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Table of Contents

Page

1.0 Introduction
1.1 Abstract------------------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.2 Acknowledgement------------------------------------------------------------------2
1.3 Project Objectives------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.4 Project Outcomes-------------------------------------------------------------------3
1.5 Project Requirements--------------------------------------------------------------3
2.0 Literature Review and Onsite Research Analysis
2.1 Chapter 1: Mechanical Ventilation and HVAC system
2.1.1 Introduction---------------------------------------------------------------5
2.1.2 Literature Review
2.1.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation--------------------------------------6
2.1.2.2 Air Conditioning---------------------------------------------8
2.1.3 Mechanical Ventilation System---------------------------------------10
2.1.3.1 Case Study Bangsar Village 1--------------------------10
2.1.4 Central Plant System/ Centralised Air Conditioning System
2.1.4.1 Case Study Bangsar Village 1--------------------------12
2.1.4.2 Bangsar Village 1 Refrigeration System Flowchart----13
2.1.5 Refrigeration Plant------------------------------------------------------14
2.1.6 Chiller---------------------------------------------------------------------16
2.1.7 Cooling Tower-----------------------------------------------------------22
2.1.8 Air Handling Unit (AHU)----------------------------------------------24
2.1.9 Fan Coil Unit------------------------------------------------------------28
2.1.10 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------31
2.2 Chapter 2: Electrical Supply System
2.2.1 Literature Review-------------------------------------------------------33
2.2.2 Introduction--------------------------------------------------------------35
2.2.3 High Tension Room----------------------------------------------------37
2.2.4 High tension room components and devices------------------------38
2.2.5 Analysis and observation based on observation of
high tension room--------------------------------------------------------------39
2.2.6
Analysis and observation based on observation of
low voltage room--------------------------------------------------------------40
2.2.7 Genset Room-----------------------------------------------------------49
2.2.8 Requirements of UBBL 2006----------------------------------------50
2.2.9 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------50

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2.3 Chapter 3: Mechanical Transportation System


2.3.1 Literature Review--------------------------------------------------------52
2.3.2 Hydraulic Elevator (Cargo Lift) --------------------------------------52
2.3.3 Components--------------------------------------------------------------53
2.3.4 Operating Panel----------------------------------------------------------58
2.3.5 Machine Room Less Elevator (Passenger Lift)---------------------60
2.3.6 Components--------------------------------------------------------------63
2.3.7 Escalators-----------------------------------------------------------------69
2.3.8 Escalator Arrangement
2.3.8.1 Parallel Stacked Arrangement------------------------------------70
2.3.8.2 Crisscross Arrangement-------------------------------------------70
2.3.8.3 Components-------------------------------------------------71
2.3.8.4 Safety Features---------------------------------------------72
2.3.9 Travelator----------------------------------------------------------------73
2.3.9.1 Inclined Travelator-------------------------------------------------74
2.3.9.2 Components-------------------------------------------------75
2.3.10 Conclusion---------------------------------------------------------------75
2.4 Chapter 4: Fire Protection System
2.4.1 Chapter Introduction---------------------------------------------------77
2.4.2 Literature Review------------------------------------------------------77
2.4.3 Introduction To Fire---------------------------------------------------82
2.4.3.1 Science Of Fire--------------------------------------------84
2.4.3.2 Panic Behaviour-------------------------------------------89
2.4.3.3 Onsite Research and Analysis---------------------------91
2.4.3.3.1 Active Fire Protection System-------------92
2.4.3.3.2 Passive Fire Protection System-----------161
2.4.3.3.3 Potential Hazards---------------------------177
2.4.4 Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------184
3.0 Final Conclusion-------------------------------------------------------------------------185
4.0 Reference List----------------------------------------------------------------------------186

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1.0INTRODUCTION

Bangsar Village offering over 110,000 square feet of retail space, Bangsar Village l &ll is a
boutique shopping centre catering to high-income residents in the Telawi area. Opened in
2004, the complex houses over 70 specialty stores mainly made up out of international
fashion labels and quirky cafes.
The twin buildings are connected via a sheltered pedestrian sky-bridge which is accessible
via the first floor. A family- friendly venture, this complex is a favourite haunt of the
citys young urbanites and expatriate community. Stores stocking luxury and household
items are spread across Bangsar Villages two wings and cover just about every
brand name imaginable, although the new wing houses the brunt of its fashion apparel
selections.

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1.1 ABSTRACT
The research report will be looking into the workings of the services system in Bangsar
Village 1 such as the Mechanical Ventilation & Air Conditioning System, Electrical Supply
System, Mechanical Transportation System and Fire Protection System. The report will
aim at introducing the fundamentals of all the mentioned systems as well as an analysis
of the system that have been analyzed and synthesized to our own understanding and also
based on the regulations of buildings and its services such as Uniform Building By
Law (UBBL). Requirements and adherence will also be analyzed based on each services
respected controlling arm.

1.2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We would like to thank Mr Yong to allow our team to visit Bangsar Village 1 building as
he brought us for a tour around the building through the prominent service rooms such as
electrical rooms, lift motor rooms, chiller room, fire fighting system room. Apart from
that, he provided us with all of the necessary information throughout the building including
statistics information and schematics drawing. We are grateful that he relentlessly explaining
the systems of each room and the machines within. Without his helps, we wont be able
to finish the project with the require information. Lastly, a special thanks we would like to
give to Mr Adib for guiding us through each tutorials and providing us with an aim to accomplish.

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1.3 PROJECT OBJECTIVES


1. To introduce students to the basic principles, process and equipment of various building
services systems through real life project (experiential learning).
2. To expose students to the integration of various building services systems in a building.
3. To allow students to demonstrate their understanding of building services systems
4. To develop students understanding and familiarity on the drawing conventions and standards
for different building services systems

1.4 PROJECT OUTCOMES


1. Identify and understand relevant information related to water and electrical supply,
sewerage, mechanical ventilation and air-conditioning as well as fire protection systems.
2. Understand how each building services functions including the connections and
position of different parts equipment.
3. Understand and explain the principles and systems as well as space implications
and regulations related to different building services
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1.5 PROJECT REQUIREMENTS


Identify all the required building services components installed in the building.
Perform a thorough study on all the services systems;
i) mechanical ventilation and air conditioning system,
ii) electrical supply system,
iii) mechanical transportation system, and
iv) fire protection system
Obtain estimate dimensions and sizes of the spaces required for all the equipment and plant
rooms identified. Provide brief explanation on how the building services components function.
This explanation shall be in qualitative form and therefore no calculation is required.
Summarize the systems in diagrammatic form.

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2.1 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING

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2.1 MECHANICAL VENTILATION AND AIR CONDITIONING


2.1.1 Introduction
Mechanical ventilation systems circulate fresh air with ducts and fans and make up for the
unreliability of natural ventilation systems. However, with the mechanical provision of
constant airflow from the outdoors, the admissible air quality has to be well sustained.
This can be achieved through the use of diffusers and more importantly, the placement of
inlet and outlet ducts in a building.
Air conditioning is basically the control of temperature, humidity, air quality, air movement
& heat radiation through mechanical systems in order to achieve human thermal comfort.
Human thermal comfort is define by ASHRAE the condition of mind that expresses satisfaction
with the thermal environment and is assessed by subjective evaluation (ANSI/ASHRAE
Standard 55). Heating, cooling, dehumidification, humidification, ventilation, and
sterilization are different methods for air conditioning in a building.

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2.1.2 Literature Review


2.1.2.1 Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation is the air movement from one space to another and the supply of
fresh air at the same into the air conditioned spaces. Mechanical ventilation is a way of
forced or induced ventilation by using mechanical air handling systems. It helps in controlling
the humidity, contaminants, air borne particles and general air quality.
For the intent of transporting and removing air from a space, a few components such as blowers,
fans, filters, and ducts are used in mechanical ventilation. A building ventilation system with
the usage of powered fans or blowers to provide clean air to rooms when the natural forces of air
pressure are not sufficient for the optimum air circulation in a building. Mechanical ventilation is
utilized to control indoor air quality, excess humidity, smells, and contaminants can often be
controlled via dilution or replaced them with the outside air.
PRESSURE SYSTEM is a system where the air pressure in the building is slightly greater than
that of the outer atmosphere to allow the air blown through the building by a fan or other blower
placed at the inlet.

Figure 2.3.1.1: Fresh air is introduced into the


building with mechanical air filter system while the
heat is distributed out from the building naturally
(through openings).
Source: www.new-learn.info

VACUUM SYSTEM is a system where occurrence of an inrush of fresh air done by an


exhaust fan placed at the outlet to the vent flue or stack. The air pressure in the building is
slightly lower than that of the outer atmosphere.

Figure 2.3.2.1: The hot air is vacuumed out from the space
with the help of the mechanical fan system installation in the
building and then, the hot air is moved out from the building
while the fresh air flows into the building naturally (through
opening).
Source: www.new-learn.info

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BALANCE SYSTEM is a system consists the combination of pressure system and vacuum
system in order to supply fresh air and extract stale air at the same time using fan. The amendment
done in this system is to achieve slight pressurization of the air inside the building by using
an extract fan smaller than inlet fan, to prevent dust, draughts and noise. This combination is able
to help to provide sufficient fresh air into the space or building as well as extract the heat
efficiently
out from the building with the help of mechanical ventilation balance system.

Installation of fan and fresh air filter system


together in a building helps to extract the heat out
from the exterior spaces and provide fresh air into
the building itself to achieve thermal comfort.
Source: www.new-learn.info

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2.1.2.2 Air Conditioning


Air conditioning in a building primarily achieves five factors:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Thermal comfort (control air temperature and humidity)


Ventilation (control air circulation and quality)
Health (minimal smoke, dust, etc.)
Performance (improve workers and machinery efficiency)
Equipment (lengthen machinery lifespan)

Two main cycles are involved in air conditioning, namely, the refrigerant cycle and the
air cycle. Refrigeration is a process that removes heat from an enclosed space in order to
lower and maintain room temperature. Heat inside a room is transferred through the
evaporator and removed to the outside air through a condenser. On the other hand, the
air cycle is a process of distributing conditioned air through ducts or chilled water pipes
into an enclosed space. Air or water can be used to absorb the heat where returning air
absorbed by the evaporator slowly removes latent heat from the enclosed space as the
internal air becomes cooler.
Basic principle behind the refrigerant cycle:

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Basic principle behind the air cycle:

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2.1.3 Mechanical Ventilation System


2.1.3.1 Case Study: Bangsar Village 1
Wall fans are part of the mechanical ventilation systems but they do not provide real ventilation
because they dont introduce fresh air into a space. The use of wall fans is to circulate air
within a room for the purpose of bringing down the perceived temperature by the method
of evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupiers. A wall fan is found at the entrance
of the stock placement store. It is installed above the door and provide ventilation to the workers
but the air circulation is limited.

Wall Industrial Metal Fan


Source: http://zsyonghua.en.made-in-china.com

Wall Industrial Metal Fan found at the entrance


of the stock placement store.

The vacuum system is used in Bangsar Village 1 where stale and hot air is extracted by means
of fans to the building exterior. It creates an air pressure in the building that is slightly lower
than that of the outer atmosphere.

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An axial fan is installed in the Low Voltage (LV) Room, is located at the basement level
of Bangsar Village I. Axial fan can be differentiated from each other by the type of blades.
The blades force the air to flow parallel to the shaft and in linear direction. One of the
advantages of axial fans usage is to allow both direction of the wind flow, either sucking
or blowing. The axial fan installed in LV room rotates in clockwise direction and directes
the air out of the way as the fans specification is shown in Figure 2.4.1.2, which means that
the role of this axial fan is to vacuum the hot air out from this room, to optimize the room
temperature so that the electrical components in LV room can last longer.

Figure 2.3.2.2: Axial Fan in


Low Voltage
Room

Figure 2.3.2.3: Specification of the Axial Fan

Analysis:
Mechanical ventilation is clearly barely utilized in Bangsar village 1 except as backup systems.
This may be due to the harsh tropical climate especially in an urban setting such as Kuala Lumpur
where the building is located that negatively affects users and equipment in the building.

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2.1.4 Central Plant System/ Centralised Air Conditioning System


2.1.4.1 Case Study: Bangsar Village 1
Bangsar Village 1 is centrally air-conditioned through an air and water system. The main
components of this system comprise of the refrigeration plant, cooling tower, air handling
unit (AHU) and fan coil unit (FCU). Refrigerant is water-cooled in the plant room and
distributed via piping to AHUs and FCUs located throughout the building.
In the air system, treated & cooled air is supplied from the AHU and distributed to rooms via
a network of air ducts based on a single zone ducting system where conditioned air is
delivered at a constant temperature at low velocity. On the other hand, the water system is
defined by the employment of FCUs which are independent units that each draw a mixture
of outdoor and indoor air over their coils of chilled water supplied through piping into
rooms and recirculates them.
Chiller System Overview:
Chillers employ either a vapor-compression cycle or an absorption refrigerant cycle to cool a fluid
for heat exchange. Nevertheless, both types rely on three common basic principles:
a) Liquid heated vaporises into gas, and gas when cooled will condense into liquid.
b) Pressure lowered above a liquid reduces its boiling point while pressured raised above a liquid
increases its boiling point.
c) Heat flows from hot to cold.
In Bangsar Village 1, the vapor compression cycle is used to cool water and thereafter, rooms in
the building. Using chilled water to cool a building is efficient and flexible. Chilled water also
provides accurate temperature control for rooms that are to be cooled. A vapor-compression
chiller consists of a compressor, evaporator, condenser and a metering device or valve that
circulates a refrigerant. The compressor is a very important component in a vapor-compression
chiller as it acts as a pump for the refrigerant.

Cooling Tower System Overview:


Cooling towers are used together with water-cooled chillers. They remove heat that is carried in
the water collected from the chiller. The cooled water is then pumped back to the chiller where it
works to cool the condenser coil. There are two common types of cooling towers, namely,
induced draft and forced draft. The ones used in Bangsar Village 1 are induced draft towers which
feature large propeller fans at the top of each tower (discharge end) to draw air counterflow to the
water. They are economical as they require smaller fan motors than forced draft towers for the
same capacity. Induced draft towers are also less susceptible to recirculation of exiting warm air,
which results in reduced efficiency.

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2.1.4.2 Bangsar Village 1 Refrigeration System Flowchart

CT: Cooling Tower


FCU: Fan Coil Unit
AHU: Air Handling Unit
CDWP: Condensed Water Pump
CHWP: Chill Water Pump

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2.1.5 Refrigeration Plant

The refrigeration plant or the chiller room in Bangsar Village 1 is on the basement level. It houses
the chillers, chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, control panel and automatic
temperature controller. Its location is easily accessible as it is next to the buildings major

entrance.
Equipment layout in chiller room:

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Other observations:
- Ceiling height is measured to be 4000mm with ducting suspended at an average level of
2900mm.
- Loud noise emitted by the equipments obstructed any conversation attempted in the chiller room.
Nevertheless, the loud noise is isolated in the chiller room and does not affect public spaces.
- Natural and mechanical ventilation in the chiller room is provided via an air grille and ducting:

- The chiller room is cluttered with old and unused equipment piled up near the doorway:

- The chiller room is roughly more than 5% of f the total floor area of the rooms to be airconditioned in Bangsar Village 1.

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2.1.6 Chiller
Chillers are usually the largest electricity consumers in a building. They can be water-cooled, aircooled or evaporatively cooled, typically classified according to their methods of compressing
refrigerants. Common compressors are reciprocating, screw, scroll, and centrifugal types.
Reciprocating compressors are usually for small applications up to 150 tons, whereas centrifugal
compressors are generally for large applications up to 2000 tons. The helical-rotary or screw
compressor is used in Bangsar Village 1 which is suitable for medium applications up to 1000
tons.

The three chillers used in Bangsar Village 1 are water-cooled screw chiller types which are
certified in accordance with ARI Standard 550/590 and are ASHRAE 90.1 compliant. They emit
consistent noise at levels above 80dBA when in operation. Five basic components of the chiller
used comprise of the compressor, evaporator, condenser, expansion valve and refrigerant.
Refrigerant:

The chillers in Bangsar Village 1 use the R-132A or HFC-134a refrigerant which is proven to be
an optimal refrigerant in chiller applications these days due to its absence of chlorine and and the
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fact that it does not contribute to ozone depletion which was an issue with older types of
refrigerants.

Compressor:
The compressor in a refrigeration system functions to raise the pressure of the refrigerant vapor by
compressing it, thus causing it to heat up to as high as 200F, then pumps it to the condenser.
Compressors used in Bangsar Village 1 are twin-screw, rotary-screw types. The compressor
housing is made of cast iron, precision machined to provide minimal clearance for the rotors. The

rotors is manufactured from forged steel.


The helical-rotary compressor basically employs two screw-like rotors to trap refrigerant vapor
and compress it by gradually reducing the volume of the refrigerant. Oil is used to seal the gap
between the two rotors, thus preventing a leak of compressed refrigerant vapor. One rotor is
driven by the compressor motor where its lobes would then engage and drive the other rotor,
causing the two parts to counter-rotate. This continued rotation of the meshed rotor lobes would
drive the trapped refrigerant vapor towards the discharge end of the compressor.

Condenser:
Based on the external fluid, condensers can be classified as air cooled condensers, water cooled
condensers and evaporative condensers. The condensers in Bangsar Village 1 are water cooled
horizontal shell and tube types where refrigerant flows through the shell while water flows

through the tubes in two passes.


The refrigerant enters the condenser in a superheated state and changes from vapor to liquid as
great amount of heat is rejected to an external medium. The condensed refrigerant collects at the
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bottom of the shell where the coldest water indirectly contacts the now liquid refrigerant and goes
through sub-cooling as the liquid refrigerant is drained from the bottom to the receiver.

Valve:
Valves used in chillers can be categorised into fixed opening types where the flow area remains
fixed and into variable opening types where the flow area changes with changing mass flow rates.
The slide valve is used in chillers for Bangsar Village 1. The valve basically functions to modulate
the flow of liquid refrigerant to the evaporator according to evaporator load requirements so as to
prevent any liquid flood backs into the compressor.

Evaporator:
An evaporator, like condenser is also a heat exchanger. In an evaporator, the refrigerant
evaporates changing from liquid to vapor and in doing so absorbs great amounts of heat from the
passing water throught indirect contact.

Evaporators are classified depending upon the heat transfer process or refrigerant flow. The ones used in
Bangsar Village 1 are shell and tube, flooded types which are water cooled where refrigerant flows
through the tubes and water flows through the shell. The refrigerant enters the shell through a float valve,
which maintains a constant level of liquid refrigerant in the shell.

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Basic principle behind the chiller system:

Maintenance:
- The compressor oil is replaced annually whereas its air filter is washed monthly.
- The refrigeration system shuts down at 10pm daily in Bangsar Village 1.

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Analysis:
- Piping insulation reduces heat gain into the chilled water and therefore the efficiency of the
cooling system. Chilled water piping is insulated because the water in it is below the dewpoint
temperature. Otherwise, condensate would form on it and heat gain would occur. The goal of the
insulation is to minimize heat gain into the chilled water and maintain the outer surface above the
ambient air dewpoint. Any cooling effect that is lost due to heat gain is additional load on the
chiller plant. In order to make up for the temperature rise, the chilled water setpoint must be
lowered to provide the correct supply water temperature at the load.
- Jacketing of water pipes (picture on the right) with a type
of foam prevents condensation and heat loss to the
surroundings which improves system efficiency. Water
pipes are generally galvanized iron types, expected to last
for 10 years.

- Condenser water piping is typically not insulated in Malaysian climate since there will be
negligible heat gain or loss between the surrounding daytime temperature of an average 30 C and
its water temperature of an average 32 C.

According to MS 1525 code 8.4, All piping installed to serve buildings and within buildings
should be adequately insulated to prevent excessive energy losses. Additional insulation with
vapor barriers may be required to prevent condensations under some conditions.

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According to MS 1525 code 8.11.1,

At the time of visit, the water from an evaporator in Bangsar Village 1 had a leaving temperature
of 44F (6.67C) and a return temperature of 54F (12.22C). On the other hand, water from the
condenser had a leaving temperature of 96.48F (35.82C) and a return temperature of 87F
(30.56C). It is clear that the evaporators performance in Bangsar Village 1 is only slightly short
of the Malaysian standard as the chill water cooled is not cool enough by a mere difference of
0.025C on average.

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2.1.7 Cooling Tower

Cooling towers function to lower the water temperature in large chiller systems by removing heat
energy absorbed by the chiller into the atmosphere through evaporation. Consequently, they need
to be connected to a water tank to replace water lost by evaporation. They are usually located on
the top levels of buildings or an open space for optimum ventilation.

Basic principle behind the cooling tower system:

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Analysis:

Cooling tower filtration


The service lifespan of the cooling tower may be lengthened with the use of a filtration system.
Over time, thick layer of solid contaminants would build up in the cold water basin which reduces
the benefit of treatment chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors for the basin surface. Filtration of
water would alleviate this issue besides reducing maintenance cost in the long run as the solid
buildup require removal. Furthermore, there would be less shut-down time for the manual
cleaning of cooling towers, thus improving overall efficiency of the system.

2.1.8 Air Handling Unit

AHUs function to condition and circulate air through


a network of ducts which distributes and returns
conditioned air. Each unit is usually equipped with
switches and a thermostat to control chilled water
flow and the temperature of its cooling coil.
An AHU is typically flexible due to its modular
assembly where individual components can be
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assembled into one unit (usually a large metal box). Below are common components of an AHU:
a) Supply duct
b) Fan compartment
c) Vibration isolator (flexible joint)
d) Heating/cooling coil
e) Filter compartment
f) Mixed air duct
g) Blower

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The diagrams below illustrate the dynamics between the air conditioning system and mechanical
ventilation system where air is distributed and collected through ducting with the aid of
mechanical supply and exhaust air fans:

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AHU

7 of 8 AHUs are located on the first floor of Bangsar Village 1. The other one is located in the
basement level. This may be due to the convenience of location and the flexibility of a relatively
small building area. The total AHU room area is more than 3% of the floor area serviced by the
AHUs.

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The photos above show diffusers installed on supply air ducts from AHU. According to the
maintenance person in charge, all diffusers on walls are installed on supply air ducts in Bangsar
Village 1, but not all ceiling diffusers are installed on exhaust air
ducts.
The photo on the right is an example of a round diffuser installed
on a supply air duct in the electrical room. It is of the single duct
single zone system.

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2.1.9 Fan Coil Unit

The Fan Coil Unit (FCU) is a part of HVAC systems commonly employed in buildings with space
constraints. Unlike Air Handling Units (AHUs), FCUs do not require ducting. Two types of
motors can be installed in a FCU, either the Direct Currect (DC) motor or the Electronically
Commutated (EC) motor.
FCUs installed in Bangsar Village I employ the DC motor due to its energy efficiency. FCUs aid
in air circulation within a room by supplying and extracting air at the same time. There is a total
of 24 FCUs in Bangsar Village 1. Most of the FCUs are found at the basement of the shopping
mall.

FCUs can be found in either residential, commercial or industrial building. It is a device


consisting of a heating or cooling coil and a fan. A typical FCU is not connected to ductwork. It
functions to control the temperature in a space, or multiple spaces. It can be controlled by manual
switch or by thermostat. The advantage of installing FCUs in a building is that it is more
economical to install than ducted or central heating systems with air handling units and FCUs
allow installation in a building with space constraint as well.

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Diagram of Fan Unit Coil with Detailed Component


Source: www.tpub.com
The chilled water is piped to the FCU which located within the space and the chilled water pipe is
connected to the cooling coil of FCU. The air in the space is drawn into FCU where it is cool or
dehumidified. The FCU has filter located at the fan to filter the air, with the purpose of reducing
the level of air borne contamination within the air condition space. Any change of air temperature
pressure in the room will cause the room thermostat to send signal to the automatic valve so that it
will be opened or closed to regular the chill water flow into FCU. This function is to able to
provide the right amount of cooing to the circulating air.

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Diagram of connection between Chiller Pump and Fan Coil Unit


Source: http://www.oceanbreezeac.com/motor_coach.php

Chilled Water pipe connection in Fan Coil


Unit

Air filter located at the bottom of the fan


to filter the air

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QI0O5xZ3liI
Analysis
Under UBBL 1984 Section 41: Mechanical Ventilation and Air Conditioning
1) Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building
by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at
the discretion of the local authority.
2) Any application for the waiver of the relevant by-laws shall only be considered if in addition
to the permanent air conditioning system there is provided alternative approved means of
ventilating the air-conditioned enclosure, such that within half-an-hour of the air-conditioning
system failing, not less that the stipulated volume of fresh air specified hereinafter shall be
introduced into the enclosure during the period when the air conditioning system is not
functioning.

3) The provisions of the Third Schedule to these By-laws shall apply to buildings which are
mechanically ventilated or air conditioned.
4) Where permanent mechanical ventilation in respect of lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or
corridors is provided for and maintained in accordance with the requirements of the Third
schedule to these By-laws, the provisions of these By-laws relating to natural ventilation and
natural lighting shall not apply to such lavatories, water closets, bathrooms or corridors.

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2.1.10 Conclusion
The mechanical and air conditioning system in Bangsar Village 1 is fairly well designed and
maintained. Economy of space is utilized as seen in the refrigeration plant and steps were taken to
improve machinery efficiency such as for the water piping and cooling tower. Building laws are
generally conformed to and very little fault was to be found in the operating system.

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2.2 Electrical Supply System

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2.2 Electrical Supply System


2.2.1 Literature review
In Malaysia, Tenaga Nasional Berhad is the largest electrical utility company that are involved in
activities of generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Supply of electricity is
connected with power from hydroelectric or thermal plants through a network of transmission
system which are made up of transmission networks, substations and distribution lines.

Figure 3.1 shows the national grid network

Above shows the national grid network of Malaysia, from the power station 25KV of
power is produced, but in order to transmit power supply to the whole country step-up
transformers steps up the voltage to 132KV or higher. Voltages in the national grid system have to
be maintained in a high level to prevent power loses. Step-down transformers will then step- down
the power to usable levels to the heavy industry 33KV, light industry 11KV and to homes 230V or
400V. In addition, transmission voltages that are provided by TNB networks are 500kV, 275kV
and 132kV, whilst the distribution voltages are 33kV, 11kV and 400/230 volts.

Diagram 3.1 shows the overall electrical supply system to Bangsar Village I

Substations provide necessary monitoring, protection and control of the circuits under
manual control or SCADA supervision. Substations are high- voltage system facility, it changes
AC voltages to other levels or to DC voltages. In general, elements within a substation are
primary breaking devices, transformer, switchgear, relays, meters, SCADA system, cables or bus
duct and communication cables.

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Bangsar Village receives 11KV from the TNB distribution substation nearby that supply
11/33KV. This TNB distribution substation is larger compared to the indoor TNB substation and
it has rather larger transformer, more switches and equipment. Bangsar Village I have an indoor
TNB substation that receives power from the distribution substation and steps-down to usable
voltages. This TNB substation is not accessible by the management due to high voltage that is
hazardous.

z
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2.2.2 Introduction
Bangsar Village I is a 3 storey building that has a monthly electrical bill of RM 303,000.
Electrical supply is critical in running the shopping centre; electricity is needed for many systems
such as ventilation, mechanical and other appliances (refrigerant).Below is the flow supply of
electrical supply system in Bangsar Village I.

Diagram 3.2

shows the electrical supply system in Bangsar Village I

TNB room, High tension room, Low voltage room and Gen-set room locate side by side to
reduce occurrence of voltage loss through travel distance, due to the resistance in the transmission
cable.

gh Tension
Room
Diagram 3.3 shows
the placement
of the voltage rooms and gen-set room Scale 1:600
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Scale 1: 600

2.2.3 High Tension Room


High tension room is also known as the high voltage room, the components include TNB
meter, check meter, battery for mechanics, 2 transformers and vacuum circuit breakers. All the
components in HT room have to be checked every year by the government corporate Suruhanjaya
Tenaga (Energy commission of Malaysia) regulator to renew the licence.

Figure 3.2:
Placement of equipment in HT room

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Figure 3.3:
Schematic diagram

Figure 3.4:
License

2.2.4 High tension room components and devices


Electrical metering

Figure 3.5 TNB electrical meter

Figure 3.6 Electrical check meter

TNB meter measures the electricity consumption and demand of the building in (watt-hour)
meters. Figure 3.5 shows an electronic meter that is commonly used nowadays; it use current,
voltage transformer and microprocessors to record data. In addition, a check meter is added beside
the TNB meter for accurate billing of electrical demand and consumption.
Electrical battery

Figure 3.7 iSCADA system and DC distribution board

Figure 3.8 24V DC supply battery bank

Battery is widely used in the industry for many purposes due to its affordability. There are
various kinds of battery but, the only limitation of it is the size and weight factor. To generate a
vast amount of power supply, larger storage space is required therefore, it is not suitable to be
used for long-term electrical supply. Battery generates electrical energy by the conversion of
chemical energy from the electrochemical cell. The electrical energy generated is called the direct
current that has electrical charges which only flows in one direction whereas alternating current
has electrical chargers that flow in reverses direction.
Batteries in high voltage room are used by the electrical protective devices and SCADA system.
Protective devices are also called as the secondary equipment, thus, in an overcurrent situation the
vacuum circuit breaker functions from the DC supply to the main power supply. Figure 3.7 shows
a DC distribution board that includes a charger which regulates and charges the battery. Figure 3.8
shows the 24VDC battery bank.
SCADA system (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) technology that provides monitoring
and control distributed systems from a central location. This system enables the manager to
monitor and control process of electrical distribution, once there is a fault in certain sections, the
system would analyse and isolate the faulty section and remain other energised sections. It
functions as a switch capacitor and operator.

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Alternating current is supplied from TNB and is used for the heater within the units to
avoid condensation which triggers rusting and deterioration of equipment. Electrical battery
generates direct current and has to be replaced when it expires.
Vacuum circuit breaker

Figure 3.9 VCBs

Figure 3.10 exterior panel Figure 3.9 Manual switch

Vacuum circuit breaker is preferred in the high voltage room; it is an overcurrent


protective device that prevents conductors from high current by opening the circuit. Within the
VCB contains a fuse it functions as a fusible link that melts and opens when there is an
overcurrent condition. Figure VCBs are located in panel boards. VCBs can be used as
disconnects for installation and maintenance of other electrical devices.
Step-down transformers

Figure 3.11 -2 Transformers within the panel boxes

Figure 3.12 Temperature reading

In order to distribute power over long distances, voltage is raised to increase the efficiency.
Through increasing voltage current is reduced correspondingly. Utilities use transformers
throughout the grid system to step down voltages down to usable levels of loads.
Bangsar village I has 2 sets of transformers. These transformers step down high voltage
current to 415V and 2000A, 4000A of power supply for bangsar village 1 in the total of two
transformer.
Transformers of Bangsar village I have to conduct maintanance service in 2 year interval.
Temperature readings are shown though the digital panel in front of the panelboard for
referrencing and recording purposes. From our observation, transformer No.2 has a higher

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temperature reading compared to transformer No.1; when electricity demand increases,


temperature within transformer increases.
Cable trench cover slab

Figure 3.13

There are many major cables under the floor of high tension room; the underfloor cables
are covered by the cable trench cover slab throughout the room. Sand is added as an insulator to
prevent over heating of cables.

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2.2.5 Analysis and observation based on observation of high tension room


Precautions taken by Bangsar Village I:
Figure

3.14

Danger sign board on the door

Figure 3.15

Figure 3.16

Air conditioned

Air conditioning switching box

To maintain the safety of high tension room, air conditioner was added to maintain a
cooling environment for the equipment. This is because high room temperature damages the
equipment and will cause electrical and fore hazards.
Precautions that should be taken based on observation:

Figure 3.17 broken cable trench slab and little amount of sand

From the figure 3.17 above of the broken cable trench, the underfloor cables are exposed
and are very dangerous for the maintenance staff during work. As a suggestion, broken cable
trench should be replaced and the level of sand should be added till optimum amount.

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3.5 Low voltage room

Figure 3.18 Low voltage room

Figure 3.19 Low voltage room schematic diagram

Components in the Low voltage room include Main switchboards, bus bar coupler, air
circuit breaker, bus duct, MCCB capacitor bank, sub switchboards, distribution boards, panel
boards, earth leakage relay.
3.5.1 Low voltage room components and devices
Main Switch Boards

Figure 3.20 Main Switch board No.1


No.2

Figure 3.21 Main Switch board

A switchboard divides the power distribution system into units; in general it supplies
power to panel boards throughout the building. Each switchboards are protected and controlled by
electrical disconnect switches and circuit breaker. There are 2 main switch boards in the low
voltage room. The step down transformers distribute electricity through under floor cables to their
respective switch boards. In Bangsar Village I, each switch board has its own assigned zones of
distribution. Switchboard No.1 is for is assigned to the most of the tenants in Bangsar village I
and switchboard No.2 is assigned to mostly public areas, least tenants and the generator set.
Within the switchboards has a meter that records electrical supplied to the zones. Below is
the example of a comparison between the readings of the switchboards.
Readings of main switchboards:
Switch board No.1 (Tenants)
R: 950 Y: 870 B: 783

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Switch board No.2 (Least tenants, public area facilities and generator set)
R: 1376 Y: 1400 B: 1375
Figure 3.22

The reading from switch board No. 2 is more than the readings of switch board No.1; the
sum of No 2 zones electrical usage is more than No 1 zone usage. This is because zone 2 consist
more areas of the building compared to zone 1. The main switchboards are under warranty and
maintenance services are done every two year to ensure that the switchboards are in good and safe
condition.

Figure 3.33 Maintenance service sticker from manufacturer

Bus bar Coupler


Bus bar coupler is a device that is used to couple one bar to the other without any interruption in
power supply. This device has conductor such as metal, it is usually supported by insulators covering the
bars while exposing the connection points. Bus bar coupler is positioned in the centre of main switch
board 1 and main switch board 2 for shorter route for the transmission of power.
Main Switch board No 1

Figure 3.34

Bus bar coupler

Figure 3.35 BBC between MSBs

Main Switch board No 2

Figure 3.36 ACB

In the bus bar coupler panel, it has two components which are bus bar distribute and air
circuit breaker. During electric break down, bus bar coupler has to be on manually or on through
SCADA system and it acts as a standby power transmitter between the two switchboards. Below
is a functional example of a bus coupler during a shutdown of transformer No.2.

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Scenario: Maintenance services of Transformer No. 2


Main Switch board No 1
Power source from
Transformer 1 =2000A;
Retain 1300A for electricity
supply to dominant zone.

Main Switch board No 2


Bus coupler
Transfers 700 A from
MSB 1 to MSB 2

Receives 700A from MSB 1


and supplies to the other
zone.

Figure 3.37 shows overhead current transmission cable from the main switchboard No. 1 to the feeders.
Essential Main switchboard

Figure 3.38

During emergency, essential main switchboard supplies power to equipment that are essential.
Air circuit breaker

Figure 3.39 Air circuit breaker


manufacturer

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Figure 3.40

Figure 3.41 Inspection tag from

Air circuit breaker is commonly used in the low voltage room, it functions when there is
an over current. Overcurrent can be the result of ground fault, shot circuit and over load. Air
circuit breaker interrupts the current flow and condensed air becomes the medium of the arc of
disconnected circuit. Air contains oxygen; oxygen ignites sparkles during the manual setting.
After a power breakdown, precautionary actions should be taken during turning the manual open
button on; maintenance staff would stand by the side of the panel box and keep the door open for
escape. Figure 3.41 shows an inspection tag from the manufacturer, maintenance is required to
ensure a safe environment for maintenance staff.

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Incoming supply from main switchboard

Figure 3.42 above shows the schematic diagram of incoming supply from main switchboard
Capacitor bank and moulded circuit breaker (MCCB)

Figure 3.43

Figure 3.44 Capacitor bank switching

Figure 3.45 10 steps of single unit

To improve the quality of electrical supply, moulded circuit breaker acts as a protection
device to prevent explosion of capacitor bank. During an occurrence of over current, the switch
mechanism within MCCB will open and disconnect the current. In an electrical failure, MCCB
also protects the electrical system by shutting the connection of the faulty capacitor to prevent
explosion.
Isolated switch

Figure 3.46

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Figure 3.47 9 sets of triple pole switches

The switching of electricity is the alternation between energized and de-energized states
by opening or closing of the conductor in a circuit. It can be summed as the complete interruption
or resumption of the electrical power to a device. Switching is accomplished with sets of contact
that make or break multiple contacts simultaneously. A pole term is a set of contacts that belong
to a single circuit. A throw term is a position that a switch can adopt. Figure 3.47 shows 9 sets of
triple pole switching which has to be reset manually after and overcurrent condition. In addition,
having multiple switching can be an advantage when identifying the problem of the faulty switch.
Earth leakage relay

Figure 3.48

Figure 3.49 Earth relay setting plate

Figure 3.50

Relays can function as an automatic switch which is also a separate electrical circuit. This
earth relay circuit has 13 components and every component have their own air circuit breaker.
There is a digital meter displaying digital data of the device. The mechanical manager of the
building has a check list on the readings from the relay device.
The setting of the meter was done by the mechanical manager, which is 0.3A in 1 sec. If the
electric power exceeds the reading the fuse in the air circuit breaker will open and cut the
electrical supply.
Panel board

Figure 3.51

A panel board functions as a distribution board, this elements is used to divide and supply
electricity with the collaboration with protective devices. It is made up of fuse links, bus bars,
switches and circuit breakers. Figure 3.51 shows the wall mounted power distribution cabinet
containing overcurrent protective devices for lighting, appliances, or power distribution branch
circuits.

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Sub- panels

Figure 3.52 above shows several sub panels of chiller plants and the public toilet

Bus duct

Figure 3.53

Main cables that are assembled with insulators in grounded enclosures, it brings the main power
into the building.
Emergency light control panel

Figure 3.54 emergency lighting control panel in the LV room

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Emergency lighting system provides lighting to the emergency situation, escape routes,
corridors and stairways, exit doors are lighten. This lighting system important during a fire, it
ensures the visibility of escape routes and increase the speed of evacuating people out of the
building. This emergency light panel operates when there is an electrical shortage, DC current
from the battery is supplied to this control panel and the emergency light throughout the building
will be lighted up.
Cable tray system

Figure 3.55 cable tray systems on the LG floor

Raceway cable-tray systems are preferred because of their accessibility and ability to
accommodate change. This kind of setting allows ease in changing cables and also facilitates the
inspection of cables. Current is supplied from the low voltage room through the cable tray system
and send it throughout Bangsar Village I shopping mall.

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2.2.6 Analysis and observation based on observation of low voltage room


Precautions taken by Bangsar Village I:

Figure 3.56

Figure 3.57

Figure 3.58

Figure 3.56 shows the entrance of Low voltage room has a green
light indicating the room is under a safe condition. Furthermore, the room is air conditioned thus
the original louvered doors have to be covered with a piece of solid wood to prevent cool air from
escaping the room. Rubber mats are placed on the floor beside the main switch boards for safety
measures as above figure 3.57. It acts as a cushion that protects the maintenance crew from
becoming a conductor during leakage of high voltage current. Years before voltage rooms are not
equipped with air condition services, the rooms were heated up and stuffy when the maintenance
staffs conduct their check-ups and works. Due to mainly discomfort and damages to the
equipment, the maintenance manager decided to set up air condition services in the voltage rooms.
Figure 3.58 shows a thermometer showing temperature of low voltage room that is maintained at
24 Celsius degree, to ensure equipment is not heated up to have better efficiency.
Precautions that should be taken based on observation:

Figure 3.59

Figure 3.60

Above the figure 3.59 the cooling fan on the left was not functioning. It
should be fixed or replaced to prevent overheating of the equipment within the panel box. Used batteries
are left low voltage room figure 3.60; used batteries should be disposed properly to prevent the leakage of
the chemical within the cell

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3.6 Electrical riser room

Figure 3.61

Figure 3.62

Figure 3.63

An electrical riser room figure 3.56 has distribution equipment such as switchgears and
distribution panels that supplies electricity AC current to a particular level in a building. Electrical
riser room is located in every floor of Bangsar Village I, electricity is distributed through a series
of cable try system to the risers around the building. Figure 3.63 shows series of switching of
tenant of the shopping centre, when there is an electric fault in one of tenant electrical supply can
be shut through the switches in this riser room.

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2.2.7 Genset Room


Bangsar village I uses diesel generator as the secondary power source to generate power
during power failure. The generator set figure 3.64 has been used once last year, every year
supplier of the generator will conduct a maintenance service and issue a letter to prove the
functionality during emergencies. This Gen- set generates 600A and the diesel tank figure 3.65
has a capacity of 2000 litre.

Figure 3.64 diesel generator set

Figure 3.65 diesel tank

Figure 3.66 control panel of Gen- set

This Gen-set has to go through a maintenance service every year to check on the efficiency
of the engines. Figure 3.67 shows the letter issued by the authority. The diesel generator is
connected to the switchboards of the low voltage room through cables as shown in figure 3.68 and
3.69.

Figure 3.67 maintenance letter

Figure 3.68 over head cable

Figure 3.69 cable from gen-set to low voltage room

When the Gen-set is on for emergency electrical supply, the engines of the Gen-set will
release heat and the room would be heated up. Figure 3.70 and 3.71 shows the ventilation specially
design to excrete the heated air and absorbs fresh air into the room.

Figure 3.70

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Figure 3.71 Gen-set room ventilation

2.2.8 Requirements of UBBL 2006


From our analysis, Bangsar Village I had fulfilled section 253 (1), (2), (3), (5 a&b).
Emergency power supply is provided from the diesel generator set that functions as the power
source during power failure. The generator set provides power during emergency, such as smoke
control system in the atrium, fire alarm system, fire pumps, public address systems and fire lifts.
In the high voltage room, there is a storage battery that provides DC voltages when is needed
during power failure.

2.2.9 Conclusion
Bangsar village is a well-known shopping mall that functions well every day to ensure a
happy visit to its shoppers. From this statement, I believe that the maintenance team has done a
great job in managing the systems in this building. The electrical supply system runs efficiently
due to minor modification for the rooms such as adding air conditioning system. Furthermore,
many precautions are taken by the management to ensure a safety working environments for the
maintenance team. Maintenance of the rooms and equipment are done frequently as they have log
books record of the services. On my own opinion, bangsar village I should introduce passive
designs and photovoltaic cells to generate power in the long run to reduce the amount of the
monthly electricity bill.

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2.3 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

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2.3 MECHANICAL TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM


2.3.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
Mechanical transportation normally use in building to transport passengers from one vertical
floors to another inside a building. All buildings with more than one storey must have at least one
set of stairs and the provision of stairs is a very important consideration when designing building
in order to ensure all the occupant of the building can travel between different floors.
Mechanical transportation such as lift is advance vertical transportation which provides
convenience to passengers to travel between floors. Lift is an electrical apparatus for raising and
lowering people or goods to different floors of the buildings. A lift installation has an important
bearing on the efficient functioning of the building it serves, and to obtain different efficient
service the number and type of lifts must take into account several factors including the type of
building and nature of its occupancy.
On the other hand, escalators are moving stairs that designed to provide efficient vertical
conveyance of people. It transports the users adequately, instantaneously, safely as well as
continuously with consistent speed.

2.3.2 HYDRAULIC ELEVATOR (CARGO LIFT)

A hydraulic elevator's function is based on Pascal's law of the incompressibility of fluids: an


above-ground or in-ground piston mounted inside a cylinder is pressurized to raise and lower the
car. Hydraulic systems are commonly used in low-rise buildings up to five stories. Speeds rarely
exceed 150 feet per minute (fpm).

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Figure 3.2.1 indicate the cargo lift at ground floor to the first floor

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2.3.3 COMPONENTS

In lift machine room, there are four major components to the hydraulic system: a tank (fluid
reservoir); a pump powered by an electric motor; a valve between the cylinder and the reservoir;
and the cylinder.

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1. Tank (fluid reservoir)

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Originally the fluid used to drive the piston was water, hence the name hydraulic; today, the fluid is
typically an oil-based "hydraulic fluid."

2. Pump and Motor

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The main function of the pump used in hydraulic elevator is constantly pushing fluid into the cylinder
to lift the elevator. As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up, lifting the elevator car.
When the valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least resistance and return to the
fluid reservoir. When the car approaches the correct floor, the control system sends a signal to the
electric motor to gradually shut off the pump and close the valve. With the pump off, there is no more
fluid flowing into the cylinder, but the fluid that is already in the cylinder can't flow backward
through the pump, and the valve is still closed. The piston rests on the fluid, and the car stays where it
is

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3. Control Valve

Control Valve is the device on hydraulic elevators which controls the oil flow to and from the jack.
Hydraulic elevators only perform as well as the valve. The main functions of the Valve are lets
fluid out of the system; keeps the pressure low when open; increases pressure when closed. To
lower the car, the elevator control system sends a signal to the valve. When the valve opens, the
fluid that has collected in the cylinder can flow out into the fluid reservoir. The weight of the car
and the cargo pushes down on the piston, which drives the fluid into the reservoir. The car
gradually descends. To stop the car at a lower floor, the control system closes the valve again.

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2.3.4 OPERATING PANEL

An alarm button or switch, which passengers can use to warn the premises manager that they have
been trapped in the elevator.
An elevator telephone, which can be used (in addition to the alarm) by a trapped passenger to call
for help.
Floor numbering with switch buttons to choose a floor.

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Key Switch Panel


Key switch panel is located at the control room which allows admits to control the lift car when
emergency or breakdown happens. Besides, immediate answer when emergency happens from the
elevator and the system clearly stated the location of calls from which level and shaft of elevator.

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Emergency Power Operation


In hydraulic elevator systems, emergency power will lower the elevators to the lowest landing and
open the doors to allow passengers to exit. The doors then close after an adjustable time period
and the car remains unusable until reset, usually by cycling the elevator main power switch.
Typically, due to the high current draw when starting the pump motor, hydraulic elevators are not
run using standard emergency power systems. Buildings like hospitals and nursing homes usually
size their emergency generators to accommodate this draw.

2.3.5 MACHINE ROOM LESS ELEVATOR (PASSENGER LIFT)

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Machine room less elevators (M.R.L.) is a type of traction elevator which do not have a machine
room at the top of the hoistway, instead the traction hoisting machine is installed either on the top
side wall of the hoistway or on the bottom of the hoistway. Most machine room less elevators are
used for low to mid rise buildings. In mid-rise buildings, M.R.L. typically serves up to 20 floors.

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Figure 3.3.1 indicate the passenger lift at lower ground floor to the first floor

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2.3.6 COMPONENTS

1. Gearless Traction
All traction elevators are gearless traction. This design eliminates the need of a fixed machine
room and thus saves much buildings space.

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2. Hoisting Motor & Controller


While the hoisting motor is installed on the hoistway side wall, the main controller is installed on
the top floor next to the landing doors. This controller is situated behind a locked cabinet which
have to be unlocked using a key for maintenances, repair or emergency purposes. Most elevators
have their controller installed on the top floor but fewer elevators have their controller installed on
the bottom-most floor. Some elevators may have the hoisting motor located on the bottom of the
elevator shaft put, thus it is called as bottom drive M.R.L.. Whereas, some elevators have the
controller cabinet installed within the door frame instead on the wall to save space.

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3. Steel Cord Ropes


Like normal traction elevators, M.R.L. elevators use the conventional steel cord ropes used as the
hoisting cables. Some elevators are using flat steel belts instead of conventional ropes.
Manufactures using these technologies claimed that with flat steel belt ropes, it saves much space
on the hoistway and to allow a minimum size of the hoisting sheave. With flat steel belts also
allows 30% lighter than conventional steel ropes.

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4. Waterproofing lift pits


Lift pits normally extend below ground or slab level and, therefore, like basements are susceptible
to water ingress under hydrostatic pressure. In new-build situations, lift pits are usually
waterproofed externally using the same methods employed to waterproof new build basements.

5. Emergency stop button


Elevators often have a red two-way button on the control panel which is either marked
"Emergency Stop" or "Run/Stop". Normally, the button is in the unpushed position, allowing the
elevator to run in normal service. When the button is pushed, the elevator comes to an immediate
stop. When the button is pulled back out, it resumes normal service, thus the reason for the use of
the phrase "Run/Stop". In some cases the switch is similar to a light switch with the switch being
in the up position for the elevator to "run" in regular service, and thrown down to "stop" the
elevator.

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6. Sheave
The ropes are attached to the elevator car, and looped around a sheave. A sheave is just a pulley
with a groove around the circumference. The sheave grips the hoist ropes, so when rotate the
sheave, the ropes move too.

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7. Counterweight
Counterweights are often used in traction lifts. The conventional steel cords rope that life the cars
are also connected to the counterweight, which hangs on the other side of the sheave. The
counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled to 40-percent capacity. In other words,
when the car is 40 percent full, the counterweight and the car are perfectly balanced. The purpose
of this balance is to conserve energy.

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2.3.7 ESCALATORS

An escalator is a moving staircase which is a conveyor transport device for carrying people
between floors of a building.
Escalators have the capacity to move large numbers of people, and they can be placed in the same
physical space as one might install a staircase. They have no waiting interval (except during very
heavy traffic), they can be used to guide people toward main exits or special exhibits, and they
may be weatherproofed for outdoor use. A non-functioning escalator can function as a normal
staircase, whereas many other conveyances become useless when they break down.

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Figure 3.4.1 indicate the escalator at ground floor to the first floor

2.3.8 ESCALATOR ARRANGEMENT


2.3.8.1 PARALLEL STACKED ARRANGEMENT
In Bangsar Village 1, they use parallel stacked arrangement for escalator. A parallel stacked
arrangement defines usage by the physical arrangement of the stairs. The essential difference
between the two basic arrangements is that in the crisscross arrangement, the upper and lower
terminal entrances and exits to the up and down escalators are separated by the horizontal length
of an escalator, whereas in either of the parallel arrangements the two escalators face in the same
direction.

2.3.8.2 CRISSCROSS ARRAGEMENT


This arrangement is rapid, pleasant, and very economical of space because the stairs nest into each
other. It can be used for as many as five floors without excessive annoyance to the rider.
Sometimes, this arrangement requires floor space around the escalators, which is used in stores to
display special sale merchandise. Indeed, this display purpose is the reason that stores force
passengers to endure the potentially annoying walk-around.

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2.3.8.3 Components

Major components:

Truss- is a welded steel frame that supports the entire apparatus.

Track- is steel angles attached to the truss on which the step rollers are guided, thus controlling
the motion of the steps.

Handrail- is driven by sheaves powered from the top sprocket assembly to provide stability to
riding passengers and support for entering and leaving passengers.

Balustrade- is designed for maximum safety of persons stepping on or off the escalators.

Control cabinet- is normally located near the drive machine, contains malfunction indicators in
addition to the drive controls.

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2.3.8.4 SAFETY FEATURES


Safety is a major concern in escalator design. Protection of passengers during normal operation is
ensured by a number of safety features associated with moving stairway:

Steps are large and steady and are designed to prevent slipping.

Handrails and steps travel at exactly the same speed (0.51 m/s) to ensure steadiness and balance
and to aid stepping on or off the comb plates.

Balustrade is designed to prevent catching of passengers clothing. Close clearance provide safety
near the comb plates and step treads.

Step design and step levelling with the comb plates at each landing prevent tripping upon entering
or leaving the escalator. This is accomplished with 2 or 3 horizontal steps at either end of the
escalator.

Operation of an emergency stop button is wired to the controller and placed near or on the
escalator housing at both ends, stops the drive machine and applies the brake.

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2.3.9 TRAVELATOR

There are two pairs of travelator in Bangsa Village 1 what connect the basement to the ground
floor. Travelator is a slow moving conveyor mechanism that transports people across a horizontal
or inclined plane over a short to medium distance. Moving walkways can be used by standing or
walking on them. They are often installed in pairs, one for each direction.
Travelator are built in one of two basic styles:

Pallet type- a continuous series of flat metal plates join together to form a walkway and are
effectively identical to escalators in their construction. Most have a metal surface for extra traction.

Moving belt- these are generally built with mesh metal belts or rubber walking surfaces over
metal rollers. The walking surface may have a solid feel or a bouncy feel.

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Figure 3.5.1 indicate the travelator at lower ground floor to the ground floor

2.3.9.1 INCLINED TRAVELATOR


An inclined travelator is used in Bangsar Village 1 to move people from basement to the ground
floor with the convenience of an elevator and the capacity of an escalator. The shopping carts
that people can take along their suitcase have either a brake that is automatically applied when
the cart handle is released, strong magnets in the wheels to stay adhered to the floor, or
specially designed wheels that secure the cart within the grooves of the ramp, so that wheeled
items travel alongside the rides and do not slip away.

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2.3.9.2 COMPONENT

Travelator is manufactured in only one design: a derivative of the escalator, which uses a flattened
pallet in place of a step. In all other respects, the drive mechanism, safeties, brake, handrails- the
unit is similar to an escalators.

2.3.10 CONCLUSION
Mechanical transportation plays an important role in shopping mall like Bangsar Village 1 which
able to bring convenience to the occupants and disable people. According to Uniform Building By
Laws (UBBL), Bangsar Village concerns on the human flow inside the building which provides 1
pair of escalator, 2 pairs of travelator and 1 group of lift. Proper maintenance check-up held
regularly ensure occupants use this services comfortable and convenience.

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2.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM AND ANALYSIS

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2.4 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM AND ANALYSIS


Bangsar Village Shopping Mall

2.4.1 Chapter Introduction


This chapter contains the analysis explanation of the data of the fire protection system collected
at the selected site, Bangsar Village Shopping Mall as stated in the earlier Project
Introduction Page.
According to the analysis we have done, this chapter contains the fire protection systems that
applied in the stated shopping mall, based on our project group research and observation. The
data is collected through interviews, photographing, video recording, actual site measurement
and observation. The below explanation and comparison for the functioning system are based
on the technical information provided by the manager and data research that our group has
conduct.
Based on twice site visit to Bangsar Village Shopping Mall that conducted by our group in
September 2014, the following images contained in this chapter are mostly the site images
collected.

2.4.2 Literature Review


Active Fire Protection System Definition
1.

Active system is the manual and automatic detection and suppression of fires. For example,
the use and installation of a fire sprinkler system or finding the fire (fire alarm) and/or
extinguishing it.

(retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection)

2.

Active Fire Protective System is a system which will be activated by the surrounding
environment, which is in the event of fire by detecting smoke and temperature. They are
first to act in the case of fire. The focus of active system is to extinguish fire by:
a.
b.
c.
d.

Detecting the fire early and evacuate the building.


Alerting emergency services at an early stage of the fire.
Control the movement of fire and smoke.
Suppress and/or starve the fire of oxygen and fuel. (NAFFCO, 2004)

Passive Fire Protection System Definition


1. Passive system an integral component of the three components of structural fire
protection and fire safety in a building. PFP attempts to contain fires or slow the spread,
through use of fire-resistant walls, floors, and doors (amongst other examples). PFP
systems must comply with the associated Listing and approval use and compliance in order
to provide the effectiveness expected by building codes.
It is also ncludes compartmentalisation of the overall building through the use of fireresistance rated walls and floors. Organization into smaller fire compartments, consisting
Page 83 of 187

of one or more rooms or floors, prevents or slows the spread of fire from the room of fire
origin to other building spaces, limiting building damage and providing more time to the
building occupants for emergency evacuation or to reach an area of refuge.
(retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passive_fire_protection)

Building Service Definition


1. Building services systems are the electrical and mechanical installations inside a
building that provide the internal infrastructure for the proper functioning of the building
(Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services systems in government buildings,
25 October 2010, retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk)

2. Building services engineers are responsible for the design, installation, and operation and
monitoring of the mechanical, electrical and public health systems required for the safe,
comfortable and environmentally friendly operation of modern buildings. ... In India the
engineers are known as facilities planners. A Building Services Architect is an engineer
with experience in the integration of all Building Services.
(Retrieved from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_services_engineering)

Fire Protection System (Definition)


1. Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially
destructive fires. It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalisation, suppression
and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and
development, production, testing, and application of mitigating systems. the owners and
operators are responsible to maintain their facilities in accordance with a design-basis that
is rooted in laws, including the local building code and fire code, which are enforced by
the Authority Having Jurisdiction. Buildings must be constructed in accordance with the
version of the building code that is in effect when an application for a building permit is
made.
(Retrieved from http://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection/ )

2.

The discussion of fire protection begins with basic design considerations for fire resistance.
Smoke management (for safe evacuation and for limited smoke damage) is considered next,
followed by fire-suppression systems such as sprinklers and non-water-based approaches.
(Retrieved from Walter T. Grondzik, Alison, Benjamin, John S,Chapter 24 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment For Buildings,
eleventh edition, 2010)

Page 84 of 187

Fire-fighting equipment or fire safety installation (Definition)


1. means anyequipment or installation for:
(a) extinguishing, fighting, preventing, or limiting a fire;
(b) giving warning of a fire;
(c) providing access to any premises or place or to any part
thereof for the purpose of extinguishing, fighting,
preventing, or limiting a fire;
(d) providing emergency power supply in the event of normal
power failure;
(e) providing emergency lighting for purposes of escape from
buildings;
(f) giving direction towards an escape route or place of refuge;
or
(g) providing adequate, safe egress for the purpose of
evacuation or exit of occupants in the event of fire
(LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988)

Fire-hazard (Definition)
(a) any unlawful alteration to any building such as might render
escape from any part thereof in the event of a fire materially
more difficult or less easy than it would be if the alteration had
not been made;
(b) the overcrowding of any place of public entertainment or public
gathering such as might render escape from any part thereof in
the event of a fire difficult;
(c) any removal or absence from any building of any fire- fighting
equipment or fire safety installation that is required by law to be
provided in the building;
(d) the presence within or outside any building of any fire-fighting
equipment or fire safety installation or any facility, installed in
accordance with the requirement of any written law or as required
by the Fire Services Department, that is not in efficient working
order;
(e) inadequate means of exit from any part of a building to any place,
whether within or outside the building, that provides safety to
persons in the event of a fire; or
(f) any other matter or circumstance that materially increases the
likelihood of a fire or the danger to life or property that would
result from the outbreak of a fire, or that would materially hamper
the Fire Services Department in the discharge of its duties in the
event of a fire;
(LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988)

Page 85 of 187

Definition of high-rise buildings.


High-rise structure is one that extends higher than the maximum reach of available fire-fighting
equipment and it is between 75 ft and 100 ft. A particular building is deemed a high-rise
specified by the fire and building codes in the area in which the building is located (Craighead,
2003).
Terpak, (2003) defined high-rise building is any building exceeded 75 ft
where fire department operation cannot be considered ground based.
Encyclopaedia Britannica define high-rise building as a multi-story building with a height that
require the use of a system of mechanical vertical transportation such as elevators (Britannica
online).
A building is defined by the Uniform Building Codes as a high-rise building when it has floors
for human occupancy which are more than 75 ft above the lowest level of fire
department access. Second definition as stated in Uniform Building Codes is the
buildings meet the definition to be equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system
designed in accordance with requirements in Uniform Building Codes (Patterson, 1993).

LAWS OF MALAYSIA
Act 341
FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988
An Act to make necessary provision for the effective and efficient
functioning of the Fire Services Department, for the protection of
persons and property from fire risks and for purposes connected
therewith.
[Throughout Malaysia
1 January 1989, P.U. (B) 701/1988]
Page 86 of 187

Significance of Building Services

Building services systems has an important role for building where it has stands about 20% to 40% of the
total construction cost. Figure 1 shows the example of a cost breakdown of a typical government office
building.

(Retrieved from Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services systems in government
buildings, 25 October 2010, retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk)

Page 87 of 187

2.4.3 Introduction to Fire


(Statistic)
According to research on ten years fire statistics in Malaysia (1990 to 1999), it shows that there were
154,987 fire cases in Malaysia. From 23,911 or 15.45% cases involved buildings, about more than 2000
fire cases annually involved buildings are significantly high. Among the types of building, residential
buildings are the highest i.e. 9,512 cases followed by shops 2,767
cases, plants 2,636 cases and stores 1,489 cases (Bomba, 2001). From this statistic, its how is that
residential buildings are the highest risks of possibility of fire break out. It includes high-rise
accommodation buildings i.e. flats buildings, apartment buildings and condominiums. At this moment the
recent statistics for the next ten years of fire statistics is not available and due to be compiled in the year
2010. Also, for most of the cases, the fire occurred not naturally but most of the cases were due to either
the human faults or human ignorance (retrieved from Yahya Mohamad Yatim, Fire Safety Models for High-Rise Residential
Buildings in Malaysia, June 2009)

By conclusion against the research above, it is important that precise consideration should be
taken into account during building design especially regarding the fire escape route in high-rise
residential buildings to speed out evacuation time, thus, to reduce the percentage of injury and death
during fire.
It is also important to study into the human behaviour during fire. i.e Panic Behaviour, to firmly
understand the basic reaction and needs of the building user.
Hence, there were several considerations should be taken into account during design, as below:
For every fire safety design, the following fire safety objectives should be met:

(a) Life Safety


Fire safety provisions should be provided for:
1. Protection of life of building occupants
2. Minimization of fire spread between fire compartments
3. Prevention of building collapse as a result of fire
4. Facilitation of fire fighting and rescue by fire services personnel

(b) Property Protection


Fire safety provisions should be provided for:
1. Minimization of fire spread between fire compartments
2. Prevention of building collapse as a result of fire
3. Minimization of fire spread between buildings
4. Facilitation of fire fighting and rescue by fire services personnel

Page 88 of 187

Fire Safety Risk Analysis


Life Safety and property protection guidance framework (FPA, 2003)

Page 89 of 187

2.4.3.1 Science of Fire


Fire Behaviour
Aspect: 1. Fire Triangle (Oxygen, Fuel and Heat)
Aspect: 2. Stage of Fire Development: Temperature Development, Burning Duration
Aspect: 3. Behaviour of Fully develop fire, role of ventilation

Aspect 1: Fire Triangle

(Retrieved from http://www.pslc.ws/fire/images/firetria.gif )

Fire triangle is the basic explanation of how does fire occurs with the present of three main
elements: fuel, oxygen and energy in the form of combustion heat, in a chemical reaction. The
absent of either one element will alter the either the rate of fire burning or even put off the fire.
Hence, to stop the fire, we need to elimate either one of the above elements.
Once the fuel is ignited, a fire will spreads across the fuel object almost instantly until it
reaches the stage where it is fully develop into uncontrollable fire. The main factors of how
fast the spread speed of fire across the surface of the material are the fuel composition,
orientation, surface to mass ratio, incident heat and air supply. The relationship of the fire and
the above elements can be explained with the following:

Page 90 of 187

Fire normally develops through a consistent stages until it reaches the highest stage where it is
become fully develop. The increase in heat release rate against time is manipulated by the variables
of incident heat, air supply and fuel. There are basic three types of growth rates in fire, slow
growing rate, medium growing rate and fast growth rate. When the burning time is prolonged,
the burning rate will be controlled or limited by the decreasing in either one of the three main
elements. Once one of them is omitted, the burning will stop. This is a gradual process which is the
decaying process of fire.

Heat Release Rate for Office Module (Madrzykowski 1996)

Fire Growth Rates (from SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering

Page 91 of 187

Aspect: 2. Stage of Fire Development: Temperature Development, Burning Duration


Smoke is produced at the instant of fire ignition on a fuel. The smoke is then being transported
by a smoke plume and became collection of smoke on the upper portion of the space, forming a
layer which will soon increase in depth and temperature. The high heat energy smoke layer is
then radiates the heat energy back onto unburned fuels in the space, thus causing the
surrounding materials, which the potential fuels to increase in temperature. Flashover is the
condition whereby the small unburned object surround the burning object suddenly ignited
simultaneously. Flashover usually happened in a compact or a small space where the heat
energy can be radiated at a higher speed. Hence, also the combustion is exothermic reaction.
Products of burning are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water. Some of these products
cause death when inhaled at a considerable amount.

Major Factors Influencing Fire Growth

Page 92 of 187

A standard fire curve in enclosed spaces (CIBSE, 2003)

Aspect: 3. Behaviour of Fully develop fire and role of ventilation


The fully- developed fire is at a stable burning stage with a constant rate loss of mass. This is the
stage where fire and fuel are at a considerably equal stage, where equilibrium is reached by either
the limitation of air supply (in ventilation controlled fires) or the characteristic of the object being
burnt. Also, the heat release (temperature) is relatively stable with no further influx.
1. Fuel Controlled Fires
This is the stage where the supply of air and incident heat is abundance but the burning process is
limited by fuel mass or fuel characteristics. The amount of carbon in the material becomes the
factor that controls the whole burning process.
2. Ventilation Controlled Fires
This is the stage where the fuel mass and incident heat is abundance but the burning process is
limited by the supply of oxygen. The air supplied from openings or HVAC systems become the
factor that controls the whole burning process.

Page 93 of 187

Classes of Fire

In Europe and Australia, classes of fire are grouped into six groups as follows:
Class A:

Fires that involve flammable solids such as wood, cloth, rubber, paper,
and some types of plastics.

Class B:

Fires that involve flammable liquids or liquefiable solids such as


petrol/gasoline, oil, paint, some waxes & plastics, but NOT
cooking fats or oils.

Class C:

Fires that involve flammable gases, such as natural gas, hydrogen,


propane, butane.

Class D:

Fires that involve combustible metals, such as sodium, magnesium,


and potassium.

Shock Risk Fire (formerly known as Class E)


: Fires that involve any of the
materials found in Class A and B fires,
but with the introduction of an electrical
appliances, wiring, or other electrically
energized objects in the vicinity of the
fire, with a resultant electrical shock
risk if a conductive agent is used.
Class F:

Fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of the
Oils when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids
making normal extinguishing agents ineffective

Comparison of Fire Classes Standard Between Australia, European and North America

Page 94 of 187

2.4.3.2 Panic Behaviour


It is important that for a designer to consider the panic behaviour of the occupants during fire,
regarding the possible rational and irrational decisions that they might make and the route of
escape from the burning building as protection towards user. Definition of panic as below:
panic by original greek language Panikos have the meaning of a sudden uncontrollable fear
or anxiety, often causing wildly unthinking behaviour. (Retrieved from Wikipedia)
2. A sudden, overpowering terror, often affecting many people at once.
1.

(Retrieved from http://www.the freedictionary.com/panic/. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright
2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.)

3. A sudden overwhelming fear that produces hysterical behaviour and that can spread quickly
through a crowd. An instance, outbreak, a period of such fear. An anxiety disorder characterized
by feelings of impending doom and physical symptoms such as trembling and hyperventilation.
(Random House Kernerman Websters College University, copyrights 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd. Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House,
Inc. All rights reserved.)

The Panic Phenomena. Retrieved from http://bp1.blogger/com/

Psychological crowd as a group of people where individuals have lost their own
personality to share the same motivations and thoughts as the crowd, which is
composed of the lowest common denominator as a crowd displays a singular
inferior mentality.

Page 95 of 187


In other psychology and sociology literature also define the term panic.
Goldenson define panic as reaction involving terror, confusion and irrational
behaviour precipitated by a threatening situation.
Johnson wrote, behavior involves selfish competition uncontrolled by social
and cultural constraints, and breaking of social order, competition
unregulated by social forces.
Keating outlined four elements of panic:
a) hope to escape through dwindling resources;
b) contagious behaviour;
c) aggressive concern about one's own safety; and
d) irrational, illogical responses
Quarantelli describes panic as an acute fear reaction
marked by flight behaviour and the panic participant as no rational in his
flight behaviour. In the human behaviour literature, panic is usually
defined as some sort of irrational behaviour, and research findings
consistently show that people do not exhibit such irrational behaviour in
fires. In fact, altruistic behaviour is seen to be the norm in serious
fires.17 Human behaviour under stress is relatively controlled, rational
and adaptive.15 It is also found that cooperation rather than selfish behaviour
are predominant even among total strangers

Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,Panic and human behaviour in fire, 13 th July 2009

It is important to consider panic behaviour in space planning for Fire Protection System to
minimize the risk of death due to trampling or panic.
(Case studies: Stardust Nightclub Fire, Ireland, February 13, 1981. Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,Panic and human behaviour in fire, 13th July
2009)

In other hand, proper design planning for fire protection system might actually helps to protect
the user while wrong design decisions might kills many life.
(Case Studies: Gothenburg Discotheque Fire, Sweden, October 29, 1998; Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,Panic and human behaviour in fire, 13 th
July 2009)

Page 96 of 187

2.4.4 Onsite Research and Analysis


This chapter will be further divided into sub-units of the elements of Active and Passive Fire
Protection System, also the potential hazards caused by human found in Bangsar Village Shopping
Mall, stated as below:

Active Fire Protection System:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fire Detection and Alarm System


Sprinkler System and Breeching Inlet
Carbon Dioxide System
Smoke control System
Water Tank and Pump
Standpipe and hose system
(Standard Hose Compartment)
7. Portable Fire Extinguisher
8. Lightning Protection: Emergency Light
9. Circuit cutter
10. Fire Rated Door
11. Fire Hydrant and Drainage
12. Sign, Warnings
13. Fire Alarm Panel

Passive Fire Protection System:


1.
2.
3.
4.

Emergency Escape Corridor


Emergency Staircase
Stairwell and staircase design
Escape Route Floor plans and Gathering Space
(Assembly)

Potential Hazards:
1. Human Fault

Page 97 of 187

2.4.4.1 Active Fire Protection System


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fire Detection and Alarm System


Smoke control System
Sprinkler System and Breeching Inlet
Carbon Dioxide System
Water Tank and Pump
Standpipe and hose system
(Standard Hose Compartment)
7. Portable Fire Extinguisher
8. Lightning Protection: Emergency Light
9. Circuit Breaker
10. Fire Rated Door
11. Fire Hydrant and Drainage
12. Fire Alarm Panel

Page 98 of 187

1. Fire Detection and Alarm System: Smoke and Heat


The conventional Fire Alarm System is provided in the building. The system is designed to monitor
all the fire detection and warning devices located at various strategic locations as required by
Jabatan Bomba. The detecting devices are the manual call-points and the warning devices are the
alarm bells. Fire Alarm panel is located at Ground floor lift lobby. A mimic is provided to indicate
the various zoning and fire protection equipment on the various floors.

Fire Mode Conditions:


The following conditions are observed on fire conditions.
a. Alarm bells will ring continuously
b. Alarm zoning will be indicated at fire alarm panel

The Gent 7800 Series Detector Range


The comprehensive range of low profile smoke and heat detectors are deigned to comply with EN54
Part 7. With extra low quiescent current consumption and twin 360C view angle fire LEDs, this
range benefits from state of the art electronic sensing technology incorporating smoke scatter
principles and manufactured from Vo grade flame resistant materials.
All models fit on a standard base with flush and surface wire base options available. Diode bases are
used to achieve head removal requirements with no additional end of line devices required.
The Gent 7800 series detectors will operate with the current range of GENT conventional type
control panels and GENT System 3400 or 34000 addressable interfaces.

(Image retrieved from

Page 99 of 187

http://www.firedetectionshop.co.uk/gent-s-quad-s4-711-st-vo-dual-optical-heat-detectorwith-voice-sounder-and-strobe-clone.html)

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall

7840 Optical Smoke Detector


It is particularly effective in detecting large visible smoke particles such as those produced by
smouldering wood, paper, PVC or polyurethane foam. It is also suitable for general use.
Inside the optical chamber there is an infra red light beam and a photo sensor unit, fitted at an
obtuse angle. Normally very little light from the beam reaches the sensor, but when smoke enters
the chamber, the beam is scattered and more light reaches the sensor, this triggering the alarm.
Pulsed light source keeps the power consumption low, and thus enabling more detectors to be used
per circuit. To reduce the risk of false alarms, inside each detector, 3 pulses from the light source
must reach the photo sensor before an alarm is activated. A built in microprocessor chip inside
monitors and compensates for any changes due to dust or other contaminants. This drastically helps
to reduce or minimise the risk of fake alarms.

(Image retrieved from http://img.directindustry.com/images_di/photo-m2/smoke-detector-55817-2393971.jpg)

Page 100 of 187

7850 Fixed Temperature Heat Detector


Ideal for normal property protection purposes, and particularly suited to areas where temperature
can fluctuate for natural reasons e.g where there are large windows or industrial heat producing
processes.
Present to trigger alarm when temperature reaches approximately 57C therefore it is an excellent
way of avoiding continual false alarms in areas where the temperature changes rapidly.
Electronic thermistor type detector element guarantees high accuracy because there are no moving
parts. Excellent reliability as detector is automatically resettable when thermistor element state
cools down Factory calibrated sensitivity to BS 5445 Part 5 Grade 2.

(images retrieved from http://www.pennylaneelectrical.co.uk/images/fireline_Csd2.jpg)

Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 101 of 187

7860 Rate Of Rise Heat Detector


Suitable for most normal property protection purposes and providing a high degree of protection in
areas where the temperature is normally fairly stable useful for low ambient temperature areas
where the response of fixed temperature may be slower.
Rate of Rise heat detector respond to rises in temperature, but also include a fixed temperature
backstop circuit, present at approximately 57C for even greater safety. Electronic thermistors
type detector elements guarantees high accuracy and, because there are no moving parts, give
excellent reliability. Sensitivity to BS5445 Part 5 Grade 1 allowing this detector to be used for
maximum ceiling heights as specified by BS 5839 Part 1, 1988.

(images retrieved from http://static.squarespace.com/static/5170401be4b00853b233dbd2/t/518d4f6be4b01d03877bac20/1368215404470/heat_fig1.jpg)

(Images retrieved from http://www.apollo-fire.co.uk/media/753732/heat.jpg)

Page 102 of 187

2.

Smoke Control System

Based on the operating manual of fire protection system of Bangsar Village Shopping Mall, it is
stated that, the smoke control system has been designed to provide emergency smoke and heat
exhaust ventilation in the event of fire to allow both safe evacuation of people and the entry of the
fire fighting services.
In case of fire, the system is designed to maintain a smoke free clear layer for 4m from floor level
unless the fire exceeds 3m X 3m with a heat output of 5MW. With the sprinkler system in operation
this fire size is not likely to be exceeded before evacuation is complete. The smoke control system
stated in the operating manual is designed for emergency use only.
The smoke control system activation is based on a Double-Knock detection system.
In an emergency event, the first line of detectors (usually smoke detector) will put the system into
standby mode. Upon confirmation of an emergency via a second line of detector (Sprinkler
activation, flow switch) the Fire Alarm Panel will then send a fire mode signal to the Master Smoke
Control Panel where the panel will then activate the smoke control equipment.
Once the system is activated, it can only be deactivated when the Fire Alarm Panel is normalized
and the RESET button on the Master Smoke Control Panel is press. This action will then reset all
the equipment to their normal condition, except the smoke extract fans. The fans can only be reset
from the Fan Starter Panel in the first floor AHU Room.
From the Master Smoke Control Panel, the individual group of equipment can be manually control
or isolated via a selector switch.
Should the control wiring be damage or disconnected prior to the activation of the signal, the
individual equipment can be activated from their respective control panel nearby. But once the
system is activated by the Fire Alarm Panel or the Master Smoke Control Panel and damage to the
control signal wiring will not reset or stop the system. They will then have to be individually reset
from their respective control panel.
In the event of power failure the compressor set retain sufficient air to close the ventilators twice
and hold them closed for a limited period. If power to the compressor is lost for a significant period
the ventilators will creep open as pneumatic pressure to build sufficiently to fully close all
ventilators.
In the event of power failure to the control panel the ventilators will go to failsafe open position.
Reset will be automatic when power is restored.

Page 103 of 187

(images retrieved from http://www.idastech.com.sg/Images/Smoke_Control_Schematic.jpg)

UBBL Laws and Regulations on Smoke Control System


Under UBBL 1984 Section 153: Smoke Detectors for Lift Lobbies.
1. All lift lobbies shall be provided with smoke detectors.
2. Lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam
or photo detectors unless incorporated with force close feature which after thirty seconds of any
interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a pre-set time.
According to the guidelines, the fire control room has to meet the requirement of the
building that has an effective height of more than 50 meters. It should be separated from the rest of
the building by two hour fire rated elements of structure.

Page 104 of 187

UBBL 1984 section 238: Command and Control Centre


Every large premises or building exceeding 30.5 meters in height should be provided with a
command and control center located on the designated floor and should contain a panel to monitor
the public address, fire bridge communication, sprinkler, water flow detectors, fire detection and
alarm systems and with a direct telephone connection to the appropriate fire station by passing the
switchboard.

The general requirements for the fire control room are stated below:
1. Have a minimum floor area of 10m2, it can be larger depending on the equipment required.
2. Be sited near the main entrance to the buildings main lobby in a designated room.
3. Preferably by adjacent to a fire lift lobby or any other location as designated by the relevant
authority.
4. Be accessible via 2 paths of travel. One from the front entrance and the other from a public place of
fire-isolated passageway, which leads to a public space and has two-hour fire rated door.
5. Have an independent air handling system if mechanical ventilation is provided throughout the
building.
6. Be adequately illuminated to not less than 400 lux.
7. Provide the ability to communicate (e.g. via telephones and loudspeakers) with all parts of the
building, and with the fire and other emergency services.
8. Be provided with insulation from ambient building noise.
9. Be under the control of the Chief Fire Warden (or similar appointed person).

A Fire Control Room must contain the following facilities stated below:
1. Automatic fire alarm and sprinkler indicator boards with facilities for sounding and switching off
alarms and visual status indication for all relevant fire pumps, smoke control fans, air-handling
systems, generators and other required fire safety equipment installed in the building depending on
the circumstances and the system present in the building.
2. A telephone connected directly to the external exchange.
3. The control console of the Emergency Warning and Intercommunication System (EWIS).
4. A blackboard or whiteboard not less than 1200mm.
5. A pin board not less than 1200mm wide x 1000mm high.
6. A ranked plan layout table of a size suitable for laying out the building plans.
7. A repeater panel of the lifts position indicator board.
8. A switch to isolate background music when required.
9. Remote switching controls for gas or electrical supplies.
10. Building security, surveillance and management systems if they are completely segregated from all
other systems.

Page 105 of 187

Automatic Smoke Curtain and Smoke Extract Fan


Operation From Technical Data Sheet Automatic Smoke Curtain
Colt automatic smoke curtains form a retractable barrier to prevent smoke at high level from
spreading outside the smoke reservoir or to control the spread of smoke. They comprise a 24v de
motorised roller assembly fitted with a coated glass fibre cloth at the bottom end of which a
weighted bottom bar is fitted. The roller assembly is contained within a galvanised steel casing. The
cloth is class O rated to the UK building regulations.
When power is applied the motor drives the curtain to the retracted position, set by limit switches
and holds it there. Upon loss of power the curtain drops under gravity at a controlled rate to its
deployed position.
The control system incorporates a battery backup system which will provide power to drive the
curtains in the event of a power failure.
Three typical applications of Smoke Curtains:
1.
2.
3.

Void Edge to contain smoke


Channelling to guide smoke along set routes
Reservoir to minimise smoke spread

The curtain material is a satin weave fibreglass fabric with a silver polyurethane coating on both
sides. It is 0.3-0.4mm thick and weighs approximately 550g/m2. The fabric has a Class 1 surface
spread of flame when tested to BS: 476: Part 7 and a fire propagation index I = 2.7 when tested to
BS: 476: Part 6. It is therefore rated Class 0 to the Building Regulations.
The fabric is manufactured in widths of approximately 1.5m, so curtains with a drop of greater than
1.5m will have horizontal stitched seams at 1.5m centres, using Kevlar thread.

Page 106 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 107 of 187

Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Colt Smokemaster has two modes of operation; either fully retracted or fully dropped. The curtain
will remain in the fully retracted position as long as electrical power is supplied to the motor.
The motor is constantly energised at a reduced voltage, supplying a constant torque to keep the
bottom bar retracted into the V-slot in the casing.
To drop the curtain to its operational position, power to the motor is disconnected. Gravity forces
acting upin the bottom bar will cause the curtain to drop. Drop speed is controlled by friction inside
the gearbox and DC regenerative braking applied by the electronics to the motor. The mass of the
bottom bar is set at the factory to a value with ensures that the Smokemaster will drop reliably in
temperature ranging from 0C to 60C. The curtain will continue to drop until the fabric has
completely unrolled from the roller tube.

Page 108 of 187

Upon reconnection of power, the curtain will retract until the bottom bar hits an obstruction (i.e.the
V-slot in the casing). Electronics inside the drive motor monitor the current drawn by the motor,
when the bottom bar retracts into the casing V-slot, the motor stalls and current to the motor rises
sharply. The electronics sense this and apply a suitable voltage to keep the curtain retracted.
Method of operation:
The smoke curtains are controlled through a Master Power Unit (MPU) located inside the hose reel
cabinet on the corridor of every floor. On the MPU, there will be a key-switch selector.
To activate the curtains, turn the key to the right and the curtains will descend to their designed
condition. To reset the curtains, turn the key back to the normal position and the curtains will
automatically reset after 1 (one) minute.
The Master Smoke Control Panel can also remotely control the smoke curtains. To go this you will
need to turn the key-switch for the respective curtain group to the ACTIVATE position on the
Master Smoke Control Panel. Turn the key-switch to the normal position and press the RESET
button to retract the smoke curtain to their normal position.
Note: As the smoke curtains are powered to retract and held retracted by a small holding current,
Should the power supply to these panel are switched off, the smoke curtains will descend by gravity.
Failsafe Operation:
Failsafe operation is inherent in the design of Colt Smokemaster, and is similar to the general
operation. Removal of power to curtain (either accidental or deliberate) allows the curtain to fall to
its operational position. Rate of fall is not dependent upon electrical power being supplied to the
curtain; the curtains rate of fall will still comply with the requirements stated in BS 7346: Part 3.
This feature arises from the simplicity of Smokemaster design. A relatively low number of moving
parts also improves reliability.

Page 109 of 187

Operation From Technical Data Sheet Smoke Extract Fan


The mechanical smoke extract fans primary function of which is to provide smoke and heat
exhaust ventilation when connected to suitable ductwork system.
The ventilator comprises a cased axial fan and motor unit, rated at 250C for 30mins.
The smoke extract fan is a powered-extract ventilation device which depends upon an electric
motor for its operation. When the appropriate electrical supply is connected and switched on, the
motor drives the impeller to draw air towards the base assembly and into the unit. The impeller is
an axial flow type with aerodynamically shaped blades. As well as exhausting foul air, in normal
conditions, the airflow through the unit provides cooling for the electric motor.

Method of Operation:
The smoke extract fans are controlled through a Fan Starter Panel located in the Level 1, AHU
Room.
The extract fans are automatically controlled by the Master Smoke Control Panel. It can also be
manually control from the Fan Starter Panel. To do this, the selector switch on the panel must be
turned to the manual mode. Then the press the START button on the panel. To stop, press the
STOP button.
Note: Remember to return the selector switch to the automatic position when done.
The extract fans can also be manually operated from the Fire Command Centre on the Ground Floor.
There is a Remote Fan Control Panel next to the Master Smoke Control Panel that is directly hardwired to the Fan Starter Panel. This control panel will only run the fans, only the Fan Starter Panel
can stop the fans, so you must go to the level 1, AHU Room and press the STOP button to stop
the fans.
The Master Smoke Control Panel can also manually run the fans via the key-switch. But as with the
Remote Fan Control Panel, you must go to the Fans Starter Panel in the Level 1, AHU Room to
stop them, after you pressed the RESET button on the Master Smoke Control Panel.

Page 110 of 187

Operation From Technical Data Sheet - Colt Seefire Ventilator


The Colt Seefire is a clear opening louvred natural ventilator, suitable for inlet or extract use for
comfort ventilation and smoke and heat ventilation.
The ventilator is manufactured from aluminium (Colterra) with louvre blades manufactured from
UV resistant translucent double skin polycarbonate sections with aluminium edge trims and end
plates.
The ventilator is fitted with EPDM seals along the louvre edges and polypropylene pile seal
between the louvre sides and upstand to reduce energy losses when closed. All louvers are pivoted
on double black nylon bearings and connected at both ends by twin control channels to the
activating mechanism.
The ventilator is pneumatically controlled, pressure to close, and is sprung open on loss od pressure.
Normal operating pressure is 6-7 bar g. A fusible link is fitted which disconnects the pneumatic
cylinder in case of fire and allows the ventilator to spring open.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 111 of 187

The material used for manufacture is 100% Recycled Grade, Cold Rolled, Mill Finish Aluminium
to 3005 H14. The louvre blade is available in two material options: Aluminium or Translucent
Polycarbonate, Clear, UV protected, 9mm twinwall. The Seefire is fitted with lowloss louvers
which incorporate a weatherseal to reduce heat loss when closed. These can be omitted, if preferred.
The Seefire is available with the option of a Stoved Polyester Powder Paint Finish applied to the
principal components.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Colt Seefire Natural Louvred Ventilator. Technical Data Sheet certified to EN 12101-2: 2003

Page 112 of 187

Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall

The ventilation through an open Seeefire Ventilator is entirely dependent upon natural phenomena.
A difference created across the unit by convection, wind or fan assisted inlet will cause air to pass
through the ventilator. The rate at which this will occur depends upon the prevailing ambient
conditions.
Mechanically the mode of operation is simple, utilising levers to overcome spring tension and
frictional resistance between moving parts.

Page 113 of 187

Method of Operation:
The ventilators are pressured to close and sprung to open system. Therefore, to open the ventilators
the control panel will release the compressed air in the copper tubing and pneumatic cylinder to
allow the spring to open the louvre blades.
To do this, the key-switch selector on the Ventilator Control Panel need to be turned to the
ACTIVATE position to allow the valve to release the compressed air from the copper tubing and
pneumatic cylinder. The spring then will open the ventilator. To close the ventilators, return the
key-switch selector to the normal position and the pneumatic valve will then energize the copper
tubing and pneumatic cylinder in the ventilators to close the louvre blades.
As with the rest of the smoke control system equipment, the Ventilator Control Panel can be
controlled from the Master Smoke Control Panel in the Fire Command Centre by using the keyswitch selector as for the smoke curtains and fans.
Note: Because the ventilators are pressured to close it is important that the pressure in the receiver
tank below the compressor be kept charged at all time.

Page 114 of 187

3. Sprinkler System
The sprinkler system is designed to Loss Prevention Council (LPC) UK and to Local Fire Authority
Requirements. Hazard classification for the sprinkler design for this building is Ordinary Hazard.
One set of sprinkler pump are provided and each of the pump-set comprising of Duty, Standby and
Jockey pump serving to different areas of the building based on the building height. All the
sprinkler pumps are located at Fire Pump Room and status of the pump-set is monitored to the main
fire alarm panel.
Sprinkler alarm control valves are provided after each individual stage of pump-sets to serve for the
particular area in the building.
Water supply to the sprinkler system is drawn from the Sprinkler storage tank located inside the fire
pump room and incoming water supply to the sprinkler tank is directly from JBA water mains.
An isolation valve complete with monitoring switch is provided for each specific zone, any valve in
close position will be monitored back to main fire alarm panel at fire control room.
Flow switch installed after each isolation valve is to sound the alarm should sprinkler is actuated
and flow of water is discharged. All flow switches alarm status is monitored to the main fire alarm
panel at fire control room.
Sprinkler head provided for entire building are rated at 68 degree C with orifice size of 15mm
diameter.
A 4-way breeching inlet is provided neat to Bomba access for the fire brigade to pump in water to
the system in-case sprinkler tank is empty.
The sprinkler piping is fully pressurised with water by sprinkler pump to the pre-set pressure. The
system operates automatically by means of pressure switch. Any fall in the systems pressure sense
by the pressure switch will automatically start the pump-set. At a pre-set pressure level of the
pressure switches, the jockey pump will cuts to drop further, the duty pump will cuts in. In the
event of duty pump failure or unable to maintain the pressure, the standby pump set will cut in.
There is no automatic cut off for the duty standby pump and the system can only be switched off
manually.

JOCKEY
DUTY
STANDBY

Page 115 of 187

Cut-in
85psi
60psi
45psi

Cut-Out
100psi
manually
manually

The system operates only when a sprinkler head breaks open either sensing element reaches the
operating temperature or other means. Water will be discharge from that particular sprinkler head.
At the same time the water alarm gong will give a continuous alarm and the pump-set operated.
Flow switches of the sprinkler zone will be energized with indications of the affected zone
indicated at the main fire alarm panel and alarm bell will be sounded.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Sprinkler used: Automatic Sprinklers Model J BULB L.P.C Series Upright. Pendent. Conventional

Technical Data:
Temperature ratings - 135F (57C), 155F (68C), 175F (79C), 200F (93C), 286F (141C),
360F (182C)
Water Working Pressure Rating 175psi (1207kPa)
Factory Tested hydrostatically to 500psi (3448kPa)
Maximum low temperature

Page 116 of 187

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

(Images retrieved from http://www.idrc.ca/EN/Resources/Publications/openebooks/304-6/f0029-01.gif)

Page 117 of 187

(Images retrieved from http://3.imimg.com/data3/RX/SD/MY-6428964/sprinkler-systems.jpg)

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 118 of 187

Dry Riser System with A 4-way breeching inlet

Dimension of A 4-way breeching inlet (images retrieved from

http://www.naffco.com/product.php?prod_id=753&groups_id=434)

Dimension of A 4-way breeching inlet (images retrieved from

http://www.naffco.com/product.php?prod_id=753&groups_id=434)

Model No

NBI 115 4-Way Breeching Inlet (Manufactured & comply


to BS 5041-3-1975)

Body

Spheroidal Graphite Iron to BS EN 1563:1997

Inlet

4 no's Male instantaneous coupling with NRV to BS 336:


1989

Outlet

6" Flange

Working Pressure 10 Bar


Test Pressure
Page 119 of 187

20 Bar

Page 120 of 187

Fire sprinkler system was found in each floor of the building. It basically consist of a system water
supply system. The dimension between the two sprinkler head is 2.5m wide and 3m high, as shown
in the diagram below:

2.5m

2.5m

Diagram 1: Dimension between sprinkler heads.

3m from the floor

Diagram 2: Dimension between


Sprinkler head and ground floor level.

Under UBBL 1984 Section 228: Sprinkler Valves


The distance between 2 sprinklers should be at a maximum distance of 4.6 metres. Distance
between sprinklers and floor level is about 3 metres. Therefore, Bangsar Village reached the
requirement of the fire protection according to UBBL law.
Bangsar Village has installed pendant type sprinkler which it is hanged from the pipeline, and its
water deflector is located at the bottom of it. When it is concealed, the pendant sprinklers hide
under a special cap that will falls away when the temperature of the surrounding environment rises
to an extreme level and eventually began to spray water in an adequate circumference. At the same
time, the fire control room will sound the alarm valve mechanical gong and affected zone flow
switch, then the fire alarm will be activated.

Page 121 of 187

4.

Carbon Dioxide System

Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is containing in the seamless high-pressure cylinder and pressurized to
1000psi and the pilot cylinder contain with Nitrogen gas with pressure of 550 psi. Extra precaution
should be taken to avoid exposing to Carbon Dioxide gas for extended periods of time in the event
of discharge.
The design concentration is based on 50% by volume and 60 sec. discharge time. Automatic
actuating is obtained by means of heat detectors and smoke detectors. The manual operation is by
means of mechanical pull cable. The Co2 system is maintained and controlled by the control panel.
After any discharge of Co2 gas, DO NOT ENTER THE ROOM IMMEDIATELY WITHOUT
ANY BREATHING APPARATUS. Allow gas to be dispersed from the room before entering the
room.
The panel consists of dual circuit system with volt meter, ammeter, indicators of A.C and D.C
supply, supply failure, battery failure, fuses, heat and smoke detector zone indicators, bell and
buzzer silenced and Co2 discharge indicator. This panel is designed and conforms to the
requirements of the Jabatan Bomba. The control panel operate in as 240V AC supply and a 24V DC
battery as a stand-by source. The voltmeter and ammeter is for voltage and ampere indication
respectively. Each zone consists of alarm indicator, fault indicator, isolate indicator and the selector
switch with indication of test alarm (T/A), test fault (T/F), normal (N) and circuit isolator (ISO).
A set of standby by battery with capacity for 72 hours supply is provided for in the event of any
power failure.

D.2 Co2 Panel Description


The panel consists of dual circuit system with volt meter, ammeter, indicators of A.C and D.C
supply, supply failure, battery failure, fuses, heat and smoke detector zone indicators, bell and
buzzer silenced and CO2 discharge indicator.
The panel is designed and conforms to the requirements of the Chief Inspectorate of Fire Services.
The control panel operate is as 240V AC supply and 24V DC battery as standby source. The
voltmeter and ammeter is for voltage and ampere indication respectively.
Each zone consists of alarm indicator, fault indicator, isolate indicator and the selector switch with
indication of test alarm (T/A), test failure (T/F), normal (N) and circuit isolator (ISO).

a.

Test Alarm (T/A)

Before the test is carried out, have the CO2 isolate switch on. We can simulate a CO2 discharge
condition by firstly switching on the 1st zone to test alarm position, that particular CO2 zone will be
illuminated and the alarm bell ring intermittently. When the 2nd CO2 zone is switched to the alarm
position, the zone illuminated, bell rings continuously and after a time delay of about 25 to 30 sec
the CO2 Actuated will light up which signifies the actuating of CO2 cylinder.
Page 122 of 187

CARE SHOULD BE TAKEN AS NOT TO DISCHARGE THE CO2 GAS ACCIDENTALY.

b.

Testing Fault (T/F)

By turning the selector switch position to T/P, the internal buzzer will sound and fault indicator will
illuminate. This is a simulation of a situation break in the external wiring.

c.

Circuit Isolator (ISO)

In the event of alarm been actuated accidentally or faulty detectors, turn the selector switch position
ISO and press the alarm re-set button. The alarm will be silenced but internal buzzer will sound
continuously until the system is rectified and the set rotary switch to normal (N) position.

d.

Normal (N)

The position of the selector switch must always be in the normal position otherwise the system is
not in operational condition.

e.

System Healthy

The system is healthy when the monitoring system incorporated in the CO2 control panel is not
when the monitoring system incorporated in the CO2 control panel is not sensing any faults or
defects in the detectors wiring. The only indicating bulbs illuminated on the panel during normal
operation are:1.
Main On
2.
DC On
All other indication lights or alarm off.

f.

System Faulty

The system is faulty when the monitoring system incorporated in the CO2 control panel is sensing
fault or defects in the detector wiring failure of main power supply, battery supply and fault in
internal panel components.
If any faults occurs, the panel will indicates the followings
1.
Fault buzzer is sounded
2.
Fault indicator light is indicated

Page 123 of 187

D.3 Operation of the System


The hazard room specified is under close surveillance by smoke/heat detectors. As required by the
Jabatan Bomba the control CO2 control panel is of dual circuit system. This means that it requires
more than one type of detectors to trigger off the discharge of the CO2 gas. This is to avoid
unwarranted false discharge due to false alarm. Upon detection by fire devices, the following events
ill occurs: a)
The CO2 panel indicated the zone of the heat detectors activated.
b)
Alarm Bell at the affected CO2 protected room will ring intermittently.
c)
Upon a second detection of a detector, which must be of different type compared to zone
one detection, alarm bell will ring continuously and a signal is sent to the CO2 panel and after a
time delay of about 25-30 sec, the CO2 gas is discharge.
d)
Warning light above the entrance of the room will flash and alarm bell rings continuously.
e)
All exhaust/ventilation fan will be shut off
f)
Fire curtain will be closed dropped
g)
Signal received at the main fire alarm panel
Should any failure of automatic actuating system occur during a fire, a manual control actuating
switch is provided next to the control panel. Break the glass and switch on the key to discharge gas
immediately.

D.4 Isolation Alarm


In case where false alarm is actuated due to faulty detector or environmental conditioning and
unable to reset the alarm, follow the following instruction: 1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Switch effect zone rotary switch to ISO isolate position


Buzzer will sound
Replace faulty detector immediately
Press reset alarm button. Alarm light off
Turn rotary switch back to N - normal position
Buzzer off

D.5 Testing Procedure


a)
b)

Before testing is carried out ensure the actuator to the CO2 cylinder have disconnected.
Test CO2 panel

1)

Bulb test make sure all bulb are working

2)
Switch off main AC supply
check buzzer sound, change over to battery supply and record battery voltage
3)

Page 124 of 187

Manual test zone circuit by turning selector switch

a)
check alarm zone actuated and bell ring, fault line tested
isolated buzzer sound and bell silence
b)

and buzzer sound, zone isolate

Upon alarm on both alarm zone check

CO2 discharge is actuated after time delay 30sec, warning discharge light lighted, bell rings,
exhaust fan trips
4)

Turn manual discharge manual pull or key switch check

CO2 discharge is actuated, warning discharge light lighted, bell rings


5)

Turn isolate CO2 switch to on check

CO2 discharge is not actuated


6)
Switch selector to Normal position and pressed reset button check
all bell and Buzzer silenced, DC on and AC on is only lighted
C) Fire Test Condition
1) Subject 1st detector with smoke/heat source (depending on type of detector)a) Check detector tested is monitored at the CO2 panel and bell ring
2) Subject 2nd detector with smoke/heat source
Do note reset the system, go to step 3
3) After above 30sec
Check Co2 actuated lighted up, warning light lighted, bell ring, exhaust fan trips, curtain trips (CO2
discharge monitored to Main Fire Panel)
4) Reset both detector zone at the CO2 panel
Check all systems are in normal condition and bell are silenced

Page 125 of 187

Outside the Carbon Dioxide System integrated High Voltage Room. Photograph by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 126 of 187

When the light is Red, indicates that the room is not accessible. Photograph by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 127 of 187

Carbon Dioxide System. Photograph by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 128 of 187

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

(images retrieved from http://www.ehsuniverse.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/firesupp.jpg)

Page 129 of 187

Carbon Dioxide System Set Up:

(images retrieved from http://www.alarm.com.mv/product_CO2%20suppress.htm)

Page 130 of 187

5. Water Tank and Pump


The fire water storage tank is located at the rooftop of the building. The wet riser system and
sprinkler system uses the same tank of water. The volume of water contained in the water tank
should be sufficient to supply enough water for firefighting system in the whole building.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 131 of 187

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 132 of 187

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall

Under UBBL 1984 Section 247(2) Water Storage


Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for hose reel systems, shall be located at
ground, first or second basement levels, with the brigade pumping inlet connections accessible to
fire appliances.

Under UBBL 1984 Section 247: Water Storage


1.
Water storage capacity and water flow rate for firefighting system and installation shall be
provided in accordance with the scale as set out in the Tenth Schedule to these By-laws.
2.
Main water storage tanks within the building, other than for the hose reel system, shall be
located at ground, first or second basement levels, with fire brigade pumping inlet connection
accessible to fire appliances.
3.
Storage tanks for automatic sprinkler installation where full capacity is provided without
the need for replenishment shall be exempted from the restrictions in their location.

Page 133 of 187

Range 32-150mm Discharge.


(Retrived from : http://www.psgdover.com/assets/ebsray-pump/downloads/brochures/brochure-streamline-centrifugal-

pump.pdf;
Esbay, streamline centrifugal pump range, publication number 1344)

Page 134 of 187

6.

Standpipe and hose system

The system is to the requirements of Jabatan Perkhidmatan Bomba Malaysia.


Two sets of existing hose reel pump sets are provided in the building. Where power supply to the
pump sets is from essential supply. The duty/standby pump set provided is electrical motor driven.
Hose reel drum complete with rubber hose and nozzles are strategically located at various locations
at the building. Duty and standby pump sets of the hose reel system are used to operate the hose reel
when operated.
Hose reel system is a first aid fire fighting equipment and should only be used for initial stage of the
fire.
Note: Under no circumstance shall the hose reel be used for cleaning and washing other than the
purpose of the fire aid fire fighting.

Manual of operation
a.
Turn on supply valve below hose reel drum
b.
Run out the rubber hose
c.
Direct the spray nozzle at the base of fire
d.
Turn on the spray nozzle at the base of fire
e.
After used, shut off the nozzle and roll back the rubber hose
f. Turn off the supply gate valves

Operation of Pump Sets


The hose reel piping is fully pressurized with water to a set pressure of the hose reel pump sets. The
system operates automatically using pressure sensor to operate the pump sets. Any fall in the
system pressure; sense by the pressure switches will automatically starts the pump sets. At a pre-set
pressure level of the pressure switches, the duty pump will cuts in the boost the pressure back to the
set pressure and to the achieved the design discharges pressure at the hose reel. However should the
pressure drop further the standby pump set will cuts in. The duty pump starts and stops
automatically but the diesel engine pumps starts automatically and manually stop by pressing the
stop lever at the engine.

Duty
Standby

Page 135 of 187

Cut In

Cut Out

65 psi
45psi

70psi
70psi

Standard Hose Compartment

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 136 of 187

Standard Hose Compartment

Measurement of Standard Hose compartment collected along corridor on site:

Page 137 of 187

Fire Hose Reel is located along the corridors and provided with about 40m of reinforced rubber
hose, so that maximum 800m2 of floor area are covered by one installation. A minimum delivery of
24l/min is recommended at the hose reel most distant from the source of water.
Hose Reel Specification:
The standard hose is made of reinforced PVC, marking pressure 10 bar, however Rubber hose also
available. The hose reel drum can be made to accommodate 120ft/ 36m.

Page 138 of 187

Page 139 of 187

BESTOBELL, TYPE OR204 Pressure Regulator

Page 140 of 187

7.

Portable Fire Extinguisher

Two type of fire extinguisher are provided in the building. The 9kg. ABC dry powder type
extinguisher for all type of fire and the 2.2kg. Co2 gaseous type extinguisher for the electrical
switch room.

Manual of Operation
Operation of the extinguisher is as follows:
1.
Lift up extinguisher and direct discharge nozzle at fire source
2.
Disconnect safety pin from the extinguisher lever
3.
Pressed lever to discharge

Maintenance Procedure For Portable Fire Extinguisher


1.
Check the ABC Dry Powder pressure gauge pressure, if the pressure is lower than required,
the cylinder should be refill.
2.
Dismantle the portable CO2 fire extinguisher cylinder and weight the cylinder. If the net
content of CO2 gas is less than 2.2kg, the cylinders should be refilled.

[NFPA-10] Periodic inspection of fire extinguishers shall include a check of at


least the
following items
1.

Location in designated place.

2.

No obstruction to access or visibility.

3.

Pressure gauge reading or indicator in the operable range or position.

4.
Fullness determined by weighing or hefting for self-expelling-type extinguishers,
Cartridge-operated extinguishers, and pump tanks.
5.

Operating instructions on nameplate and facing outward

6.

Safety seals and tamper indicators not broken or missing.

7.

Examination for obvious physical damage, corrosion, leakage, or clogged nozzle.

Page 141 of 187

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 142 of 187

(retrieved from https://www.osha.gov/SLTC/etools/evacuation/images/cutaway.jpg)

Page 143 of 187

Reference of Portable Fire Extinguisher Elements

(retrieved from http://amerex-fire.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/05602-Manual-for-hand-portable-dry-chemical-extinguishers.pdf)

Page 144 of 187

8.

Lightning Protection: Emergency Light

3 hours back up provided throughout all general office areas and routes to fire exit. Exit lights are
maintained type. Emergency lights are non-maintained type. Lights in fire escape staircase are on
Emergency supply.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 145 of 187

Photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 146 of 187

9. Fire Circuit Breaker

(images retrieved from http://www.tpub.com/doeelecscience/electrical%20science2_files/image1240.jpg)

(images retrieved from http://www.globalspec.com/ImageRepository/LearnMore/20138/circuit-breakerdiagram162b6177daad4c8098896e8c80339fee.gif)

Page 147 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 148 of 187

10.Fire Rated Door

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 149 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 150 of 187

(images retrieved from http://www.tsscuae.com/sites/tsscuae.com/files/images/Fire%20rated%20door%20drawing.jpg)

Page 151 of 187

(images retrieved from http://www.naffco.com/products/pr08/images/large/PR080104.jpg)

(images retrieved from http://i01.i.aliimg.com/img/pb/443/422/887/887422443_791.jpg)

Page 152 of 187

(images retrieved from http://www.schuham.com/architectural-wood-doors/fire-rated-graphic.gif)

Page 153 of 187

11.Fire Hydrant and Drainage


Based on our on site research, there are total 4 fire hydrants with drainage system about less than 20meter
away from the Bangsar Village Shopping Mall building.
Below are the images of fire hydrants being collected on site:

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 154 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 155 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 156 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 157 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 158 of 187

(images retrieved from http://www.naffco.com/images/uploads/gallery/PR041201.jpg)

(Images retrieved from http://www.madehow.com/images/hpm_0000_0004_0_img0081.jpg)

Page 159 of 187

(Images retrieved from


http://www.mcscs.jus.gov.on.ca/stellent/groups/public/@mcscs/@www/@ofm/documents/webasset/~export/ECOFM000453~2~MCSCS_DCT~MCSC
S_Layout_Template/176873-3.jpg)

Fire Hydrants Laws and Regulations


Duty of water authority to notify the State Director of any action affecting the flow of water to
a fire hydrant
24. Where a water authority decides to take any action or do any act or carry out any work that will
or is likely to reduce or stop the flow of water to any fire hydrant, it shall be the duty of the water
authority to notify the appropriate State Director in writing of such decision as soon as possible
after it is made.
Power to fix fire hydrant location plates
25.
(1) Upon giving seven days notice in writing to the owner of any property situated in the vicinity
of a fire hydrant, the Director General may cause a plate indicating the location of the fire hydrant
to be fixed to such part of the property as, in the opinion of the Director General, is best suited to
indicate such location.
(2) Any person who refuses to allow the fixing of any such plate as is referred to in subsection (1)
or obstructs any person in the course of the fixing thereof or removes or defaces any such plate after
it has been fixed shall be guilty of an offence.
Concealment and misuse of fire hydrants
26. Any person who covers up, encloses, or conceals any fire
hydrant so as to render its location difficult to ascertain, or tampers with any fire hydrant, or uses a
fire hydrant other than for fire fighting purposes shall be guilty of an offence.

Page 160 of 187

12.

Fire Alarm Panel

The Fire Alarm Panel is manufactured in accordance to MS 1404 Part 4 (1996) and to local CIFS
requirements. The panels can come in various ranges from 2 zones to over 200 zones depending on
building requirements. Usually MIMIC comes along with the panel to show the location of the
Alarmed Zones.

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 161 of 187

(retrieved from http://www.wit-dvr.com/bosch/fire/manualcallpoint.pdf)

Manual Call Point


The surface mounting box and semi-flush pat tress box spacer are available as accessories.
Additional plastic test keys are available in packs of ten. Spare glasses for all units that require glass
are also available in packs of ten. A set of weather resistant gaskets is available separately to
facilitate installations of the 1195 range in external locations.

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

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Dimension of call point: 88mm X 88mm; Surface 55mm, Flush 20mm


Data collected from Fire Protection Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall

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The Test Key

Inserted at base of call point, for easy testing


without breaking glass. Spare test keys available in
packs of 10.

(image retrived from http://thumbs2.ebaystatic.com/m/mwvZNnvLYEKvNlDzE7jOZMA/140.jpg)

A Weather Resistant Kit


Allowing 1195 to be used externally
providing weather resistance to IP54

(image retrived from http://thumbs2.picclick.com/d/w1600/pict/261175440885_/2-x-Manual-Call-Point-Surface-WeatherResistant.jpg)

4114 General Purpose Call Point


For other emergency systems such
as Poolside drowning alarms or
chemical Spillage warnings the plain
yellow 4114 actuation point is
available

(image retrived from


http://www.yesss.co.uk/images/products/related/1377190
262-03377300.jpg)

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Gent Model 505 Dome Bell


The Gent bell with gong diameter 152mm (6) is designed and used to produce a loud, clear ring. It
is elegantly styled, high quality bells, rugged enough for most arduous conditions. The simple
fixing method, by means of a universal back plate reduces installation costs. This model has a black
polycarbonate base and cover with an enamel gong available in red as standard.
505 type bell is 24VDC type. When the bell is operated at the lower end of each range, it will take
the minimum current consistent with adequate volume. Alternatively, when operated at the upper
end of each range. It will provide the maximum volume.
The back plate is designed to be fixed and wired before the main body of the bell is attached to it.
Wiring entry is by 20mm dia. Entry in the centre of the back plate, knockouts are provided to suite
the majority of standard conduit box fixings. Cable connections are made to a shrouded socket
integral with the backplate. The socket automatically mates with a corresponding plug in the main
body of the bell when the two parts are assembled.
505 is designed to be used in weather resistant applications to without modifications; however, an
appropriate standard weather resistant conduit box should be used for mounting the bell.

Specifications:
Base and cover

Dust and dirt resistant. High impact resistant polycarbonate

Gong

Pressed steel

Size

152mm(6)

Finish Gong-stove enamelled red. Base and cover-moulded in black


Polycarbonate
Cable Entry

20mm diameter hole in black plate

Terminals
To accommodate two 1.5mm2 cables with plug and socket
arrangement for base and bell body
Current
Consumption 150mA at 24Vdc
Sound Output

Page 165 of 187

90dB (at 1M)

(image retrived fromhttp://www.edwards-signals.com/index.cfm?pid=235&level=92)

(image retrived from http://www.demcoalarm.com/images/dome%20bell_banner.jpg)

Page 166 of 187

2.4.4.2 Passive Fire Protection System:


1. Emergency Escape Corridor
2. Emergency Staircase ,Stairwell and staircase design
3. Gathering Space (Assembly Space) and
Evacuate Circulation
4. Sign, Warnings

Page 167 of 187

1. Emergency Escape Corridor

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 168 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 169 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 170 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 171 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 172 of 187

2. Emergency Staircase ,Stairwell and staircase design

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

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photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 174 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 175 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 176 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

One good example can learnt from the site is that how does the management keeps the record of
the staircase condition with a staircase log book.

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3. Gathering Space (Assembly Space) and Evacuate Circulation

Bangsar Village Shppping Mall Floorplan

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Fire Escape Route


photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Fire Escape Route


photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 179 of 187

Assembly Place

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 180 of 187

Fire Escape Route


photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Under UBBL 1984 Section 189: Enclosing means of escape in certain building.
1. Every staircase provided under these By-Laws in a building where the highest floor is more than
1200mm above the ground level, or in any place of assembly, or in any school when such staircase
is used as an alternative means of escape shall be enclosed throughout its length with fire resisting
materials.
2. Any necessary openings, except openings in external walls which shall not for the purpose of this
by-law include wall to air wells, in the length of such staircase shall be provided with self-closing
doors constructed of the fire resisting materials.

4. Signs and Warnings


Emergency Exit signage is responsible in showing the way to safety outdoor area or assembly area.
It is an effective guidance tool and helped to reduce panic of people behavioral during fire by
giving a clear directional system. These sign must always light in case of necessity. The letters are
standardized and sufficiently big to be seen and green in color to be more visible to people. In
Malaysia, the emergency exit signage is written in Malay KELUAR, which its meaning is EXIT.

Under UBBL 1984 Section 172:


1. Storey exits and access to such exits shall be marked by readily visible signs and shall not obscure
by any decoration, furnishings or other equipment.
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2. A sign reading KELUAR with an arrow indicating the direction shall be placed in every location
where the direction of the travel to reach the nearest exit is not immediately apparent.
3. Every exit sign shall have the word KELUAR in plainly legible letters not less than 150m high
with the principal stokes of the letters not less than 18mm wide. The lettering shall be in red against
a black background.
4. All exit signs shall be illuminated continuously during periods of occupancy.
5. Illuminated signs are provided with two electric lamps of not less than fifteen watts each.

Page 182 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

2.4.4 Potential Hazards:


Human Fault

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Human Fault
According to our research at the selected site, we found out that the potential of fire hazards around
the building as shown in the images below:

Page 184 of 187

photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 185 of 187

Improper management of waste photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Objects become obstacles to the path. photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Most of the potential causes are the improper management of material and waste. The improper
placement of object at fire escapes corridor and staircases also considered as one of the potential
hazard to increase the difficulty of the user to escape from the building.

Page 186 of 187

Improper management of material and waste photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 187 of 187

Placement of material that easily ignited on fully filled diesel tank. photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Blockage of fire escape path. photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

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Misplacement of object around Fire Hose Compartment photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall.

Page 189 of 187

Objects become obstacles to the fire escape path. Not enough space to pull out hose photographed by Yong Yih Tyng at Bangsar Village Shopping
Mall.

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2.4.4 CONCLUSION
Fire is unavoidable and unpredictable event that it takes away precious life. Thus, at design decision
stage, designer, Architects or Engineer should take serious consideration in account of how to
reduce the risk of death by providing the user a survival route and equipment during emergency.
Fire protection system must be planned will before execute to ensure that the system is functioning
well or else it will be the waste of space, and at the worst, not able to save lives but become one of
the culprit of death in fire.
Most of the time, the causes of fire is due to human ignorance about the rules and regulation and
poor maintenance of the site. It is important to take in consideration of how to perform a well
maintenance system after the fire protection system is being designed.

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3.0 Overall Summary


In conclusion, it is important for designers to understand well about the significance of Building
Service to provide a safety, comfortable and efficient environment to the users. Building services
function to accommodate the needs of the users. It is a network of systems working together in
unity to enhance the experience of the users within a building.

Page 192 of 187

4.0 Reference List


1. MFS.SA.GOV.AU SAMFS :: Fire Fighting Systems and Equipment in Buildings
In-text: (Mfs.sa.gov.au, 2014)
Bibliography: Mfs.sa.gov.au, (2014). SAMFS :: Fire Fighting Systems and Equipment in
Buildings. [online] Available at:
http://www.mfs.sa.gov.au/site/community_safety/commercial/building_fire_safety/fire_fighting_sy
stems_and_equipment_in_buildings.jsp [Accessed 20 Sep. 2014].
2. ESSAYS, U. Analysing Fire Regulation In Malaysia Engineering Essay
In-text: (Essays, 2014)
Bibliography: Essays, U. (2014). Analysing Fire Regulation In Malaysia Engineering Essay.
[online] Ukessays.com. Available at: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/engineering/analysing-fireregulation-in-malaysia-engineering-essay.php [Accessed 20 Sep. 2014]
3. WBDG.ORG Fire Protection | Whole Building Design Guide
In-text: (Wbdg.org, 2014)
Bibliography: Wbdg.org, (2014). Fire Protection | Whole Building Design Guide. [online]
Available at: http://www.wbdg.org/design/fire_protection.php [Accessed 20 Sep. 2014].
4. Audit Commission Hong Kong, Architectural Services Department Installing building services
systems in government buildings, 25 October 2010
(Retrieved from http://www.aud.gov.hk) Retrieved October, 8th, 2014
5. Definition of Building Services http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_services_engineering
Retrieved October, 8th, 2014
6. Definition of Fire Protectionhttp://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_protection/ Retrieved October,
8th 2014
7. http://bp1.blogger/com/ Retrieved October, 8th 2014
8. Lai, T. (2013, February 19). Air Conditioning 6 - Fan Coil Unit (FCU). Retrieved from
Youtube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QI0O5xZ3liI
9. lhai_rn_2007. (2010, October 20). AHU vs FCU. Retrieved from
Scribd.:https://www.scribd.com/doc/39699597/AHU-vs-FCU
10. perfect-home-hvac-design. (2009-2013). HVAC FOR BEGINNERS. Retrieved from perfect-homehvac-design: http://www.perfect-home-hvac-design.com/hvac-for...
11. Wikipedia. (2014, October 1). Fan coil unit. Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fan_coil_unit#Areas_of_use
12. Malaysian Standard 1525. (2007). 1st ed. [ebook] Available
at:http://www.utm.my/energyma.../files/2014/07/MS-1525-2007.pdf [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014].
13. Parsnow, J. (2014). HFC-134a AN IDEAL REFRIGERANT. 1st ed. [ebook] Available
at: http://dms.hvacpartners.com/docs/1001/public/05/wp028.pdf[Accessed 3 Oct. 2014].
14. Shea, R. (2014). How does a chiller system work? - Automation Technology US - Siemens. [online]
Industry.usa.siemens.com. Available at:http://www.industry.usa.siemens.com/.../how-doesa... [Accessed 5 Oct. 2014].
15. Thomas, V. (2002). Chiller Plant Design | Energy-Models.com. [online] Energy-models.com.
Available at: http://energy-models.com/chiller-plant-design[Accessed 2 Oct. 2014].
16. Vafusa.com, (2014). Cooling Tower Filtration Application. [online] Available
at:http://www.vafusa.com/app-cooling-tower.htm [Accessed 10 Oct. 2014].

Page 193 of 187

Book and Journal


1. Walter T. Grondzik, Alison, Benjamin, John S,Chapter 24 Mechanical and Electrical Equipment
For Buildings, eleventh edition, 2010
2. LAWS OF MALAYSIA Act 341FIRE SERVICES ACT 1988
3. Random House Kernerman Websters College University, copyrights 2010 K Dictionaries Ltd.
Copyright 2005, 1997, 1991 by Random House, Inc. All rights reserved.
4. Colt Seefire Natural Louvred Ventilator. Technical Data Sheet certified to EN 12101-2: 2003
5. Case studies: Stardust Nightclub Fire, Ireland, February 13, 1981. Fahy,R.F.;Proulx, G. ,Panic and
human behaviour in fire, 13th July 2009
6. Case Studies: Gothenburg Discotheque Fire, Sweden, October 29, 1998; Fahy,R.F.;Proulx,
G. ,Panic and human behaviour in fire, 13th July 2009
7. Fire Safety Risk Analysis Life Safety and property protection guidance framework (FPA, 2003)
8. Alternating current. (2014, July 10). Retrieved October 8th, 2014.
9. Battery (electricity). (2014, January 10). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
10. Bus bar. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
11. Bus coupler. (2014, March 9). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
12. Chapter 8. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
13. Distribution switchboards. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
14. Electrical Bus Duct Components. (2011, January 20). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
15. Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution System. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
16. Google. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
17. Hanson, K., & Fritsky, L. (2014, September 11). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
18. Introduction to Emergency Lighting. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
19. Jonathan, F. (2008). Electrical System. In Building automation: Control devices and applications.
Homewood, Ill.: American Technical.
20. (n.d.). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
21. Tenaga Nasional. (2014, September 24). Retrieved October 8, 2014.
22.
Other
1. Interviews
2. Fire Protection System Operation Manual at Bangsar Village Shopping Mall

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