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10/15/2014

ADVERTISING & CREATIVITY IN


COMMUNICATIONS
Autumn 2014 / Spring 2015
ANNE SCOLAIRE / ACADEMIC YEAR 2014-2015

Intervenant/Lecturer: Mitchell FINK

Speed Grill Debrief

Questions
1. Who is the best target audience?

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Experientials

Indulgents

Traditionalists

Eclectics

Frugals

% of clientele
(not % of meals
served)

23%

24%

18%

7%

28%

Annual meals
per customer

6.3

5.6

4.4

5.0

3.8

Average spend
per meal per
customer

25

19

16

22

15

Percent alcohol

12%

4%

2%

14%

1%

Questions
1. Who is the best target audience?
Probably Experientials, Indulgents, or Eclectics!
They have similarities except that Eclectics is much
smaller and spend less.
2. Which communication objectives?

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POTENTIAL COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES

Category Need
Brand Awareness
Brand Attitude
Brand Purchase Intention

SETTING COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES CATEGORY NEED


Category need refers to the target audiences feeling that it
would like a particular product or service to satisfy a particular
need. Category need is a perception, and therefore, it can be
established by the advertiser. By successfully establishing a
belief in the minds of the target audience that links the product
category and a felt need, the advertiser can stimulate primary
demand for the product category. But remember, the primary
demand relates to all brands in the category.
To stimulate secondary, or selective demand, the advertiser
must also influence brand-level communication effects such as
brand awareness, brand attitude, and brand purchase
intention.
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POTENTIAL COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES

Category Need
Brand Awareness
Brand Attitude
Brand Purchase Intention

BRAND AWARENESS
Brand awareness
Brand awareness is the target audiences ability to identify a
brand within a category in sufficient detail to purchase or use it.
There are two ways: you can either recognize it or recall it.
Brand awareness does not always require identification of the
brand name. It may be stimulated by a familiar package or
even a more general stimulus such as a colour. You may not
even need to remember beforehand the brand name or be able
to describe it; instead, brand awareness may occur through
simply recognizing it at the point of purchase.
Consumers cannot buy unless they are first made aware of the
brand. As a result, brand awareness must always be considered
first.
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BRAND AWARENESS continued


Recognition or Recall
Brand recognition and recall are two fundamentally different
types of brand awareness. The difference depends upon which
communication effect occurs first in the consumers mind: the
need for the product (that is, category need) or seeing the
brand in the store (that is, brand awareness).
Recognition brand awareness is when the awareness of the
brand reminds you of the category need.
Recall brand awareness is when the category need occurs and
you must remember brands that will satisfy that need.

BRAND AWARENESS continued


Brand awareness strategy
There are three ways for brand awareness to be used as a
communication objective. Brand awareness may be executed
as brand recognition or recall, or in certain cases, both; the link
between the category need and the brand is what brand
awareness is all about. In effect, this is how marketing
communication brand the product. It is critical to effective
branding that the creative tactics used are appropriate to the
type of brand awareness most likely to be involved in the brand
choice decision. Whether seen as at the time of purchase (for
brand recognition awareness) or when linked to the need for
the product when the need occurs (for brand recall).

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BRAND ATTITUDE STRATEGIES


The real heart of most advertising messages conveys
information or communicates a feeling about the product
being advertised - This is what comprises brand attitude.
There are four strategies we will be concerned with
based upon two dimensions critical to consumer
behaviour:
Type of purchase decision is it low or high
involvement?

Type of motivation is it positive or negative?

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BRAND ATTITUDE STRATEGIES continued


Type of purchase decision
When a decision is low involvement, it means there is
very little, if any risk attached to the consequences of
making the decision (e.g., a new candy bar)
When a decision requires a lot of information prior to
deciding, and a great deal of conviction that you are
making the right decision, it is high involvement
Type of motivation
People do things out of negative motivations (e.g., to
remove or avoid/solve a problem not necessarily bad) or
positive motivations (e.g., to make them feel good)
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BRAND AWARENESS AND BRAND ATTITUDE STRATEGY


Low
Involvement

Positive
Motivation

Negative
Motivation

High
Involvement
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BRAND AWARENESS AND BRAND ATTITUDE STRATEGY


continued
Understanding these constructs is critical for identifying the
appropriate brand attitude strategy, which, in turn, is
critical for creative strategy.
The creative tactics that maximize the likelihood of an
effective message are directly linked to the brand attitude
strategy that follows from the appropriate quadrant
defined by the grid. The tactics differ significantly for each
quadrant. Strategies associated with negative motives
require information to help solve or avoid the problem
while those associated with positive motives must help
transform the consumer.
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POTENTIAL COMMUNICATION OBJECTIVES REVISITED

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Questions
1. Who is the best target audience?
Probably Experientials, Indulgents, or Eclectics!
They have similarities except that Eclectics is much
smaller and spend less.
2. Which communication objectives?
Probably Brand Awareness and Brand Attitude
Brand Awareness Recall because usually most people
think of going out to eat and then where.
On the other hand, it might be possible for Brand
Awareness Recognition???

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Questions
1. Who is the best target audience?
2. Which communication objectives?
3. What type of positioning?

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POSITIONING
Positioning is differentiating your brand from competitors in the
mind of the consumers

With Positioning there are two decisions: how should the brand
be positioned with regard to the product category; and whether
the brands position in relation to other brands should be in terms
of product users or the product itself.

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INITIAL POSITIONING DECISIONS


To do make these decisions, we need to answer two questions
about the brand: what is it?, and what does it offer? Answers
are linked to the two universal communication objectives of
brand awareness and brand attitude.
The answer to the question what is it connects the brand to
category need, sometimes referred to as the brands market
position. There are two ways this can be done.
A brand can be positioned in relation to the product category or
category need either centrally or differentially. To be centrally
positioned a brand must be able to deliver on all the main
benefits of the category. In effect, it will be positioned as the
best brand in the category. Because a centrally positioned brand
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INITIAL POSITIONING DECISIONS continued


more or less defines the category, it should be limited to brands
with a strong market position. Often, this is the first really
successful brand in the category. Think of brand such as Xerox or
Hoover; they literally define their character.
With a centrally positioned brand, it is important that the
perception of it doing the best job in delivering the primary
category benefit be constantly confirmed.
In all other areas, which means for most brands, a differentiated
positioning strategy is called for. As the answer to the question
what does it offer for a centrally positioned brand is the primary
category benefit, for a differentiated positioning, we must look
for another benefit the brand offers different from the primary
category benefit that positions the market leader.
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USER-ORIENTED POSITION
Now we have to consider a second decision, whether the
positioning strategy should place the brand, relative to its
competition, in terms of the user or the product itself.
While both user- and product-benefit-oriented positioning
strategy make use of brand benefits in the message, with useroriented positionings, the message is specifically addressing the
user; the user is the focus, not the product. User-oriented
positions make sense make sense when a brand is marketed to a
specific segment, satisfying their particular needs. But this does
not mean that a brand positioned towards the user is
appropriate only for that specific target audience, only that it is
positioned that way. For example, a performance-wear brand
advertised for the serious runner or Scotch for the discerning
drinker are
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USER-ORIENTED POSITION continued


examples of a user-oriented positioning because a strategic
decision has been made to specifically position the brand to a
particular segment.
Another case where a user-oriented positioning should be
considered is when the underlying purchase motivation in the
category is social appeal a positive motive that reflects
purchase decisions made because the user is looking for social
rewards through personal recognition in using the brand. When
most people in the brands target audience are driven by social
approval in their brand selection in that category, a user-oriented
positioning makes sense.
By focusing on the users, you are reminding them of how good
they will feel in using, and importantly, displaying your brand.

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USER-ORIENTED POSITION continued


That is why brands of luxury fashion often employ user-oriented
positionings. But you can also chose to tap into an otherwise
latent social approval motive.
Addressing a specific segment or when the underlying purchase
motive is social approval are the two circumstances where one
might consider a user-oriented positioning. But one could
instead chose a product-benefit-oriented positioning.

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PRODUCT-BENEFIT-ORIENTED POSITIONING
In the majority of cases a benefit-oriented positioning should be
used. With product-benefit positioning the product is the hero of
the positioning, and the positioning will be defined by specific
benefits related to the product, not the user. In product-benefitoriented positioning, product characteristics are the message; in
a user-oriented positioning, user characteristics are the message.

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PRODUCT-BENEFIT-ORIENTED POSITIONING continued

In this first step towards positioning a brand, the initial decisions


involve: how do we position the brand with regard to the
product category; and relative to other brands, should we use a
user-oriented or a product-benefit-oriented positioning. In
effect, these decisions determine how the brand will be
positioned in terms of its brand awareness and brand attitude
communication objectives almost like a general model of
positioning.

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SELECTING THE APPROPRIATE BENEFIT


Now we need to select those benefits that will best distinguish
our brand from competitors in a way that is important to the
target audience. Ideally, these benefits will reflect the underlying
motivation that drives purchase behaviour because they are at
the heart of the brand attitude communication strategy. What
we want to do is be able to tap into the purchase motivation via
the benefit presented in the advert. The difficult question is
what benefit should be emphasized.

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BENEFIT FOCUS
A benefit may be experienced in different ways: an objective
attribute of a product (antibacterial, no calories); a subjective
claim or characteristic of a product (easy to use, tastes great); or
an emotion (excitement, relief). A benefit might be thought of in
terms of what you want from a product, or you may that in terms
of what a brand has (attribute), what you experience with a
brand (characteristic), or what you feel (emotion). Summarized:
Attribute

An objective component of a product

Characteristic

A subjective claim about a product

Emotion

A feeling associated with the product

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BENEFIT FOCUS continued


How we focus on the benefit will depend upon what aspect of
the benefit is involved, and upon the motivation associated with
purchase in the brands category. Brand attitude communication
strategy depends upon understanding the correct underlying
purchase motivation.
When the motive is negative, information in some form is
provided to address a problem of some kind. The advertising is
basically providing information, the emphasis should be directly
on the benefit.
When the motivation is positive, messages must address the
target audiences feelings in some way.
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BENEFIT FOCUS continued

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EFFECTIVE POSITIONING SUMMARY


We now have the tools to position a brand effectively in
advertising. Initially, two decisions are made.
First, how should the brand be positioned with regard to the
product category? Here a central positioning is chosen if the
brand is a strong market leader; otherwise, in almost all cases a
differential positioning will be used.
Secondly, how should the brand be positioned with regard to
competitive brands? Here, a user-oriented positioning may be
used if the brand is being marketed to a specific segment in the
category, or if the underlying motivation for purchase is social
approval; otherwise, a product-benefit-oriented positioning will
be used.
These two decisions are critical for correctly establishing the link
between the brand and its benefit to build and sustain positive
brand attitude.
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EFFECTIVE POSITIONING SUMMARY continued


Once you have made these initial decisions, the appropriate
benefit to use in positioning the brand must be selected. You are
looking for a benefit that is important to the target audience, that
the target audience believes (or can be persuaded to believe) the
brand can deliver, and ideally one that the brand can be seen to
deliver better than competitors.
Having selected the benefit to use, the correct benefit focus in
the message will be a function of whether the underlying
motivation driving purchase behaviour for the target audience is
positive or negative. If the motivation is positive, the emphasis
must be on the emotional consequences of the benefit; if it is
negative, the emphasis or focus will be directly on the benefit.

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EFFECTIVE POSITIONING SUMMARY continued

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Questions
1. Who is the best target audience?
2. Which communication objectives?
3. How should SPEED GRILL be positioned?
1. Central or differentiated positioning? Probably
differential positioning. It is not evident that SPEED
GRILL is a strong market leader.
2. So what benefits to emphasize? Those that are
important to the target audience. So use the
segment descriptions as a surrogate for what is
important to each segment.

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Experientials
Eating out is an important source of pleasure.
Most frequent diners at casual and fine dining restaurants.
Enjoy new restaurants/foods/menu items.
Motivated by culinary expertise, sophisticated, upscale atmosphere.
Will not tolerate bad service.
Indulgents
Love all types of food, eat what they want and dont worry about nutrition.
Motivated by large, generous portions.
Open to all types of foods and promotions (especially volont specials).
Enjoy new restaurants/foods/menu items.
Traditionalists
Oldest segment, eating out is more functional.
Less frequent casual restaurant diners, and lowest average bill size.
Below average liking of new items; they prefer tried and true favorites.
Particularly want conveniently located restaurants where they can dine quickly.
Price-sensitive.
Eclectics
Most adventurous palates. Like all foods as well as ethnic and regional cuisines.
Want unique dishes, and dishes you dont make at home.
Frequent casual dining restaurants (less likely to go to chains) and some fine dining.
Atmosphere of the restaurant is important.
Most health-conscious with highest preference for fresh/light/healthy items.
Least price sensitive.
Frugals
Not particularly fond of going out to dinner.
Least frequent casual restaurant diners, and below average bill size.
Price sensitive and look for inexpensive restaurants.
Below average interest in ethnic foods; prefer traditional foods.
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Questions
1. Who is the best target audience?
2. Which communication objectives?
3. How should SPEED GRILL be positioned?
4. Key Messages

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BRAND ATTITUDE STRATEGY


Low involvement model

High involvement model

BRAND AWARENESS
tentatively favourable attitude

BRAND AWARENESS

TRIAL

BRAND ATTITUDE

BRAND ATTITUDE

TRIAL

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INVOLVEMENT AND MOTIVATION


With motivation, it is important to understand what motivates
purchase and usage for effective benefit selection and focus on
positioning. When you are dealing with positive motives, you are
creating a mood, and when you are dealing with negative
motives, you are providing information to help address a
perceived problem.

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REVIEWING BRAND AWARENESS AND BRAND ATTITUDE


STRATEGY
Principles for Implementing Low-Involvement
Informational Brand Attitude Strategies
Information should be provided that solves a problem as
the result of using the brand
Keep it simple
Use an extreme presentation of the benefit
The advertising does not have to be liked

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REVIEWING BRAND AWARENESS AND BRAND ATTITUDE


STRATEGY continued
Principles for Implementing Low-Involvement
Transformational Brand Attitude Strategies

Elicit the correct emotional response

Be certain the advertising rings true, providing emotional


authenticity
Link the emotional response to the execution
As a result, the advertising must be liked

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REVIEWING BRAND AWARENESS AND BRAND ATTITUDE


STRATEGY continued
Principles for Implementing High-Involvement
Informational Brand Attitude Strategies
Provide sufficient information to solve the problem
The target audience must be convinced

Limit message to acceptable levels of target audience attitudes


toward category, product, and brand
As long as the message is believed and accepted, the execution
need not be liked

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REVIEWING BRAND AWARENESS AND BRAND ATTITUDE


STRATEGY continued
Principles for Implementing High-Involvement
Transformational Brand Attitude Strategies

Be alert to possible dual motivations and the need to provide


information

Elicit correct emotional response and link it to the brand


Be certain it is emotionally authentic

The target audience must personally identify with the brand as


portrayed in the execution
Linking must go beyond the execution and extend specifically to the
product and brand

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