerged
within the National Earthquake Hazards
Reduction Program (NEHRP) that limits the
adaptation of basic research knowledge into
practice. The report defines a much-expanded
problem-focused knowledge development,
synthesis and transfer program to improve
seismic design and construction practices.
Two subject areas, with a total of five Program
Elements, are proposed: (1) systematic
support of the seismic code development

80

process; and (2) improve seismic design and


construction productivity.
ATC-58: This project, Development of NextGeneration Performance-Based Seismic Design
Guidelines for New and Existing Buildings, is a
multi-year, multi-phase effort funded by FEMA.
Reports prepared under this project include:

FEMA 445, Next-Generation PerformanceBased Seismic Design Guidelines, Program


Plan for New and Existing Buildings.
(Published 2006, 131 pages, available through
FEMA or the ATC office). This Program Plan
offers background on current code design
procedures, introduces performance-based
seismic design concepts, identifies
improvements needed in current seismic
design practice, and outlines the tasks and
projected costs for a two-phase program to
develop next-generation performance-based
seismic design procedures and guidelines.
FEMA 461, Interim Testing Protocols for
Determining the Seismic Performance
Characteristics of Structural and
Nonstructural Components (Published 2007,
113 pages, available through FEMA or the
ATC office). Two interim protocol types are
provided in this document: Interim Protocol I,
Quasi-Static Cyclic Testing, which should be
used for the determination of performance
characteristics of components whose behavior
is primarily controlled by the application of
seismic forces or seismic-induced
displacements; and Interim Protocol II, Shake
Table Testing, which should be used to assess
performance characteristics of components
whose behavior is affected by the dynamic
response of the component itself, or whose
behavior is velocity sensitive, or sensitive to
strain-rate effects.
ATC-60: The 2-volume report, SEAW
Commentary on Wind Code Provisions, Volume 1
and Volume 2 - Example Problems, was developed
by the Structural Engineers Association of
Washington (SEAW) and edited and published by
the Applied Technology Council. (ATC).
Available through the ATC office. (Published
2004; Volume 1, 238 pages; Volume 2, 245 pages)
ABSTRACT: Written for designers, building
code officials, instructors and anyone who
designs and/or analyzes structures for wind,
this report provides commentary on the wind
provisions in the 2000 and 2003 editions of

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ATC-72

the International Building Code (IBC), and the


1998 and 2002 editions of ASCE Standard No.
7, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and
Other Structures. Volume 1 contains the main
body of the commentary, including a technical
and historic overview of wind codes and
discussions on a broad range of topics: basic
wind speed; importance factors; exposure and
topographic effects; gust response; design for
wind pressures on main wind-force-resisting
systems; wind pressures on components and
cladding of structures; glass and glazing;
prescriptive provisions; miscellaneous and
non-building structures; unusual wind loading
configurations; high winds, hurricanes, and
tornadoes; serviceability; wind tunnel tests
applied to design practice; and wind design of
equipment and non-building systems. Volume
2 consists of appendices containing over a
dozen example problems with solutions.
ATC-R-1: The report, Cyclic Testing of Narrow
Plywood Shear Walls, was developed with funding
from the Henry J. Degenkolb Memorial
Endowment Fund of the Applied Technology
Council. Available through the ATC office
(Published 1995, 64 pages)
ABSTRACT: This report documents ATC's first
self-directed research program: a series of
static and dynamic tests of narrow plywood
wall panels having the standard 3.5-to-1
height-to-width ratio and anchored to the sill
plate using typical bolted, 9-inch, 5000-lb.
capacity hold-down devices. The report
provides a description of the testing program
and a summary of results, including
comparisons of drift ratios found during
testing with those specified in the seismic
provisions of the 1991 Uniform Building
Code. The report served as a catalyst for
changes in code-specified aspect ratios for
narrow plywood wall panels and for new

ATC-72

thinking in the design of hold-down devices.


It also stimulated widespread interest in
laboratory testing of wood-frame structures.
ATC Design Guide 1: The report, Minimizing
Floor Vibration, was developed with funding from
ATCs Henry J. Degenkolb Memorial Endowment
Fund. Available through the ATC office.
(Published, 1999, 64 pages)
ABSTRACT: Design Guide 1 provides guidance
on design and retrofit of floor structures to
limit transient vibrations to acceptable levels.
The document includes guidance for
estimating floor vibration properties and
example calculations for a variety of currently
used floor types and designs. The criteria for
acceptable levels of floor vibration are based
on human sensitivity to the vibration, whether
it is caused by human behavior or machinery
in the structure.
ATC TechBrief 1: The ATC TechBrief 1,
Liquefaction Maps, was developed under a
contract with the United States Geological Survey.
Available through the ATC office. (Published
1996, 12 pages)
ABSTRACT: The technical brief inventories
and describes the available regional
liquefaction hazard maps in the United States
and gives information on how to obtain them.
ATC TechBrief 2: The ATC TechBrief 2,
Earthquake Aftershocks Entering Damaged
Buildings, was developed under a contract with the
United States Geological Survey. Available
through the ATC office. (Published 1996, 12
pages)
ABSTRACT: The technical brief offers
guidelines for entering damaged buildings
under emergency conditions during the first
hours and days after the initial damaging
event.

ATC Projects and Report Information

81

Applied Technology Council


Directors
ATC Board of Directors (1973-Present)
Milton A. Abel
(1979-1985)
James C. Anderson
(1978-1981)
Thomas G. Atkinson*
(1988-1994)
Steven M. Baldridge
(2000-2003)
Albert J. Blaylock
(1976-1977)
David C. Breiholz
(2004-2006)
Patrick Buscovich*
(2000-2009)
James R. Cagley*
(1998-2004)
H. Patrick Campbell
(1989-1990)
Arthur N. L. Chiu*
(1996-2002)
Anil Chopra
(1973-1974)
Richard Christopherson*
(1976-1980)
Lee H. Cliff
(1973)
John M. Coil*
(1986-1987, 1991-1997)
Eugene E. Cole
(1985-1986)
Anthony B. Court
(2001-2004)
Edwin T. Dean*
(1996-2002)
Robert G. Dean
(1996-2001)
James M. Delahay*
(1999-2005)
Gregory G. Deierlein
(2003-2009)
Edward F. Diekmann
(1978-1981)
Burke A. Draheim
(1973-1974)
John E. Droeger
(1973)
Nicholas F. Forell*
(1989-1996)
Douglas A. Foutch
(1993-1997)
Paul Fratessa
(1991-1992)
Sigmund A. Freeman
(1986-1989)
Barry J. Goodno
(1986-1989)
Ramon Gilsanz
(2005-2008)
Mark R. Gorman
(1984-1987)
Melvyn Green
(2001-2002)
Lawrence G. Griffis*
(2002-2008)
Gerald H. Haines
(1981-1982, 1984-1985)
William J. Hall
(1985-1986)
Ronald O. Hamburger
(1999-2000)
Robert W. Hamilton
(2002-2005)
James R. Harris
((2004-2010)
Gary C. Hart
(1975-1978)
Robert H. Hendershot
(2000-2001)
Lyman Henry
(1973)
Richard L. Hess
(2000-2003)
James A. Hill
(1992-1995; 2003-2004)
Ernest C. Hillman, Jr.
(1973-1974)
Eve Hinman
(2002-2008)
ATC-72

Ephraim G. Hirsch
(1983-1984)
William T. Holmes*
(1983-1987)
Warner Howe
(1977-1980)
Edwin T. Huston*
(1990-1997)
David Hutchinson
(2004-2010)
Jeremy Isenberg
(2002-2005)
Paul C. Jennings
(1973-1975)
Carl B. Johnson
(1974-1976)
Edwin H. Johnson
(1988-1989, 1998-2001)
Stephen E. Johnston* (1973-1975, 1979-1980)
Christopher P. Jones*
(2001-2008)
Joseph Kallaby*
(1973-1975)
Donald R. Kay
(1989-1992)
T. Robert Kealey*
(1984-1988)
H. S. (Pete) Kellam
(1975-1976)
Helmut Krawinkler
(1979-1982)
Steven Kuan
(2006-2009)
James S. Lai
(1982-1985)
Mark H. Larsen
(2003-2006)
Gerald D. Lehmer
(1973-1974)
Marc L. Levitan
(2006-2010)
James R. Libby
(1992-1998)
Charles Lindbergh
(1989-1992)
R. Bruce Lindermann
(1983-1986)
L. W. Lu
(1987-1990)
Walter B. Lum
(1975-1978)
Kenneth A. Luttrell
(1991-1999)
Newland J. Malmquist
(1997-2001)
Melvyn H. Mark
(1979-1982)
John A. Martin
(1978-1982)
Stephen McReavy
(1973)
John F. Meehan*
(1973-1978)
Andrew T. Merovich*
(1996-2003)
David L. Messinger
(1980-1983)
Bijan Mohraz
(1991-1997)
William W. Moore*
(1973-1976)
Manny Morden
(2006-2009)
Ugo Morelli
(2004-2006)
Gary Morrison
(1973)
Robert Morrison
(1981-1984)
Ronald F. Nelson
(1994-1995)
Joseph P. Nicoletti*
(1975-1979)
Bruce C. Olsen*
(1978-1982)
Gerard Pardoen
(1987-1991)

ATC Directors

83

Stephen H. Pelham*
(1998-2005)
Norman D. Perkins
(1973-1976)
Richard J. Phillips
(1997-2000)
Maryann T. Phipps
(1995-1996, 1999-2002)
Sherrill Pitkin
(1984-1987)
Edward V. Podlack
(1973)
Chris D. Poland
(1984-1987)
Egor P. Popov
(1976-1979)
Robert F. Preece*
(1987-1993)
H. John Price
(2004-2010)
Lawrence D. Reaveley* (1985-1991, 2000-2003)
Philip J. Richter*
(1986-1989)
John M. Roberts
(1973)
James Robinson
(2005-2008)
Charles Roeder
(1997-2000)
Spencer Rogers
(2007-2010)
Arthur E. Ross*
(1985-1991, 1993-1994)
C. Mark Saunders*
(1993-2000)
Walter D. Saunders*
(1975-1979)
Lawrence G. Selna
(1981-1984)
Wilbur C. Schoeller
(1990-1991)
Samuel Schultz*
(1980-1984)
Daniel Shapiro*
(1977-1981)

Jonathan G. Shipp
Howard Simpson*
Mete Sozen
William E. Staehlin
Scott Stedman
Donald R. Strand
James L. Stratta
Edward J. Teal
W. Martin Tellegen
John C. Theiss*
Charles H. Thornton*
James L. Tipton
Ivan Viest
Ajit S. Virdee*
J. John Walsh
Robert S. White
James A. Willis*
Thomas D. Wosser
Loring A. Wyllie
Edwin G. Zacher
Theodore C. Zsutty
*President

(1996-1999)
(1980-1984)
(1990-1993)
(2002-2003)
(1996-1997)
(1982-1983)
(1975-1979)
(1976-1979)
(1973)
(1991-1998)
(1992-2000, 2005-2008)
(1973)
(1975-1977)
(1977-1980, 1981-1985)
(1987-1990)
(1990-1991)
(1980-1981, 1982-1986)
(1974-1977)
(1987-1988)
(1981-1984)
(1982-1985)

ATC Executive Directors (1973-Present)


Ronald Mayes
Christopher Rojahn

84

(1979-1981)
(1981-present)

Roland L. Sharpe

ATC Directors

(1973-1979)

ATC-72

Applied Technology Council


Sponsors, Supporters, and Contributors
Sponsors

Contributors

Structural Engineers Association of California


Charles H. Thornton
John M. Coil
Degenkolb Engineers
Burkett & Wong
James R. & Sharon K. Cagley
Sang Whan Han
Walter P. Moore & Associates
Nabih Youssef & Associates

Daniel & Lois R. Shapiro


Hinman Consulting Engineers
Omar D. Cardona
Computers & Structures, Inc.
Lawrence D. Reaveley
American Institute of Steel Construction, Inc.
Magnusson Klemencic Associates
John C. Theiss
Baldridge & Associates
Raj and Helen Desai
Lionakis Beaumont Design Group
Miyamoto International
Structon
Weidlinger Associates
William Bevier Structural Engineer, Inc.

Supporters
Rutherford & Chekene
Nishkian Menninger
Patrick Buscovich & Associates
Barrish, Pelham & Partners
Edwin T. Huston
Baker Concrete Construction
Cagley & Associates
Cagley, Harman & Associates
CBI Consulting, Inc.
Gilsanz Murray Steficek LLP