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Linear Time History Analysis of MDOF Structure by Mode Superposition Method

using Newmark’s β Method

Modal Time History Analysis

Introduction

Structural dynamic is a mandatory graduate level course for structural/earthquake engineering student all around the world. One of the most important topics of this course is to solve modal equations of motion of a Multi Degree of Freedom (MDOF) structure by a numerical method such as Nemark’s β method and Wilson-Ѳ method. Modal response should be assembled to obtain each DOF response. Applied load can be a base excitation earthquake or time-dependent loads on stories.

Here, I will introduce a MATLAB function which can do a time history analysis of an n-DOF structure with a certain Number of Modes (nom). Then, I will show how to use this function with two examples one excited by half-cycle harmonic on two stories and another excited by Elcentro earthquake.

Time History Response by Newmark Method: NM

I tried to write a self-explanatory m-file. Therefore, I just copy the important part of the function called “NM” in this section. A new feature is to give you the option to specify the number of modes you want to consider in mode superposition analysis. For example, there is a 100-DOF structure (the size of mass and stiffness matrixes are 100 100). However, you want to do the modal analysis only for first 10 modes not all the modes which is very common in real situation.

In this function to solve equation of motions for different modes, Newmark Linear Method has been used. We can decompose time-dependent applied force, . , into two components where F is spatial distribution of load on DOFs and f(t) is time-variant component of load. By modifying inputs F (a vector) and f(t), you can analyze the structure for either earthquake (base-seismic-excitation) or time-dependent load applied to different stories. I will show it in examples later. That's your responsibility to organize eigenvectors (Φ) and eigenvaluses ( in which frequencies are sorted from smallest to greatest ( f 1 < f 2 < f 3 <…). If you want to use MATLAB built-in function to find Φ (phi) and (omega2), you should be careful about abovementioned arrangement.

Preferred unit is SI (N, kg, s). Specifically for this function, stiffness (K) is in N/m, mass (M) is

in kg, force (F) is in N, Gravitational Constant (g) is 9.810 m/s 2 and Ground Acceleration (A g )

should be normalized to g. However, you are free to choose your unit.

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Modal Time History Analysis

function [disp,EF]=NM(n,nom,dt,F,ft,M,K,zet,omega2,phi)

% INPUTS:

% Number of Stories or generally, Number fo DOFs

n:

% Number of Modes that you want to consider in analysis; (nom <= n)

nom:

% Time Interval (Sampling Time) of force or earthquake

% Spatial Load Distribution Vector; in the case of base seismic

% exitation F=-g*M*[1 1 1

% Time-Variant Component of Load (A Vector); in the

dt:

F:

ft:

1]'; (A vector)

% case of base seismic exitation ft=Ag (Ground Acceleration in g)

% Mass Matrix of Stories (n x n)

% Stiffness Matrix of Stories (n x n)

% Damping Ratio in percent (%); e.g. 5

% omega2: Eigen-Values Matrix (nom x nom); e.g. [phi,omega2]=eig(K,M);

% phi:

M:

K:

zet:

Eigen-Vectors (nom x nom); e.g. [phi,omega2]=eig(K,M);

% OUTPUTS (Story Response):

% Displacement Time History of Stories (or DOFs)

% Elastic Force Time History of Stories (or DOFs)

disp:

EF:

As long as the size of stiffness matrix and mass matrix are equal, there will be no restriction on this function.

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Modal Time History Analysis

Example 1: Time-Dependent Load on a Shear Building with 8-DOF

It is desired to analyze a shear building detailed in Fig. 1 with Mode Superposition Method only with first 2 modes in an undamped condition (zet=0). Load considered for this example is time- dependent half-sine impulse force on two stories (Figure 3). For a shear frame, it is easy to derive stiffness and mass matrixes which are shown as follows: K

=

Figure 1- Shear Building

M

=

10

6

×

K =

10

9

8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

×

k

1

+

k

0

0

k

2

2

2.0

-1.0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

k

k

2

k

+

0

-1.0

1.5

- 0.50

0

0

0

0

0

2

k

3

3

0

- 0.5

1.0

- 0.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

8

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

k

3

0

0

k

n

0

0

- 0.5

1.0

- 0.5

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

0

0

4

0

0

0

,

M =

0

0

0

- 0.5

1.0

- 0.5

0

0

m

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

- 0.5

1.0

- 0.5

0

(

kg = N s

.

2

/

0

m

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

- 0.5

1.0

- 0.5

m

)

0

0

0

0

n

m

0

0.5

0

0

0

0

0

- 0.5

(

N

/

m

)

Derived mass and stiffness matrixes can be used as inputs of eigen-problem and modal analysis. For this section, only 2 modes are desired. Then, eigenvalues and eigenvectors have been calculated. Figure 2 illustrates modal shape of first two modes normalized to mass.

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Modal Time History Analysis Figure 2- Mode Shapes of First Two Modes of Shear Building (Normalized to Mass)

10

3

×

-

- 0.0518

-

- 0.1403

- 0.1720

0.1923

-

-

- 0.2132

0.0264

0.0727

0.1776

0.2429

0

0.1849

0.0828

-

- 0.1280

-

- 0.1423

- 0.0391

0.0994

Φ=

0.2062

4.1408

0

29.8429

NOTE: should be a square matrix in the size of nom nom

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Modal Ti me History A n alysis

As

Y &&

m entioned

&

before,

T

n

t o

solve

equation

mode,

Here, is a

0 0 75 100 0 0 0 (kN). This load

far to do m odal analy sis as

of

mo tion

of

each

n

+ ξ ω +ω =ϕ

2

n

n

Y

n

n

Y

n

2

.F. f (t)

, load shou ld be in the form of

has been p rovided so

half-sine wave with the period o f 4.93 a nd 0

is illustr ated in Figu re 3. All re quired data follows:

functi on [disp ,EF]=NM( 8,2,0.00 5,F,ft, M,K,0,om ega2,phi)

Displace ment and el astic force t ime history of some sto ries are sho wn in Figur es 4 and 5. Note

that disp lacement an d elastic fo rce response shown th em in mm a nd kN.

will be in m and N, re spectively. However, I have Figure

3- Decomposi ng of Loads in to Two Com ponents (dt fo r f(t) is 0.005 sec)

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Modal Time History Analysis Figure 4- Displacement Time history of Some Stories considering Two Modes Figure 5- Elastic Force Time history of Some Stories considering Two Modes

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Modal Time History Analysis

Example 2: A MDOF Frame Structure under Elcentro Earthquake

A frame structure is shown in Figure 6. It is desired to find lateral displacement and elastic force

time history of node 3 (in X direction) under Elcentro earthquake N-S component (ground motion record is available online: http://www.vibrationdata.com/elcentro.htm) considering first 3 modes with 5% damping ratio.

Section area, second moment of inertia and elastic modulus of all elements are same which are

650 mm 2 , 0.17 10 6 mm 4 and 200 10 3 MPa, respectively. Element self-weight and rotational mass of nodes are neglected. Lumped mass matrix was derived by applied load in the dimension

of 8 8 (gravity and lateral direction) (Table 1). Global stiffness matrix will be 12 12 (12-DOF)

for this 2D frame. By means of static condensation, we can properly eliminate mass-less DOFs

in stiffness matrix which is summarized in Table 2. Table 1- Mass Matrix 8 8 (Unit: kg)

Node 2 U x (r 1 )

U y (r 2 )

Node 3 U x (r 3 )

U y (r 4 )

Node 4 U x (r 5 )

U y (r 6 )

Node 5 U y (r 8 )

U x (r 7 )

 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 122.324

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Modal Time History Analysis

Table 2- Condensed Stiffness Matrix without P-Δ Effect 8 8 (Unit: N, mm)

Node 2 U y (r 2 )

U x (r 1 )

Node 3 U x (r 3 )

U y (r 4 )

Node 4 U x (r 5 )

U y (r 6 )

Node 5 U x (r 7 )

U y (r 8 )

 15333.8 15317.5 -15323.8 -15314.9 -0.32002 -2.90886 0.556449 0.32002 15317.5 58655.2 -15319.4 -15323.4 0.184047 1.67292 -0.32002 -0.18405 -15323.8 -15319.4 58655.2 15317.9 -43333.1 1.67292 -0.32002 -0.18405 -15314.9 -15323.4 15317.9 15329.4 -1.67292 -7.65064 2.90886 1.67292 -0.32002 0.184047 -43333.1 -1.67292 58655.2 -15317.9 -15323.8 15319.4 -2.90886 1.67292 1.67292 -7.65064 -15317.9 15329.4 15314.9 -15323.4 0.556449 -0.32002 -0.32002 2.90886 -15323.8 15314.9 15333.8 -15317.5 0.32002 -0.18405 -0.18405 1.67292 15319.4 -15323.4 -15317.5 58655.2

Note: Change the UNIT to N/m

Table 3- Mode Shape (Φ)

Mode1

Mode2

Mode3

Mode4

Mode5

Mode6

Mode7

Mode8

 0.723607 -30.639 -3.42432 4.09675 -1.00044 0.484086 -1.00004 -0.25215 4.35e-05 -0.00632 -0.00081 -2.6451 1.36684 1.87707 -2.19516 -0.40269

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

 -0.27623 -31.6572 -4.4256 -4.09384 0.999798 -0.48417 1.00015 0.252098 1 0.998295 1.00009 -0.99981 1.00001 -1 1.00001 -1 0.334075 -32.4779 4.25425 -4.09407 -0.99977 -0.48415 -1.00015 0.252112 0.665804 33.4597 -3.25315 -4.09688 -1.00031 -0.4841 -1.00001 0.252139 -3.02e-05 -0.00607 0.000737 -2.6453 -1.36677 1.87709 2.19515 -0.40269

Note: Phi is normalized to be unity in the lateral direction of node 3

19.586

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

79.014

0

0

0

0

0

0

0 9.4734e + 005

Sym.

204.44

0 1.3905e + 005

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2.046e + 005

0 4.7739e + 005

0

0

0 6.5069e + 005

0

Dynamic properties are shown above. First 4 mode shapes are also plotted in figure 7. We will use only first 3 mode shapes and natural frequencies since we want to use only these modes.

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Modal Time History Analysis Figure 7- Mode Shape of first 4 modes

In the case of earthquake,

where is ground acceleration normalized to g. is plotted in figure 8.

1 1 1 … where g=9.81m/s 2 . Also,

1 1 1 … 1200 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Figure 8- Ground Acceleration of Elcentro N-S Component in g (f(t))

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Modal Time History Analysis

Recall NM Function:

function [disp,EF]=NM(8,3,0.02,F,ft,M,K,5,omega2,phi)

Responses are plotted in Figure 9 for node 3 in X-direction with 5% damping ratio. Figure 9- Response of Node 3 of Frame Structure in X-Dir. to Elcentro N-S Component

plot(elcentro(:,1),disp(:,3)*1000); % Change unit from m to mm

plot(elcentro(:,1),EF(:,3));

Reference:

1. Humar J. L., “Dynamic of Structures”, Prentice Hall, 1990

2. Chopra A., “Dynamic of Structures”, Prentice Hall, 1995

3. MATLAB, The MathWorks Inc., 2009

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