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( This is a brief note of chapter 14 , 2 and 4 . Here only main points are given .

Study each topic s

explanation from textbook .
for example :- Here Characteristics of a good program ..its main points like reliable , portable
.etc is given . but you should study what is reliable ? and what is portable ? . ie its
explanations from textbook . )

Chapter - 14
Programming methodology

Software designs main goal is user satisfaction.

s/w designing consists of 2 parts:
program structure:-it refers to how a program should be
programrepresentation :-it refers to its presentation style so that the
program becomes more readable and presentable.
If a program presenting in a good style will minimize
Wastage of time


Meaningful names for identifiers
1. Assign meaningful names for all identifiers viz. variables and
2. Do not use similar looking names eg:- manage ,manager
Ensure clarity of expression
It must be clearly understood by the user
Avoid programming tricks
Never sacrifice clarity of expressions
Use standard functions in expression to enhance readability
Use comments and indentation
In c++ comments are either // or /* * /

1. Always insert prologues:- summaries the purpose of the

2. Insert explanatory comments
Indentation makes the statements clear and readable
Always indent statements :- ie highlight nesting of groups of
Insert blank lines and blank spaces
Statement formatting style
Free formatting style : Prettyprinting :- when program formatting is done to make a
program more readable , it is called prettyprinting.
Characteristics of a good program

Effective and efficient

User friendly
Self Documenting code

The ability of a program , to recover following an error and to continue
within its environment is called robustness
Guard code
The code which can handle exceptional data errors and operational
errors is called guard code
Types of Errors
Bug: An error of a program is called bug
3 Types of errors: Compile time errors
Run-time errors
Logical errors
Compile time errors

Occurs during compile time

1) Syntax errors : ? and eg:2) Sematic errors: ? and eg:3) Type errors: ? and eg:Run time errors
Occurs during execution of a program
Run time errors stop the execution , this is called program
Or program abnormally terminated
Eg:Logical errors
Program does not provide correct result
Because of programmers mistaken analysis of the program
Problem solving Techniques
1) Understand the problem well
To create a new pgm or improve an existing one, we must recognize that problem.
( check need any improvement ? OR what is required or desired for the proposed s/m ?)
2) Analyze the problem
It involves identifying the program specification and defining programs minimum no.of
Input required for output, and processing components
3) Design programs
Develop the steps to solve the problem. ie sequence of steps that solve a given problem are
called Algorithms.
Break down the solution into simple steps.(Top down design :- Firstly list sub-problems and
then the original problem is solved by solving each of its sub-programs.)
4) Code the program
Coding is the technical word for writing the program. This step is to translate the algorithm
into programming language.( using appropriate control structures such as conditional and
looping control structure )
5) Test and debug programs
Testing is the process of finding error in a program .
Debugging is the process of correcting errors found during the testing process.
6) Complete the documentation
Written descriptions of a program , which makes a program more readable ,understandable
and easily modifiable.
7) Maintain programs
It means modify the pgms. To enhance pgms functionality keep up- to- date with Govt

Program maintains
Program maintenance refers to modification of a program
Four kinds of maintenance : Corrective maintenance
After program compilation , some errors might show up. To correct this
type of errors are called corrective maintenance.
Adaptive maintenance
Changes in environment likes new govt. laws and regulations ,
policies may change are also may lead to system maintenance.
Preventive maintenance
If possible errors could be anticipated before they actually occur .
It will reduce system down time . This type of maintenance is called
Preventive maintenance
Perfective maintenance
IT is the fastest growing area. ie depends up on technology changes ,
In the existing system , should add new features and capabilities . It is
Perfective maintenance.
Chapter 4
I/p O/p and Memory Devices
Input Devices
Output Devices

Memory Devices
Memory is used to store data and instructions
Memories can be read from and write into.
Read write memories:-can be read from and written into

Read only memories:- program or data permanently stored.

Two types of memory : Primary memory ( main memory)
Secondary memory
Primary memory
It has limited storage capacity and is not permanent .
It can be divided into two : RAM ( Random access memory )
ROM ( read only memory )
RAM refers to random access memory where both read and write operations
can takes place.
RAM is volatile memory , its contents are lost when the power is turned off.
2 types of RAM: DRAM:- ?
SRAM:. ?

It refers to read only memory where read operation can takes place.
It is non- volatile memory , not lost data it is permanent
2 Types of ROM : PROM :- programmable read only memory . This can be programmed
once . A PROM programmer write own data and programs in it
EPROM :- Erasable programmable read only memory . It can be erased
as well as reprogrammed
Secondary memory
Secondary storage devices are used to store large amount of data permanently
Common storage devices are: Hard disk
magnetic disk

Floppy disk
Blu ray Disk .?

optical disk

Flash memory or USB memory

Pen drive / Thumb drive ?
Serial and parallel ports
Cache memory
It is a special high-speed storage mechanism that stores most recently
accessed data .It makes the CPU run faster if the required data is found in
Two types of cache memory : Level 1 (L1) cache
Level 2 (L2) cache
Chapter 2
Operating System
Types of software
System s/w
Application s/w
System s/w
Language processor
Application S/w
Packages :- Word , Spreadsheet , DBMS , Graphics ,multimedia and
presentation S/Ws

Utilities :- Antivirus , Backup utility, compression utility, Disk

Customised S/w :- Billing s/ws.

OS :- An Os is a system software which act as an interface between a user and

the hardware ( ie. All computer resources )
It is a an important component of a computer s/m which controls all other
components of the computer
Types of OS ( study the explanation of each OS from Text book )

Single program OS:Multiprogramming OS

Time Sharing OS
Real Time OS
Multiprocessing OS
Interactive OS

Need of OS
Primary goal :- To make the computer system convenient to use
Secondary goal :- To use computer hardware in an efficient manner
Types of Services

Program execution
Handling input/output operations
Manipulation of file system
Error detection and handling
Resource allocation
Information and resource protection

OS Functions
Processor Management
Memory Management ( storage )
File and device Management ( Information management )
Processor Management

what is processor management ?

job scheduling ?
Two types of scheduling
preemptive scheduling
non preemptive scheduling
Explain about preemptive scheduling ?
Explain about non preemptive scheduling ?
Explain about FCFS ,SJN ,Deadline , Round Robin scheduling techniques ?
Memory Management ( storage )
How OS managing the memory .?
File and Device management
How OS managing the file and device