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Language Testing in Practice: Designing and Developing Useful Language Tests Lyle F. Bachman and Adrian S. Palmer Oxford University Press 1996 Oxford Universi Press ‘Walon Stee, Oxford OX2 6DP ‘Oxford New York ‘Athens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Bombay Buenos Aires Caleta. Cape Town Dare Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Isanbel Karachi Koala Lompur Madras Madrid Melbourne Mexico Gey Nairobi Pare Singapore Taipel Tokyo Toronto sand asocnted companies in Besin aden Oxford and Osford Engl ce trade marks of Oxford University Press, Isp 0 19 4371484 © Lyle F. Bachman and Advan S. Falmer 1996 Allsighs reserved. No pat of this publication may be eproduced, ‘sored in eteval system, or tanemined ia any form orby any means, ‘econ, mechanical, phorocopyng, recording r otherwise, without de prior writen permission of Oxford Universi ress. ‘This book is sold subject othe condition hati shall nos, by way of trade or asherwse, be lent, resold hired out, or oterwise cicalated ‘without the publisher's prior consenc in any frm of binding or cover ‘othe than that in which tis pobished and without a simiae “ondion inching th condvion being imposed onthe subsequent purcasee. Photocopying “The Publisher grants permission forthe photocopying of those items oF ages marked ‘photocopable’ according ro he fllowng conditions Individaal purchasers may make copies for chet wn useor for use by alases they teach, School purchasers may make copies forthe ure of thee Staff and students, bu this permission doesnot extend to adational schools or branches. Inno crcumscances may ny pat ofthis book be photocopied for resale Set by Wyven Typesetting Le, Bristol Printed ia Hong Kong, Contents Acknowledgments Part ONE Conceptual bases of test development 1 Objectives and expectations 2. Test usefulness: Qualities of language tests 3. Describing tasks: Language use in language tess 4 Describing language ability: Language use in language tests, PART TWO Language test development 5. Overview of test development 6 Describing, identifying, and defining 7 Developing a plan for the evaluation of usefulness 8 Identifying, allocating, and managing resources 9) Operationalization: Developing test tasks and blueprints, 10 Preparing effective instructions 41 Scoring method 12. Language test administration PART THREE Ilustrative test development projects Project 1 High-stakes selection and placement test for students entering 2 university writing program Project 2 Selection/placement test for telephone company employees Project 3 Syllabus-based diagnostic achievement test for students in an ESP program Project 4 Exit test for students in an adult education conversation couse for immigeants v7 43 6 85 95 133 457 170 181 193 231 253 285 291 298

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