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SANITATION & MAN:

a case of changing Global paradigm - Slideshow


PRESENTATION

Peter A. John
+234-8039693897
peanijo@yahoo.com

NOTE
You are welcome to this presentation.
...terms and pictures may sound and look awful and irritating,
but we need to put an end to these awful and irritating practices
so that we DONT SMELL AWFUL TOO SOON

...we wish to dedicate the memories of this lecture to the Kids in


the Children Home, the needy in our society and the unfortunate
victims of the Dreaded Ebola Virus Infection, never to forget in a
hurry Dr. Ameyo Adadevoh for her sacrifice.

DEFINITIONS
Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health
through prevention of human contact with the hazards of
waste as well as the treatment and proper disposal of
sewage or wastewater.
*Source: Online Wikipedia (en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sanitation)

Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities


and services for the safe disposal of human urine and
faeces.
*Source: World Health Organization online Sanitation Publication (www.who.int/topics/sanitation/en/)

Sanitation the process of keeping places free from dirt,


infection, disease, etc., by removing waste, trash and
garbage, by cleaning streets, etc.
*Source: Online Merriam-Webster Dictionary (wwwmerriam-webster.com/dictionary/sanitation)

Sanitation is the equipment and systems that keeps


places clean, especially by removing human waste.
*Source: Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary

INTRODUCTION
It is observed that there are various definitions and
description for the term Sanitation. It is also identified
that the pattern of practice can be determined by some
factors, which are, but not limited to the following:
Attitude
Availability of resources
Availability of facilities
Environmental influence
Socio-cultural status
Level of awareness
Traditions and belief
Exposure
Government presence and interest
Implementation and enforcement of legislation
etc.

No matter what factor is considered, it is acceptable that


Waste is Discharged and Satisfaction Achieved,
...and may end up by saying I want do it, but
NOT IN MY BACKYARD.

DIVISIONS & COMMON PRACTICES

Sanitation

Solid
waste

Sewage

DIVISIONS & COMMON PRACTICES

Sanitation

Solid
waste

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

DIVISIONS & COMMON PRACTICES

Sanitation

Sewage

EXISTING CLASSIFICATION
1
2

Conservancy Tanks

Direct River Flush Toilets

Jetty Toilets

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

DAWG
4EVER

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

COMMON PRACTICES

ASSOCIATED RISK/HARZARDS
Malaria
Cholera
Dysentery
Typhoid fever
Helminth infection

VECTORS
Leachates
Dirty Hand
Dusty Wind
Run-on/-off Water

Insects
Rodents

what is the way out and


how do we stop the
associated risks and hazard?

RARE PRACTICE

RARE PRACTICE

IMPROVED OPTIONS
VIP Toilets

Ventilated
Improved
Pit

RARE PRACTICES

RARE PRACTICES

RARE PRACTICE

APPRAISAL & ANALYSIS


In 2004, 2.6/6.4 billion people in the world did not have
access to basic sanitation. Of these, 2 billion live in rural
areas. Progress over the past 15 years has been relatively
limited. In 1990 about 1.3 billion people practiced open
defecation, while in 2011 about 1 billion people still
practice same.
Since 1990, open defecation rate declined globally from
24% in 1990 to 15% in 2011.
To meet the MDG sanitation target, over 1.6 billion more
people need to gain access to improved sanitation over
the coming decade, the main challenge being in
developing countries.
This will reduce the unserved population by 800 million,
from 2.6 billion in 2004 to 1.8 billion in 2015 (7.2 billion WPop).
Source: United Nations Development Program (2001) The Millennium Development Goals www.undp.org/mdg;
Fact sheet on water and sanitation, Rio+24 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
UN-Water Sanitation Fact Sheet
Sanitation Drive 2015 Fact Sheet

APPRAISAL & ANALYSIS


DO YOU KNOW
2.6 billion people roughly 37% of the worlds population
still lack what we take for granted: access to adequate
sanitation.
Open defecation is one of the main causes of diarrhoea,
which results in the death of more than 750,000 children
under age 5 every year.

Every 20 seconds a child dies as a result of poor


sanitation.
80% of diseases in developing countries are caused by
unsafe water and poor sanitation, including inadequate
sanitation facilities.
Access to sanitation, the practice of good hygiene, and
safe water supply could save 1.5 million children a year.
Source: United Nations Development Program (2001) The Millennium Development Goals www.undp.org/mdg;
Fact sheet on water and sanitation, Rio+24 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
UN-Water Sanitation Fact Sheet
Sanitation Drive 2015 Fact Sheet

EVALUATION & ANALYSIS


In 2006, the worlds population was almost equally divided
between urban and rural dwellers. Nevertheless, more than
7 out of 10 people without improved sanitation were rural
inhabitants.
Doing nothing is costly. Every 1USD = NGN160 spent on
sanitation brings a USD 5.5 = 880NGN return by keeping
people healthy and productive.

In Sub-Saharan Africa - 37% had basic sanitary facility in


2004 and 74% in 2014 increase of 37% over 10 years.
Nigeria 44% basic toilet facility in 2004 and 63% in 2015
and increase of 19% in 11 years; projection.
Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) target a level of
75% of the population to have basic sanitation by year 2015.
Source: United Nations Development Program (2001) The Millennium Development Goals www.undp.org/mdg;
Fact sheet on water and sanitation, Rio+24 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
UN-Water Sanitation Fact Sheet
Sanitation Drive 2015 Fact Sheet
UNICEF water and sanitation summary sheet on Nigeria 2008

EVALUATION & ANALYSIS


Countries that account for almost three-quarters of the
people who practice open defecation:
India (626 million)
Indonesia (63 million)
Pakistan (40 million)
Ethiopia (38 million)
Nigeria (34 million)
Sudan (19 million)
Nepal (15 million)
China (14 million)
Niger (12 million)
Burkina Faso (9.7 million)
Mozambique (9.5 million)
Cambodia (8.6 million)
Sources:
Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2013 update. UNICEF, WHO, March 2013.
Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2012 update. UNICEF, WHO, March 2012.
Human Development Report 2006. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2006.

INFORMATION

INFORMATION

INFORMATION

Sources:
Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2013 update. UNICEF, WHO, March 2013.
Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation. 2012 update. UNICEF, WHO, March 2012.
Human Development Report 2006. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), 2006.

GLOBAL POLICIES - MDG


8 Millennium Development Goals:
Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
Goal 5. Improve maternal health
Goal 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
Goal 7. Ensure environmental sustainability
Goal 8. Develop a global partnership for development

Reducing child mortality (goal 4), improving maternal


health (goal 5) and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and
other diseases (goal 6) CANNOT be achieved without
ensuring environmental sustainability (goal 7).

GLOBAL POLICIES
MDG-7, TARGETS & INDICATORS

The following measurement has been formulated to monitor this:


Indicator 30: Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban & rural (UNICEF - WHO)
Indicator 31: Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban & rural (UNICEF - WHO)
Indicator 32: Proportion of households with access to secure tenure (UNHABITAT)
Source: United Nations Development Program (2001) The Millennium Development Goals www.undp.org/mdg;

MDG ANALYSIS
The MDG-7 Target-10 is to halve by 2015 the proportion
of the people without sustainable access to safe drinking
water and basic sanitation.
The world remains off track to meet the MDG sanitation
target of 75% and if current trends continue, is set to
miss the target by more than half a billion people.
Unless the pace of change in the sanitation sector cab be
accelerated, the MDG target may not be reached until
2026.

Source: Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) Report - 2011

GLOBAL POLICIES ANTI MALARIA


Roll Back Malaria (RBM) Program 2015 target:
The RBM program is a supportive program captured in the MDG,
but with importance reflected in 6/8 of the MDG. This means that
6/8 of the MDG can only be reached with effective malaria
control in place.

Malaria continues to place an unacceptable burden on health


and economic development in over 100 countries across the
world. Effective tools are now readily available and many
countries are successfully implementing comprehensive
treatment and prevention strategies with significant impact and
effect.
2015 target:
Malaria morbidity and mortality is reduced by 75% over 80% of
2010 data.
Malaria related MDGs are achieved not only by national
aggregate but particularly amongst poorest group across all
affected countries.
Universal and equitable coverage with effective intervention.

WAY FORWARD
How do we get involve in the elimination of
identified impacts associated with mismanagement and ill control of sewage in
public places

PRIMARY REMEDIAL CYCLE


Plan
Implementation,
sustainability &
Enforcement

Project
formation
Acceptability

Sensitization
program

Problem
identification &
planning

GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS
MEDIA WARNINGS

FUMIGATION

BUILDING OF HOSPITALS/
CLINICS

ENVIRONMENTAL
CONTRACTS

all these may not be the solution

RECOMMENDATION
Proper collection plans, disposal points, sorting
and buy back centre and investment on material
recycling.
Commissioning of waste disposal and treatment
plants.
Establishing legislation and implementing and
enforcing same to encourage compliance.
Give support incentives to interested member of
the public who are ready to go into waste
management business.
Provide power to support the installation and
operation of machines for waste management.
Involving all major stakeholders in the task of
spreading the news for hygienic living.
Setting up a task force to check, monitor and
regulate related activities of the members of the
public.

CLOSE OUT
...we all have the responsibility of keeping a clean
environment and seeking for the best alternative to
managing our waste. We should note that it is
possible to save good amount of money by just
keeping clean environment and maintaining good
hygiene.
We need to hammer on the need to have good
governance with an implementable and enforceable
legislation and proper communication strategy to
get all levels of our society.

Muchas Gracias
&
Ahoy!

Cualquier
Pregunta?
Any Question?

Vamos
a
Discutir
Lets Discuss