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# Summer 2014 Math 131A Analysis

## Final Exam General Information

What to do if you have an exam conflict
As announced in the course syllabus, the final exam will be given in lecture on Thursday,
July 31, 2014 at the usual lecture time (9:00am-10:50am) in Kinsey Pavilion 1200B. If
you cannot make the final exam due to serious illness requiring a doctors note or a family
emergency, you must notify me by email as soon as possible. There are no makeup exams.

## What to bring to the exam

Be sure to bring enough pens, pencils, and erasers. No calculators, notes, or electronic
devices will be allowed. All cell phones and portable electronic devices must be turned off
and put away during the entire exam.

## Tips on exam taking

Dont rush. The exam will be designed to take 1 hour and 50 minutes. If you get stuck on
a problem, it is best to move on to the next problem. Do all the problems you understand
well first, and then come back to finish the ones you find more challenging to maximize the
number of points you will receive on the exam. You must write a complete organized solution
in order to receive full credit.

Exam content
Many of the exam questions will be similar to problems on the homework assignments,
examples covered in class, and examples in the textbook. There will be 8-10 problems (some
with multiple parts). Some problems may be theoretical, while others may be computational
in nature. The exam covers the material from the sections of our textbook listed below.
1 The Set N of Natural Numbers
Well-Ordering Property of N, Principle of Math Induction, Principle of Math Induction,
II, Set Z of Integers, Definition of a Z divides b Z.
2 The Set Q of Rational Numbers
Definition of = for Rational Numbers, Addition in Q, Subtraction in Q, Multiplication
in Q, Division in Q, Sums, Differences, Products, and Quotients of Rationals are
Rational, Rational Zeros Theorem and its Corollary (2.3), Showing that a number is
rational or not rational.
3 The Set R of Real Numbers
Definition of a Field, Definition of an Ordered Field, Properties of Fields, Properties
of Ordered Fields, Definition of Absolute Value, Distance between two real numbers
a and b is |a b|, Properties of Absolute Value, Triangle Inequality, Reverse Triangle
Inequality, Parallelogram Law.

## 4 The Completeness Axiom

Definitions of a lower bound for a set S, greatest lower bound (infimum) for S (inf S),
minimum of S (min S), an upper bound for S, least upper bound for S (sup S), maximum of max S; Definition of S bounded below, S bounded above, and S bounded;
Equivalent statements to S bounded. Definition of a complete ordered field, Completeness Axiom for R, Archimedean Property of R and its equivalent statements.
Denseness of Q, Denseness of the irrationals Qc .
5 The Symbols and
Ordering on R{}, Definition of inf and sup of the empty set and for unbounded
sets, Subsets of R: Empty set, Finite nonempty sets, Bounded intervals, Unbounded
intervals, Unions, Intersections, Complements, Countable Union, Countable Intersection
7 Limits of Sequences
Definition of a sequence, range (set of values) of a sequence, tail SN of a sequence (sn ),
Definition of a limit of a sequence, Definition of a convergent sequence, Definition of a
divergent sequence, Definition of a sequence converging to a real limit s,
Limit of a sequence is unique, Proving a sequence diverges or converges to a limit
formally using the -N definition. Proof by contradiction, Proof by cases, Proof by
induction.
9 Limit Theorems for Sequences
Limit Theorems for Sequences, Squeeze Theorem, Definition of a bounded sequence,
Convergent sequences are bounded; Sums, differences, products, constant multiples,
quotients, and absolute values of convergent sequences are convergent. Square roots of
nonnegative convergent sequences are convergent, Some special limits, Infinite Limits,
Defnition of a sequence (sn ) diverging to + or to , Definition of lim (sn ) existing,
n

Infinite Limit Theorems: (9.9) and (9.10), Proving that a limit of a sequence is +
or formally by using the definition or by using the Infinite Limit Theorems
10 Monotone Sequences and Cauchy Sequences
Definition of a monotone sequence, an increasing sequence, a strictly increasing sequence, a decreasing sequence, a strictly decreasing sequence, Proving that a sequence
is increasing or decreasing by math induction, Any bounded monotonic sequence converges, Definition of lim sup sn and lim inf sn of a real sequence (sn ), lim sn = s if
n
and only if lim inf sn = lim sup sn = s, Definition of a Cauchy sequence, Proving that a
sequence is Cauchy or not Cauchy using the definition of Cauchy sequence, Convergent
implies Cauchy implies bounded, A real sequence converges if and only if it is Cauchy,
Showing a sequence is not Cauchy.
11 Subsequences
Definition of a subsequence, Examples of subsequences of a sequence, Theorem 11.2,

If (sn ) is convergent, then every subsequence (snk ) converges to the same limit. Definition of a dominant term in a sequence, Every sequence has a monotone subsequence,
lim sup sn and lim inf sn are limits of some monotone subsequences of (sn ), BolzanoWeierstrass Theorem: Every bounded sequence has a convergent subsequence, Set S of
subsequential limits of sequence (sn ), lim inf sn = inf S and lim sup sn = sup S, lim sn
n

exists if and only if S has one and only one element in R {}, S is a closed set
(Theorem 11.9)
12 lim inf s and lim sups
lim inf sn = lim inf SN = sup{inf SN : N N} = inf S
N

## lim sup sn = lim sup SN = inf{sup SN : N N} = sup S

N

where SN = {sn : n > N } is the N th tail of (sn ) starting at index N + 1 and S is the
set of subsequential limits of sequence (sn ).
lim inf sn lim inf snk lim sup snk lim sup sn
for any subsequence (snk ) of (sn ).
Theorem 12.1: If (sn ) converges to s > 0, then
lim sup sn tn = s lim sup tn
Theroem 12.2: For any nonzero sequence (sn ),

sn+1
sn+1
1/n
1/n
lim inf |sn | lim sup |sn | lim sup

lim inf
sn
sn

= L implies lim |sn |1/n = L.
Corollary 12.3: lim sn+1
sn
n

14 Series
Definition of a series

k=1

N
P

ak ,

k=1

## Definition of a series converging and having sum S. Definition of a series diverging,

diverging to + or diverging to , Special series: Telescoping Series and Geometric

P
a
Series, Sum of a convergent geometric series:
arn = 1r
, Convergence Test for
n=0

only if

n=1

n=1

converges if

an and

n=1

(an + bn )

n=1

## bn both converge, A finite number of terms may be added or

n=1

removed from a series without affecting convergence or divergence, nth Term Test for
Divergence, Types of convergence: Conditional convergence and Absolute Convergence,
Comparison Test, Limit Comparison Test, Absolutely convergent series are convergent,
Root Test, Ratio Test, Root Test stronger than Ratio Test

## 15 Alternating Series and Integral Tests

Definition of Alternating Series, Alternating Series Test, Integral Test, p-test, Conver
P
1
gence/Divergence of
n(log n)p
n=1

17 Continuous Functions
Definition of a function f : A B, graph of a function, domain of a function Df of
A, range f (A) of f; Definition of a function being one-to-one or injective, Definition of
a function being onto or surjective, Definition of functions f + h, f h, f h, f /h, cf
(c R), and the composition f h where f and h are functions, Sequence definition of
continuity at a point a, The  definition of continuity at a point a, Definition of continuous on a set S, Definition of a discontinuity at a or a function being discontinuous
at a, The functions f + h, f h, f h, f /h, cf (c R), |f |, and the composition f h are
continuous provided f and h are continuous functions and all functions aforementioned
make sense, Definition of a function being bounded or invertible.
18 Properties of Continuous Functions
Extreme Value Theorem (EVT), Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT), Corollary 18.3,
Definition of f strictly increasing or strictly decreasing, f strictly increasing on A if
and only if f 1 strictly increasing on f (A), f strictly decreasing on A if and only if
f 1 strictly decreasing on f (A), A strictly increasing (decreasing) function with the
Intermediate Value Property is continuous, Theorem 18.4, Theorem 18.6: Any one-toone continuous function on an interval I is either strictly increasing or decreasing on
I,
19 Uniform Continuity
Definition of uniformly continuous on S, Proving using the definition of uniform continuity that a function is uniformly continuous on S or not, Theorem 19.2: If f is
continuous on a closed interval [a, b] (or any closed and bounded set S), then it is uniformly continuous that set. If f is uniformly continuous on a set S, then it is uniformly
continuous on any subset S 0 of S, Uniform continuity on S implies continuity on S.
Theorem 19.4: If f is uniformly continuous on S, then (f (sn )) is Cauchy whenever
(sn ) in S is Cauchy. Definition of an extension fe of a function f . Theorem 19.5: f is
uniformly continuous on (a, b) if and only if f can be extended to a continuous function
fe on [a, b].
20 Limits of Functions
Definition of lim f (x) = L where c R {} and L R {}, Definition of the
xcS

two-sided limit: lim f (x) = L if lim f (x) = L for some deleted open neighborhood
xc

xcS

## S = {x R : 0 < |x c| < }, Definition of the right-hand limit: lim+ f (x) = L if

xc

lim f (x) = L for some neighborhood S = (c, c + ), Definition of the left-hand limit:

xcS

lim f (x) = L if lim f (x) = L for some neighborhood S = (c , c), Limit Thorems

xc s

xcS

for functions (Theorem 20.4), The  property definition of lim f (x) = L (Theorem
xcS

## 28 Basic Properties of the Derivative

Definition of f differentiable at a or on a set S, Definition of f 0 (a), Differentiability at
a implies continuity at a, Rules of Differentiation (Theorem 28,3), Chain Rule, Power
Rule, Showing f is differentiable at a or not differentiable at a
29 The Mean Value Theorem
Finding the max/min of a continuous function on [a, b] which may be differentiable
on (a, b), Rolles Theorem, Mean Value Theorem (MVT), Antiderivatives differ by
a constant, First Derivative Test (Corollary 29.7), Intermediate Value Theorem for
Derivatives, Derivative of f 1 at f (x0 ) (Theorem 29.9)
Integration will NOT be covered on the Final Exam.