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EXAM SOLUTIONS

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Name: Solutions

Problem 1 (10 points - 1 point each)

Circle TRUE / FALSE:

(1) TRUE / FALSE In order to reduce the consumption of reactive power of an industrial load, banks of capacitors

are placed in parallel with the load.

(2) TRUE / FALSE In a balanced 3- abc positive sequence system, the average power is given by

2

2

P = 3Va Ia cos + Va Ia cos ( + 2t) + Va Ia cos + 2t +

+ Va Ia cos + 2t

3

3

(3) TRUE / FALSE With load convention, where the current enters the positive terminal of the circuit element,

if Q is negative then positive reactive power is absorbed.

(4) TRUE / FALSE In a purely resistive single-phase load fed by a sinusoidal voltage of period 0.02 s, the period

of the instantaneous power drawn by the load is 0.04 s.

(5) TRUE / FALSE For a lossy transmission line, the propagation constant is a purely imaginary number.

(6) TRUE / FALSE For a 1- ideal transformer, the relations between primary and secondary voltages and

currents are

V1

V2

N1

N2

and

I1

I2

N1

N2 .

(7) TRUE / FALSE In a lossless transmission line loaded with its surge impedance, the voltage phase angle

remains constant along the transmission line.

(8) TRUE / FALSE When computing the flux linkages for a single-wire line of infinite length and finite radius,

the linkages due to the flux inside the wire can be neglected an the only contribution to the flux lineages is due

to the flux outside the wire.

(9) TRUE / FALSE For a Y -connected load, the magnitudes of the phase and line voltages are the same.

(10) TRUE / FALSE The line-to-neutral capacitance of a single-phase transmission line is one-half of the line-toline capacitance.

I1

+

L

Z

+

V1

ZL

ZL

The 3-, 60-Hz system above consists of a Y -connected voltage source with a -connected load. Based on oscilloscope

readings, it is determined that V1 I1 = 10 . Also, the magnitudes of V1 and I1 are measured to be 208 V and

10 A, respectively. Assume positive sequence.

(a) Determine the per-phase impedance ZL . (15 points)

I1

I1 = Iab 3 30 = Iab = 30

3

V1

3V1

3(20810)

ZL = =

= 36.03 20

=

1030

Iab

I1 30

p.f. = cos(20 ) = 0.9397 leading

(c) We would like to add a device in parallel with the load so that the system will have a net power factor of unity.

Should this device be capacitive or inductive? (5 points)

This device should be inductive.

(d) Determine the per-phase rating (in kVA) of the device from part (c). (5 points)

= 3V1

S = V1 Iab

I1

10

30

= (20810 ) 30 = 1128 j411 VA

3

3

A 60-Hz 138-kV 3- transmission line is 362 km long. The distributed line parameters are

r = 0.1 /km

l = 1.3 mH/km

c = 9 nF/km

The transmission line delivers (receiving end) 40 MW at 132 kV with 0.95 power factor lagging.

IN ALL SUBSEQUENT CALCULATIONS, USE THE LONG-LINE MODEL.

(a) Find the sending-end voltage and current. (20 points)

Step 1: Find z and y for = 260 rad/s.

z = 0.1 + j260(0.0013) = 0.1 + j0.49 = 0.578.46 /km

y = j260(9 109 ) = j3.39 106 = 3.39 106 90 S/km

Step 2: Find Zc and l.

z

=

y

p

0.578.46

1.475 105 11.54 = 384.0 5.77

=

3.39 106 90

p

p

Zc =

el = e0.04738 ej0.4689 = 1.0490.4689 rad = 0.9358 + j0.4740

el = e0.04738 ej0.4689 = 0.9537 0.4689 rad = 0.8508 j0.4310

Step 4: Compute cosh l and sinh l.

el + el

1.0490.4689 + 0.9537 0.4689

=

= 0.89351.381

2

2

el el

1.0490.4689 0.9537 0.4689

sinh l =

=

= 0.454584.63

2

2

cosh l =

A = D = cosh l = 0.89351.381

B = Zc sinh l = (384.0 5.77)(0.454584.63) = 174.5378.86

1

0.454584.63

C=

sinh l =

= 1.18 103 90.4

Zc

384.0 5.77

Step 6: Compute receiving end voltage V2 .

132

V2 = 0 = 76.210 kV

3

Step 7: Compute receiving end current I2 .

40

40

Sload =

tan cos1 0.95 = 13.33 + j4.382 MVA

+j

3

3

13.33 + j4.382

= I2 =

= 0.1842 18.19 kA

76.210

V1 = AV2 + B I2 = (0.89351.381)(76.21 103 0 ) + (174.5378.86)(0.1842 103 18.19)

= 88.9219.49 kV

I1 = C V2 + DI2 = (1.18 103 90.4 )(76.21 103 0 ) + (0.89351.381)(0.1842 103 18.19)

= 162.5315.10 A

The magnitude of the sending end line-to-line voltage is 88.92 3 = 154 kV.

(b) Find the transmission-line efficiency, i.e., find = P21 /P12 , where P21 is the active power flowing from the

receiving end to the sending end of the line and P12 is the active power flowing from the sending end to the

receiving end of the line. (10 points)

P21 = 13.33 MW

13.33

P21

=

= 0.925

=

P12

14.41

A 3- transmission line is mounted on the tower as shown below. For (a)-(c), assume that the line is not transposed

anywhere along its length.

The three line currents, denoted by ia , ib , and ic , respectively, are defined

as positive into the paper and they sum up to zero.

The relative permeability of the material comprising the wires is denoted

by r .

3D

a

c

4D

4D

(a) Find the distributed flux (per meter) linking conductor a in terms of ia , ic , r , r, and D. (5 points)

a =

=

=

a =

0

4

0

4

0

4

0

4

1

1

1

ia ln + ib ln

+ ic ln

r

dab

dac

1

1

1

ia ln

+ ic ln

(ia + ic ) ln

5D

8D

rer /4

1

1

1

1

ia ln

+ ic ln

ln

ln

5D

8D

5D

rer /4

5D

5

ia ln

+ ic ln

8

rer /4

(b) Find the distributed flux (per meter) linking conductor b in terms of ib , r , r, and D. (5 points)

b =

=

=

=

b =

0

4

0

4

0

4

0

4

0

4

1

1

1

+

i

ln

+

i

ln

a

c

r

dab

dbc

1

1

1

ib ln

+

i

ln

+

i

ln

c

a

5D

5D

rer /4

1

1

ib ln

+ (ia + ic ) ln

5D

rer /4

1

1

ib ln

i

ln

b

5D

rer /4

5D

ib ln

rer /4

ib ln

(c) Find the distributed flux (per meter) linking conductor c in terms of ia , ic , r , r, and D. (5 points)

c =

=

=

c =

0

4

0

4

0

4

0

4

1

1

1

ic ln + ia ln

+ ib ln

r

dac

dbc

1

1

1

ic ln

(ia + ic ) ln

+ ia ln

8D

5D

rer /4

1

1

1

1

ic ln

+ ia ln

ln

ln

5D

8D

5D

rer /4

5D

5

ic ln

+ ia ln

8

rer /4

(d) Assume that the length of the line is d meters, and that the line is transposed twice along its length. Draw a

diagram showing the relative position of the phases along the length indicating the distances from the end of the

line at which the transpositions are located. (5 points)

(e) Find the average inductance (per meter) of the transposed line. (10 points)

p

p

3

3

3

dab dbc dac = 3 (5D)(5D)(8D) = 200D = 2D 25

!

2D 3 25

0

GM D

7

=

2

10

ln

ln

L =

H/m

2

r

rer /4

GM D =

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