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Table of Content

No.

Title

1.

Introduction to Chlorobenzene

2.

Process Description & Process Analysis

3.

Plant Location & Site Selection

4.

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

5.

Workbook

6.

Material & Energy Balance

7.

Pinch Calculation

8.

Major Equipment Design


Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

9.

Plant Layout

10. Capital & Manufacturing Cost


11. Hazard Analysis (Environmental
Considerations)
12. References
13. Appendices

Page

Introduction to Chlorobenzene

Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. It is made
from chlorine and benzene trough chlorination process. It is a colorless volatile flammable liquid
with an almond odor and used as a solvent and in the production of phenol and DDT and other
organic compounds.
As a group, chlorobenzenes are much less reactive than the corresponding chlorinated
derivatives of alkyl compounds and are similar in reactivity to the vinyl halides. They are very
stable to nucleophilic attack due to resonance in the molecule resulting in a shortening of the
carbon-chlorine bond distance and an increase in bond strength.

Chlorobenzenes are not attacked by air, moisture, or light. at room temperature and pressure.
Chlorobenzenes also are not affected by steam, prolonged boiling with aqueous or alcoholic
ammonia, other alkalis, hydrochloric acid, or dilute sulfuric acid. To form phenols, hydrolysis
takes place at elevated temperatures in the presence of a catalyst.

Hot concentrated sulfuric acid attack chlorobenzenes to form chlorobenzene-p-sulfonic acid.


Nitric acid will react with chlorobenzenes at the meta- and parapositions on the ring to form
chloronitrobenzenes at -30C to 0C (-22C to 32F). At higher temperatures, the nitration will
either proceed further to form a dinitrochloro-compound, chloronitrophenol, or a nitrophenol.1
Chlorobenzenes are attacked by electrophilic agents. Para- is predominantly substitution for

monochlorobenzene with some ortho-substitution. Electrophilic substitution might be resisted by


the higher chlorinated benzenes but can be substituted under extreme conditions.

Some free radical reactions undergo on Chlorobenzenes. Formation of organometallic


compounds (grignards, aryl-lithium compounds) provides a useful route to many organic
intermediates. Photochemical transformations occur on irradiation of chlorinated benzenes,
which are much less stable to radiation than benzene. When subjected to ultraviolet irradiation or
pulse hydrolysis in solution, chlorobenzenes may polymerize to biphenyls, chloronaphthalenes,
or more complex products. The ability of chlorobenzenes to undergo wide varieties of chemical
reactions makes chlorinated benzenes useful as reactants in numerous commercial processes to
produce varied products. All chlorinated derivatives of benzene are soluble in lipids. Partition
coefficient data for chlorobenzenes show an increase in partition coefficient with an increase in
the degree of chlorination. In general, a positive correlation exists between partition coefficient
and degree of bioaccumulation.

Identification
Chlorobenzene identification in the commercial industry is listed as below in Table 1.2:
Chemical Name

Chlorobenzene

Molecular Structure
Synonyms

Monochlorobenzene,

Chlorobenzol,

chloride, Benzene chloride


IUPAC Name

Chlorobenzene

Classification

Aryl halides

UN Identification Number

UN1134

Hazardous Waste ID No.

D001, U037, D021

Formula

C6H5Cl

Codes/Label Flammable

Class 3

Phenyl

The physical and chemical properties of chlorobenzene can be concluded in the Table 1.1.
Properties

Value

Molecular Weight

112.56G

Normal Freezing Point

-45.58 C

Vapor Pressure

1.17 kPa

Normal Boiling Point,

131.69 C

Liquid Density

1.11 g/cm3

Reference temperature for liquid

20 C

Density

Uses
Chlorobenzene is usually used as a solvent for pesticide formulations, diisocyanate manufacture,
and degreasing automobile parts and for the production of nitrochlorobenzene. Furthermore,
chlorobenzene can be used as intermediate in the phenol and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane
(DDT) production.

Health
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stated that the exposure of the
chlorobenzene to human being appears to be primarily occupational. EPA has listed some
information on the health hazard information of chlorobenzene.
Acute Effects:
Acute exposure to chlorobenzene may cause redness and inflammation of the eyes and eyelids,
runny nose, sore throat, redness and irritation of the skin, headache, dizziness, drowsiness,
incoherence, ataxia, and loss of consciousness. Furthermore, it also may cause twitching of the
extremities, deep and rapid respiration, and irregular heartbeat. Respiratory arrest may follow.

1. A child who ingested chlorobenzene became unconscious and cyanotic and had muscle
spasms but recovered completely.
2. Acute inhalation exposure of animals to chlorobenzene produced narcosis, restlessness,
tremors, and muscle spasms.
3. Acute animal tests in rats, mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs have demonstrated
chlorobenzene to have low acute toxicity by inhalation and moderate acute toxicity from
oral exposure.
Chronic Effects (Non-cancer):
Long term exposure to chlorobenzene may cause chronic central nervous system (CNS)
depressions which are headache, dizziness, and somnolence. Based on effects seen in animals,
chronic exposure may cause elevated liver enzymes, enlarged and tender liver, and blood, pus, or
protein in the urine. Prolonged or repeated skin contact may cause skin burns.
1. Chronic exposure of humans to chlorobenzene affects the CNS. Signs of neurotoxicity
include numbness, cyanosis, hyperesthesia (increased sensation), and muscle spasms.
2. Headaches and irritation of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and eyes have also
been reported in humans chronically exposed via inhalation.
3. The CNS, liver, and kidneys have been affected in animals chronically exposed to
chlorobenzene by inhalation.
4. Chronic ingestion of chlorobenzene has resulted in damage to the kidneys and liver in
animals.
5. EPA has calculated a provisional Reference Concentration (RfC) of 0.02 milligrams per
cubic meter (mg/m3) for chlorobenzene based on kidney and liver effects in rats. The
RfC is an estimate (with uncertainty spanning perhaps an order of magnitude) of a
continuous inhalation exposure to the human population (including sensitive subgroups),
that is likely to be without appreciable risk of deleterious noncancer effects during a
lifetime. It is not a direct esimator of risk but rather a reference point to gauge the
potential effects. At exposures increasingly greater than the RfC, the potential for adverse
health effects increases. Lifetime exposure above the RfC does not imply that an adverse
health effect would necessarily occur. The provisional RfC is a value that has had some
form of Agency review, but it does not appear on IRIS.

6. The Reference Dose (RfD) for chlorobenzene is 0.02 milligrams per kilogram body
weight per day (mg/kg/d) based on histopathologic changes in the liver in dogs.
7. EPA has medium confidence in the study on which the RfD was based because it
provided both a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) and a lowest-observedadverse-effect level (LOAEL) and incorporated several biochemical and biological
endpoints; medium confidence in the database because several subchronic, chronic,
developmental, and reproductive toxicity studies provide supportive data, but they did not
give a complete assessment of toxicity; and, consequently, medium confidence in the
RfD.
Reproductive/Developmental Effects:
1. No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of
chlorobenzene in humans.
2. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to chlorobenzene did not adversely affect
reproductive performance or fertility. However, a slight increase in the incidence of
degenerative testicular changes was observed.
3. Chlorobenzene does not appear to be a developmental toxicant and did not produce
structural malformations in rats and rabbits acutely exposed via inhalation.
Cancer Risk:
1. No information is available on the carcinogenic effects of chlorobenzene in humans.
2. In a National Toxicology Program (NTP) study of rats and mice exposed to
chlorobenzene via gavage (experimentally placing the chemical in the stomach), an
increased incidence of neoplastic nodules of the liver in high dose male rats was
observed, but not in female rats or male or female mice.
3. EPA has classified chlorobenzene as a Group D, not classifiable as to human
carcinogenicity.

Handling
A worker who handles chlorobenzene should wear protective clothing such as gloves, boots,
aprons, and gauntlets to prevent skin contact with chlorobenzene. Eyewash fountains and
emergency showers should be available within the immediate work area whenever the potential
exists for eye or skin contact with chlorobenzene. Contact lenses should not be worn if the
potential exists for chlorobenzene exposure.
Use of respirator also should be considered for handling the chlorobenzene. Good industrial
hygiene practice requires that engineering controls be used to reduce workplace concentrations
of hazardous materials to the prescribed exposure limit. Respirators must be worn if the ambient
concentration of chlorobenzene exceeds prescribed exposure limits.
Spill and leaks
In the event of spill or leak involving chlorobenzene, persons not wearing protective equipment
and clothing should be restricted from contaminated areas until cleanup is complete. The
following steps should be undertaken following a spill or leak:
1. Do not touch the spilled material.
2. Notify safety personnel.
3. Remove all sources of heat and ignition.
4. Ventilate potentially explosive atmospheres.
5. Water spray may be used to reduce vapors, but the spray may not prevent ignition in
closed places.
6. For small dry spills, use a clean non-sparking shovel and gently place the material into a
clean, dry container, cover and remove the container from the spill area.
7. For small liquid spills, absorb with sand or other non-combustible absorbent material and
place into closed container for later disposal.
8. For large liquid spills, build dikes far ahead of the spill to contain the chlorobenzene for
later reclamation or disposal.

Storage
Chlorobenzene should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed
containers that are labeled in accordance with OSHAs hazard communication standard (29 CFR
1910.1200). Outside or detached storage is preferred. Inside storage should be in a standard
flammable liquid storage room. Containers of chlorobenzene should be protected from physical
damage and should be stored separately from oxidizers, dimethyl sulfoxide, silver perchlorate,
other incompatible material, heat, sparks, and open flame. Only non-sparking tools may be used
to handle chlrobenzene. To prevent static sparks, containers should be grounded and bonded for
transfers. Because containers that formerly contained chlorobenzene may still hold product
residues, they should be handled appropriately.

Market Analysis of Chlorobenzene


Demand and consumption pattern
Only three of many possible products resulting from the chlorination of benzene continue to have
any

large-volume

applicationsmonochlorobenzene,

o-dichlorobenzene

and

p-

dichlorobenzeneand they are the major focus of this report. These three products combined
account for as much as 9296% of the total chlorobenzenes market. Other chlorobenzenes that
have commercial applications but are not produced on a large scale include m-dichlorobenzene,
trichlorobenzenes, tetrachlorobenzenes and hexachlorobenzene. Market information on these
products is included in the report where available.
The following pie chart shows consumption of chlorobenzenes in the major regions:

Monochlorobenzene accounts for nearly 73% of total chlorobenzene consumption. China is the
world's largest manufacturer and consumer, accounting for nearly 82% of total consumption in
the four major regions shown below. Monochlorobenzene represents about 70% of
chlorobenzene consumption in Western Europe, and 52% of consumption in the United States,
but only 10% in Japan, where p-dichlorobenzene is a larger factor than in the other regions.
Nitrochlorobenzene is the most significant end use for monochlorobenzene. Nitrochlorobenzenes
are consumed as intermediates in the manufacture of dyes and pigments, rubber-processing
chemicals, pesticides (e.g., parathion and carbofuran), pharmaceuticals (e.g., acetaminophen) and
other organic chemicals. Monochlorobenzene has been used for the synthesis of diphenyl ether
(also known as diphenyl oxide or DPO) and is increasing in demand for sulfone polymers.
o-Dichlorobenzene is a chemical intermediate consumed mostly for 3,4-dichloroaniline in the
United States, South America and Western Europe and as an herbicide intermediate in Japan.
Worldwide, p-dichlorobenzene is used primarily as a raw material for polyphenylene sulfide
(PPS) resins, for deodorant blocks for indoor air, and for moth control. Polyphenylene sulfide is
a growing high-performance polymer that is produced only in the United States, Japan and
China. PPS resin production has increased rapidly both in the United States and Japan over the
past five years and has become significant in China since 2010. PPS production is projected to
continue to grow over the next five years, with additional capacity planned in China and the
Republic of Korea. There are no producers of PPS resins in Western Europe.
The gradual shift in global demand away from industrialized regions and further into developing
countries has resulted in a buildup of new chlorobenzene capacity in Asia. China is the world's
most diverse market and home to four of the world's five largest producers. It also accounts for
an estimated 6875% of global capacity.
With the exception of high-performance polymers, the markets for chlorobenzenes are mature.
Demand for chlorobenzenes in more industrialized regions has been on a decline for the past few
decades as a result of the substitution of alternative chemistry in the production of such products
as phenol, rubber chemicals and moth control agents. Growing environmental concern over
usage in herbicides and solvents has additionally contributed to the slow decline. However,

strong growth in China and growing global demand for p-dichlorobenzene have since stabilized
this trend, resulting in a moderate, average growth rate of 4% per year for the forecast period.
Future Demand for Chlorobenzene
The capacity of chlorobenzene in China reached 320 000 t/a at the end of 2003, accounting for
50% of the world total. The output of chlorobenzene in China was around 260 000 tons in 2003.
Chlorobenzene is mainly used to produce o- and pnitrochlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene
and diphenyl ether. It is also used in the synthesis of solvents, pesticides and dyestuffs. The
consumption composition of chlorobenzene in 2003 was 73.8% for o- and p-nitrochlorobenzene,
10% for 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, 1.7% for diphenyl ether and 14.5% for others. The import and
export amounts of chlorobenzene in China are fairly small. The export amount was estimated to
be 3 000 tons in 2003. The competition in chlorobenzene and major downstream products is
mainly between domestic producers rather than from foreign products. Furthermore, the
consumption of chlorobenzene in other sectors is also relatively stable, mainly determined by o a n d p nitrochlorobenzene production. With the rapid capacity expansion, the production cost
of o- and p-nitrochlorobenzene in China has consistently fallen. Foreign countries have slowed
down the development of o- and p-nitrochlorobenzene production and mainly depended on the
import of downstream fine chemicals derived from o- and p-nitrochlorobenzene such as
dyestuffs, pigments, pharmaceuticals and pesticides from China. The export of o- and pnitrochlorobenzene has therefore been promoted. Chlorobenzene will still experience brisk
production and sales in China in 2004 and there will be a supply shortage in some areas. If there
are no drastic fluctuations in raw material supply, however, the price of chlorobenzene will be
kept stable.

Process Description & Process Analysis


Continuous process
Batch process
Raschig process

1. Direct chlorination (Continuous process)


C6H6 + Cl2

C6H5Cl + HCl

C6H6 + Cl2

C6H5Cl + HCl

The process begins with a series of small, externally cooled cast iron or steel vessels
containing the catalyst (which may consist of Rashig ring of iron or iron wire). The catalyst used
is usually Ferric chloride. This can be added as solution in benzene. Chlorine is supplied into
each vessel through suitably positioned inlets to maintain a large benzene-to-chorine reaction at
all points along the reaction stream. The temperature is maintained about 20

to 40

for this

reaction in order to minimize the production of dichlorobezene which occur at higher


temperature. Besides, this range of temperature is the best temperature for production of large
amount of monochlorobenzene. This process will produce large amount of monochlorobenzene
and small amount of dichlorobenzene. The feed, which are liquid benzene and gaseous chlorine
are at temperature 25

and atmospheric pressure then fed to the reactor which operates at 2.4

bars.
The reaction is exothermic process. Cooling process is required to maintain the
temperature at 40

90% of the HCl formed is first cooled to condense impurities (benzene and

chlorinated product) and then it is scrubbed in a scrubber using refrigerated chlorobenzene. The
crude chlorobenzene stream leaving reactor is washed with NaOH solution (20wt%) in order to
maintained slightly alkaline to protect downstream equipment from corrosion) in a preneutralizer. The product stream is free from HCl. Then, the product is fed to a Benzene Recovery
Column (distillation column). Here, the bottom is almost slightly 100% pure chlorobenzene. The

top contain 98% by weight of benzene and 2% chlorobenzene. All the benzene is recycled to the
benzene storage via a purifier. From purifier the monochlorobenzene is sent to the refrigeration
system. The bottom contains monochlorobenzene and dichlorobenzene. This bottom product is
fed to the chlorobenzene column that may be contain 12-25 trays which operated at 3-7 lb/in2
abs. The temperature may be 100 -200 . The distillate has purity of 99% monochlorobenzene
while bottom has purity of 97% dichlorobenzene.
This reaction will produce HCI as the side product. All the desired product and undesired
product are then fed to the Benzene Recovery Column (distillation column). The advantages of
continuous process are, it produce higher amount of monochlorobenzene which is 95%
conversion and the process also operate at lower temperature.

2. Batch process
In the batch process, benzene is contained in a deep, iron or mild steel vessel lined with
lead cooling coils. The catalyst that usually used for this process is FeCl3, is added in a benzene
solution. Chlorine is fed to into bottom of the chlorinator through a lead covered at temperature
45

in order to minimize the formation of dichlorobenzene. Then the crude chlorobenzene

stream and HCl stream are collected and treated in the purification and recovery process.
For another type of batch process is describe by Faith, Keyes, and Clarks Industrial
Chemicals. The chlorine is bubbled into a cast iron or steel tank containing dry benzene with on
percent of its own weight of iron filings. The temperature is maintained at 40C to 60C (104F
to 140F) until density studies indicate that all benzene is chlorinated. Then, the temperature is
raised to between 55C and 60C (131F to 140F) for six hours until the density raises to
1.280g/cm3 (79.91 lb/ft3). The same methods of chlorobenzene purification and HCl recovery in
batch form are then employed. At 100% chlorination, the products are 80% of
monochlorobenzene, 15 % of p-dichlorobenzene, and 5% of o-dichlorobenzene.

3. Hooker/ Raschiq Process


C6H6 + HCl + O2 (AIR)
C6H5Cl + H2O

C6H5Cl + H2O

C6H5OH + HCl

This process is conducted at elevated temperature which is in the range of 230 to 270

This process involve the reaction between benzene and mixture of hydrochloric acid gas and air
in the presence of an oxychlorination catalyst. This catalyst consists of copper and iron chlorides
on an inert support. Once-through conversion for this process is limited (10 15 percent ) to
prevent the excessive formation of polychlorobenzene. The catalyst is put in the beds to prevent
damage since this process is exothermic process. In order to control the overall temperature, the
benzene is injected at lower temperature. This process is then followed by purification of
monochlorobenzene which can be done by fed the product from the reactor into the distillation
column which is known as brick-lined column.

The top stream of this column contain water/benzene azeotrope while at the bottom are
1/1 mixture of benzene and chlorobenzenes. The top product which is benzene and water is
recycled back into the reactor while the bottom products which are benzene and chlorobenzene is
neutralized with caustic soda, washed with water and distillate in two columns to separate the
dichlorobenzene, monochlorobenzene and benzene. Then the process is followed by hydrolysis
of the monochlorobenzene by steam in the presence of tricalcium phosphate or silica gel base
catalyst which can be reactivated periodically to reduce carbon deposited. The formation of
dichlorobenzene in the oxychlorination reaction and the polyphenols in the hydrolysis process
reduce the yield.
The process contains a few disadvantages. The high temperature in the process favours
high combustion rates of benzene which cause the reaction uncontrollable. Compare to the other
process, this process produce high cost of vapour phase chlorination process which make it
become uneconomical process for the production of monochlorobenzene. This process also can
only produce small amount of chlorobenzene since this once-through conversion is limited.

Comparison between the three process


PROCESS

Raw Material

Reaction Conditions

Reactor

RASCHIQ PROCESS

CONTINUOUS

Benzene

Benzene

Hydrochloric acid

Chlorine

Oxygen (air)

Temperature at range 220


260 and in gas-phase

Fixed-Bed Reactor

Temperature at range 20
40

and in liquid -phase

Continuous Stirrer Tank


Reactor

Catalyst

Advantages

Copper and iron chloride

Large economic

Ferric chloride

advantages because
HCl produce in the

labor

hydrolysis of
chlorobenzene can be

Economy in steam

High conversion of
benzene (95%)

benzene.

Simple operation
liquid phase

used for the


oxychlorination of

Lower operating

High production of
monochlorobenzene

Produce less by

and cooling required

products only

for evaporating and

small amount of

condensing the

dichlorobenzene.

benzene.

Less purification
operations.

Disadvantages

Produce many byproducts

High cost of
equipments

dichlorobenzene,

material of

tetrachlorobenzene

construction for very

and others.

low temperature.

The benzene

limited,10-15%.

The reaction is
uncontrollable
because of the high
temperature.

High cost of vapour


phase chlorination
process.

Required special

trichlorobenzene,

conversion is

Has large investment


for corrosionresistants
hydrochloric acid is
highly corrosive

PROCESS

Raw Material

Reaction Conditions

BATCH

Benzene

Chlorine

Temperature at range of 40

- 60

and in

liquid-phase

Reactor

Batch Reactor

Catalyst

Ferric chloride

Advantages

High production of
monochlorobenzene compare raschiq
process.

Low cost of factory equipment


because of the simple design of batch
reactor.

Reaction it easy to control due to low


temperature.

Disadvantages

Lower conversion compare to


continuous (80%).

Produce higher amount of byproducts dichlorobenzene

Only can produce small scale


production.

Require strict scheduling and control.

Higher operating labor costs due to


equipment cleaning and preparation
time.

Many people need to operate the


process.

PROCESS SELECTION
Based on the review and screening, the most suitable process for the production of the
monochlorobenzene is by continuous process. The process was selected because it is more
beneficial compare to batch process and Raschig process. The selection is based on a few
important criteria that need to be considering in this process. One of the criteria is continuous
process can give higher conversion of monochlorobenzene which is 95% conversion. Besides,
the temperature used for this process is only between 20 - 40

. At this low temperature, the

operating cost can be reduced because it does not required heating process. Furthermore it is easy
to handle the reaction at low temperature and this range of the temperature is the best
temperature to produce high amount of the monochlorobenzene. Furthermore, the continuous
process also produce high amount of monochlorobenzene and small amount of dichlorobenzene
compared to the other two processes that produce dichlorobenzene, tri-chlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and also tetra-chlorobenzene. Another criteria is, for this process the benzene that
been used is in liquid phase which is cheaper compared if we used benzene in vapor phase.
Therefore, it indirectly can reduce the operating cost. Other than that, the continuous process
only need a bit of workforce. So, only a few workers need to be hired and it indirectly also can
reduce the labor cost.

Review of the process production of monochlorobenzene from benzene and


chlorine (from question)
Liquid benzene (which must contain less than 30 ppm by weight of water) is fed into a
reactor system consisting of two continuous stirred tanks operating in series at 2.4 bar. Gaseous
chlorine is fed in parallel to both tanks. Ferric chloride acts as an catalyst produce in situ by the
action of the hydrogen chloride on mild steel. Cooling is required to maintain the operating
temperature at 328K. The hydrogen chloride gas leaving the reactor is first cooled to condense
most of the organic impurities. It then passes to an activated carbon adsorber where the final
traces of the impurity are removed before it leaves the plant for use elsewhere.
The crude liquid chlorobenzenes stream leaving the second reactor is washed with water
and caustic soda solution to remove all the dissolved hydrogen chloride. The product recovery
system consists of two distillation columns in series. In the first column (the benzene column)
unreacted benzene is recovered as top product and recycled. In the second (the chlorobenzene
column) the mono- and dichloro-benzenes are separated. The recovered benzene from the first
column is mixed with the raw benzene feed, and this combined stream is fed to a distillation
column (the drying column) where water is removed as overhead. The benzene stream from
the bottom of the drying column is fed to the reaction system.

Plant Location & Site Selection


It is important to have a proper selection of the location of the plant. The geographical location
of the plant could give a very strong influence to the success of the plant/industry itself. During
the selection of the site of the plant, it is crucial to always keep in mind the objectives of the
company. This will lead to a very careful considerations on the various factors that could make
the plant to give a big contributions towards its working environment and thus, making it into an
economically viable unit.
Any mistakes in selecting the plant location could lead to undesired situations or problems to
occur, such as; a higher cost and investment, the difficulties in both marketing and transporting
of the products, dissatisfaction of the employees and customers, as well as interruptions in the
production process and an excessive wastage. Therefore, a complete survey of both the
advantages and disadvantages of the various areas should be made prior to selecting the final
site/location of the plant. The following are the list of the factors that should be taken into
considerations during the selection of the site of the plant:
1. Location, with respect to the marketing area
2. Raw material supply
3. Transport facilities
4. Availability of labour
5. Availability of utilities
6. Availability of suitable land
7. Environmental impact (including the waste/effluent disposal)
8. Local community considerations
9. Climate
10. Political and strategic considerations
Other than those listed above, the room for expansion and safe living conditions of the operating
plant are also important in the site selection. The following are the details on how the above
factors affect the site selection of the plant.

1. Location with Respect to Marketing Area


The cost of an industrial land depends on few factors such as the physical characteristic of the
land, market economic conditions and most of all its location, with respect to the marketing area.
The price of the land site should be as economical as possible to reduce the total investment and
construction cost of the plant. It is important to choose the lowest reasonable land price, with
good storage and handling infrastructures. The price of the land can be referred to the real estate
agency. For materials that are produced in large or bulk quantities, it is important that the
proposed plant site should be located as close to the primary market so that the cost of
transportation can be maximized. Other considerations include the demand of the product within
the area and the availability of the raw materials suppliers should also be taken.
2. Raw Material Supply
This is one of the most important factors taken into consideration whenever a selection of plant
location/site is made. The nearness of the source of the raw materials for the production of
Chlorobenzene (which are benzene and chlorine) has to be considered since this will influence
both the transportation and storage charges of the raw materials. This is very important
especially if large volumes of raw materials are needed for the Chlorobenzene production
process. The nearer the source of the raw materials could reduce the transportation and storage
charges. Attention should also be given to the price as well as the purity of the raw materials
themselves.
3. Transport Facilities
They are three forms of major transport facilities, which are the road network (land-port), seaport
and airport. A plant site should be close to at least two of this major form of transport in order to
boost the import-export activities. Land-port can be connected via road or railway. Road
transport using lorry, etc. is suitable for local distribution from a central warehouse while rail
transport using the train is used for long-distance transport of bulk chemical because is cheaper.
Good road linkage will aid in the selling of product to local customer. Seaport facilities is
connected via waterway such as canal, river and sea; using tankers that is usually practiced if
involving import and exportation of product and raw materials with other country. Meanwhile,
air transport using the airplane, helicopter, etc. is convenient and efficient for the movement of

personnel and essential equipment and supplies. Transportation factor also important in case of
emergency such as an accident at the plant site for example fire at the workplace. Good road
linkage from the site to the nearest fire station can prevent further property damage if this kind of
accident happens.
4. Availability of Labour
This factor has been in the top 10 list (ranked by the Area Development Corporate Survey) of the
important factors in site selection. The location of the plant should have sufficient available
labors to be employed. Labors are needed for the construction as well as for running the plant.
The availability of both the skilled and semi-skilled labors will lead to the efficiency of the
operating plant itself. For example, when a large amount of money is invested by a plant, the
needs of the skilled labors become very important in order to ensure the operations in the plant
could run smoothly. Also, skilled labors such as the electricians and pipe fitters are important in
the maintenance of the plant. Unskilled labors however are important as well for training in
operating the plant.
5. Availability of Services such as Utilities, Water, Fuel, Power
Water, electricity and fuel are very important factors in site selection to ensure the plant can be
operated smoothly. Nearness to the available power facility will reduce the plant operation cost.
Most chemical processes required a large quantity of water for cooling process and general use.
Thus, the plant needs to be located near to the source of water of suitable quality which is usually
near to coastal (sea) area or lake. Other source for this process water may come from a river,
deep wells, and reservoirs or even purchased from a local authority. Electrical power is a must at
all sites, without electrical power, the plant might be shut down. Therefore the availability of
power plants near to the plant site is very important. Stable and uninterrupted power of required
magnitude, without fluctuations in voltage and frequency is important for the successful
operation of the plant. Other than that, a reasonably competitive priced fuel is important for
steam and power generation.

6. Availability of Suitable Land


It is important to first examine carefully the characteristics of the proposed plant site. This means
that the topography of the tract of land and the structure of the soil has to be considered and
examined very well. It should be noted that either the land or the soil of the proposed site could
affect the cost of the construction. The characteristic of the land that is considered as the most
suitable for the construction of a new plant is for it to be flat, well drained and having suitable
load-bearing characteristics. Even though there is no immediate expansion is, it is best for a new
plant to be constructed at a location with an additional space (for future changes).
7. Environmental Impact, Including Effluent Disposal
A plant site needs a smooth operation to maximize the production but in the same time release
the minimum amount of waste or effluent so that cause less impact to the environment. For
example, constructing a site next to sea coastal may be convenient for cooling water supply but it
will cause harm to the local aquatic ecosystem in the water through excessive withdrawals or
thermal pollution (from discharges of hot cooling water). All industrial processes will produce
waste products. The site selected must have efficient disposal system such as drainage and
dumping site. Disposal of toxic and harmful effluent need to follow the local regulations, and
during the site survey, appropriate authorities need to be consulted to determine the standards
that must be met.
8. Local Community Considerations
The proposed plant site should also consider the opinions of the community nearby the location
of the plant. The proposed site should be accepted by the local community. It must be ensured
that the plant that is going to be constructed at the proposed site will not cause any risks to the
local community nearby. The health hazards should be kept at its minimum with all the safety
precautions taken as one of the priority in the construction of the plant.

9. Climate
The characteristics features of the climate of Malaysia are uniform temperature, high humidity
and copious rainfall with winds that are generally light. A suitable climate can ensure the plant to
operate smoothly and productively. Some natural disaster such as flood, earthquake, typhoon,
etc. that occur at the plant location may increase the cost of operation. Thus, careful site
consideration needs to be taken to avoid choosing site with adverse climatic conditions. In
Malaysia, cases where major disasters such as earthquake or typhoon occur very little; the
weather condition is influenced by the Northeast and Southwest monsoon. The Southwest
monsoon season usually occur in end of May to September with wind flow is generally light
below 15 knots. Meanwhile, the Northwest monsoon occurs in early November to March with
wind speed ranging from 10 to 20 knots. During the two inter-monsoon seasons, the winds are
generally light and variable. Stronger structure need to be built at locations subject to high winds.
Annual rainfall in Malaysia is found to be around 2500 mm per year. Rain falls most heavily
during the monsoon season, which is from the end of September to early January for East
Malaysia and December to March for West Malaysia. Malaysia is a tropical country that has a
daily temperature that varies around 25 to 27 degrees Celsius. The maximum is about 32 oC,
while the minimum is about 21oC daily. Highest humidity is achieved during the night and dawn,
while the relative humidity value drops to minimum around midday where bright sunlight
appears.
10. Political & Strategic Considerations
Subsidies and concessions from the government are provided for industries located in certain
notified areas. Those areas are the ones that have been declared as industrially backward where
low wages, cheap power and tax concessions are offered by the government.

The Several Strategic Locations as the Site For The Manufacture Of Chlorobenzene
In order to find the most suitable site location for the production of Chlorobenzene (with
20000KMT/year of Mono-Chlorobenzene and not less than 2000KMT/year of DiChlorobenzene), all the 10 factors stated previously has been considered during the survey of
several possible sites. The three main sites that have been considered are as listed below:
i.

Tanjung Langsat, Johor

ii.

Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pahang

iii.

Kerteh Industrial Park, Terengganu

Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex, Johor


Iskandar Malaysia which is a development corridor conducted in the southern part of Johor. It is
also known as the South Johor Economic Region (SJER). One of the main components of
Iskandar Malaysia is as the centre of industrial and manufacturing activities which covers up to
31,132 hector of Pasir Gudang region. The Major Economic Zone D includes the Pasir Gudang
Port, Pasir Gudang Industrial Park, Tanjung Langsat Port as well as the Tanjung Langsat
Industrial Complex.
It is located for about 48km in eastern of Johor Bahru and 8km from the Pasir Gudang industrial
area with population of around 100,000 people. One of the main economic activities of Pasir
Gudang involves chemicals, oleo chemicals, biofuels and etc. The Tanjung langsat Industrial
Complex symbolizes the continuation of the existence of the industrial area of Pasir Gudang and
it covers an area of 4,198.52 acres which is reserved for light, medium, and heavy industries. On
the other hand, the Tanjung Langsat Industrial Park which covers up to 3764 acres of land has
been one of the most successful industrial estates in Malaysia with a tank farm facility being
developed for the chemical storage.
This location has good connectivity in terms of the transport facilities. It currently is connected
by the four-lane Pasir Gudang Highway, a trunk road and a railway line to Johor Bahru. This
would therefore ease the transportation process of raw materials (chlorine and benzene) since the
supplier of these raw materials are also available in Johor Bahru (HG Chemicals Technology

Sdn. Bhd.) which is only 48km away from Tanjung Langsat. Other than that, the Senai-Desaru
Expressway makes it possible for the traffic from the north of Johor Bahru to have an easy
access to the Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex through the 5km four-lane dual carriage road
that links Tanjung Langsat to the expressway. Also, this location has seaport nearby (Tanjung
Langsat Port that is located adjacent to the 4,000 acres of the industrial land) which would make
it easier for the import and export activity of the Chlorobenzene product. Tanjung Langsat Port is
designed especially to handle the bulk cargo (LPG and hazardous chemicals). Other than that,
Senai Airport is also available for personal businesses.
The available area for the industrial activities in Tanjung Langsat is about 2709.94 acres with the
price ranging from RM12 RM14 per square feet (for a 30yr + 30yr lease period). In terms of
the available utilities, the current water supply by the Syarikat Air Johor Holdings Bhd (SAJH)
to the industrial areas in Iskandar Malaysia is adequate. On the other hand, natural gas is used for
the power generation in Malaysia with 24% of the NG being used in heavy industries whereas
4% is used in the housing, commercial and other industrial areas. Supply of NG is made by the
Petronas Gas Bhd via pipelines to the factories.
In reference to Ramli, Abdul Rahim (2007), the environmental impact of the industrial activities
in the Tanjung Langsat area has showed that the industrial development had given positive
impacts to the local community in terms of their income, infrastructure as well as public
facilities. However, it also creates negative impacts such as pollution of air & water and
limitation of area for fishing activities around the Tanjung Langsat. Next, considering the
climatic factor, as stated earlier, a suitable climate can ensure the plant to operate smoothly and
productively. Natural disasters that occur at the plant location may increase the cost of operation.
Thus, it is important to avoid choosing site with adverse climatic conditions. The possibilities of
the occurrence of natural disasters in Malaysia are very low. Thus, it could be concluded here
that in terms of climatic factor, Tanjung Langsat is also suitable for the site location. Next, the
rapid development of the industry in the Pasir Gudang Tanjung Langsat has led to the shortage of
manpower or labor to carry out all the operations in the plant. Though some industries have
implemented the automated systems, but the need of manpower is still high.
Lastly, it is important to have the targeted marketing area as close as possible to the site location.
Chlorobenzene is used mostly in the manufacture of pesticides, dyes, and rubber. Thus, it is

important to have the site close to the manufacturer of these three materials. In Johor, there are
few rubber industries which are located at Skudai, Johor Bahru which are LekSeng Rubber
Industries and N.K. Rubber (M) SDN. BHD.

Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pahang


Gebeng Industrial Estate (GIE) has developed rapidly over the past 20 years where it first started
in early 90s by the Pahang State Development Corporation (PSDC). GIE is located in Kuantan,
Pahang, Malaysia which consist of four development phases that have about 8600 hectares of
land and is a world-class petrochemical and chemical industrial zone. It is located 25 km from
Kuantan Town and 250 km from Kuala Lumpur; and is strategically located only 5 km from the
Kuantan Port. GIE also offers a wide variety of facilities for the investors. For example, the
Gebeng bypass that links Kuala Lumpur and Kuantan directly via the East Coast Highway which
eases the trafiic flow from the industrial estate to Kuantan Port. Pahang State Government has
continuously upgrading the infrastructures around the area mainly its transportation facilities. For
example, the railway link that connects Kuantan Port-Gebeng-Kerteh to ensure the import and
export activities runs smoothly.
1. Location, with respect to the marketing area

Distance from nearest town :


o 25 km from Kuantan town
o 250 km from Kuala Lumpur city
-

Using land transport is 2 hours drive and by air is 45 minutes.

Distance from nearest port

o 5 km from Kuantan Port


-

This is very strategic; close proximity to the port save the logistics costs
and promotes imports-exports activities.

Market Demand:
o Chlorobenzene is widely used in pesticide business. Within the Pahang State
itself, there are many pesticide or pest control company that required
chlorobenzene for its production, for example:

Rentokil Pest Control Kuantan, BINS Pest Control, Kilpest (Pahang) Sdn
Bhd, Prima Pest Control & Services, etc. which is all located in Kuantan,
Pahang.

o Chlorobenzene also used in synthesis of rubber for example in manufacturing of


tire and furniture. There are a lot of tires and rubber-based furniture company in
area near to Gebeng such as Uts Tyre Service (Kuantan) Sdn Bhd and TWINS
Furniture Manufacture.
o Other than that, chlorobenzene also involve in the production of herbicide that
widely used to kill weed. Weed killer is popular among farmers and also
landscape designer.

2. Raw material supply

The raw materials needed for production of chlorobenzene are chlorine and benzene.
There are many suppliers for benzene near to Gebeng, for example PETRONAS
Chemicals Group Berhad (PCG) which is located at Gebeng too. Since Gebeng Industrial
Estate is located near to Kuantan Port, the availability of raw materials should not be a
problem as it can be exported from outside of Gebeng.

3. Transport facilities
a) Road facilities:
i.

Highway
-

East Coast Highway that links Kuantan and Kuala Lumpur which is only 2
hours drive away.

Gebeng Bypass Road is being planned to further enhance the traffic flow
between the main road and Gebeng.

Kuantan Bypass Road will be widened to eased the traffic congestion.

Federal Road (Kuantan-Kerteh-Kuala Terengganu)

Federal Road (Kuantan-Segamat)

Federal Road (Kuantan-Karak-Kuala Lumpur)

ii.

Railway
-

Have a railway link that connects the integrated petrochemical complex in


Kerteh (Terengganu) to Gebeng and Kuantan Port. This railway link has
strengthen the chemical and petrochemical linkage between Gebeng and other
industrial centers by which it ensures a much more safer form of transporting
dangerous goods by train rather than by road.

b) Airport facilities:
-

The nearby airport to Gebeng is the Kuantan Airport. Since airport transportation
is used to ease the movement of personnel and essential equipment and supplies
from Gebeng to other places, Kerteh Airport and Kuala Lumpur International
Airport (KLIA) also available for this purpose.

c) Seaport facilities:
-

The main seaport facility in Gebeng is Kuantan Port which is only located 5 km
from the industrial estate. (*More details about Kuantan Port are described in
latter section.)

Other seaports that connect with Kuantan Port are Kemaman Port and Kerteh
Minor Port for better transport of goods for import and exports activities.

4. Availability of labour

Labors, of both the skilled and semi-skilled labors are needed for the construction as well
as for running the plant. Training institution with customized courses are available such
as:
-

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Indera Mahkota

Institut Latihan Perindustrian

Politeknik Sultan Ahmad Shah (POLISAS)

Institut Kemajuan Ikhtisas Pahang (IKIP)

5. Availability of utilities

a) Electricity

The main electricity supplier in Gebeng Industrial Estate is Tenaga Nasional Berhad
(TNB) which supply 132/11 kV main intake for Phase I and II; and for Phase III,
there are two sources of electricity available which are Centralized Utility Facilities
(CUF) and 12/275 kV main intake.

Other sources of electricity may be from the nearest electric generators which are:
-

Paka Power Plant

IPP YTL Power Generation Sdn. Bhd.

Tasik Kenyir Hydro-Electric

b) Water Supply

The main water supply in Gebeng Industrial Estate is from the Semambu Water
Treatment Plant with capacity of 2 MG/D.

Others are from the reservoirs at Bukit Penggorak with capacity of 2 MG/D and 1.5
MG/D; and reservoirs at Bukit Merah with capacity of 0.5 MG/D and 1.0 MG/D.

Government of Pahang have taken few steps in order to ensure efficient water supply
in Gebeng which are:
i.

Increase the water supply to 64 MG/D

ii.

Building of a new 200 acres dam in Sungai Lembing, Kuantan

iii.

Building of new pipes and water tanks in Gebend Industrial Estate

c) Natural gas utility

The current natural gas suppliers for Gebeng Industrial Estate are Gas Malaysia and
Petronas Gas Berhad which supply gases within the estate to fulfil the tremendous
demand for existing and further petrochemical projects in the area.

Other than that, availability of natural gases, Butane and Propane are supplied by the
Peninsular Gas Utilization Network (PGU).

d) Telecommunications

Telecommunication services such as Integrated Systems Digital Network (ISDN),


digital line, MAYPAC, Internet and video conferencing in Gebeng is supplied by the
Telekom Malaysia.

e) Fire Fighting facilities

As one of the most developed industrial estate in the nation with various kinds of
plant, factory, buildings, etc., Gebeng Industrial Estate is built near to the Pahang Fire
and Rescue Department in order to handle any emergencies. In addition, near to
Gebeng area is also the Petronas Centralized Emergency Facilities. Both of these
stations are equipped with HAZMAT (hazardous material) facilities.

Alliance between Government agencies and private manufactures in Gebeng has set
up a voluntary crisis management organization called the Gebeng Emergency Mutual
Aid (GEMA) which is to execute proactive action and offer expert services to
overcome emergencies situation.

f) Piperack link

Centralized Tankage Facilities which is located at Kuantan Port links Gebeng and
Kuantan Port with a common piperack / pipeline network to transport gases.

6. Availability of suitable land

The preferable type of industrial activities in Gebeng Industrial Estate is chemical,


petrochemical and general.

The land / site available are originated from the State Land.

There are four development phases available in Gebeng Industrial Estate, which is very
convenient for additional space needed for future changes such as expansion of plant and
so on. They are Gebeng Phase I with space 700 acres (283.28 hectares), Gebeng Phase II
with 1400 acres (566.57 hectares), Gebeng Phase III with 2500 acres (1,011.73 hectares)
and Gebeng Phase IV with 4000 acres (1,618.76 hectares).

Land price (RM psf) :

(Note: Price change without notice)


-

RM16.00 per square feet (Industrial Lot Ready Land)

RM20.00 per square feet (Small Medium Enterprise- SME


Lot 129 Complete with infrastructure)

RM12.00 per square feet (Raw Land)

The leasehold for the site is 99 years upon the issuance of titles.

Total Planned Area is about 2468.60 hectares, Total Land Developed around 2408.08
hectares; and the Total Land Available is 1,528.5 hectares.

Quit Rent per Annum (RM) is subjected to RM15.00 for every 100 m2 portion of it for
the first 2 hectares and RM10.00 for every 100 m2 or portion of it subject to a minimal
taxation of RM150.00 per ownership.

The Annual Assessment is 7% of the property / land value.

Kerteh Industrial Park, Terengganu

Kerteh also known as Kertih, is a town in the district of Kemaman in southern Terengganu,
Malaysia. Kerteh is the base of operations for Petronas in Terengganu, overseeing the oil
platform operations off the state's coast as well as petrochemicals production and crude oil
refining in nearby Paka.

Terengganu is known with its industrial land being the cheapest among the other lands in
Malaysia. It ranges from RM0.18 RM5.60 per square foot. Other states land price usually
ranging from as low as RM2.00 RM4.50 psf to as high as RM18.00 RM22.00 psf. The land
price in Kerteh Industrial Area is ranging from RM9 - RM14 psf. While for land with ready-built
factories with pre-installed facilities like broadband, water and power, which reduces the time
required to get a project off the ground is ranging from RM45 - RM60 per square meter.

As for the utilities supply, the Centralized Utility Facility (CUF) which is located in Kerteh
operates independently of the national grid. CUF supplies wide range of industrial utilities to the
selected industrial area. This includes the electricity, steam, industrial gases as well as other byproducts (de-mineralized water, raw water, cooling water, effluent treatment and etc.). Since

power is generated by CUF from natural gas. Thus, it is less prone to lighting and power surges
in the grid, and therefore making it an efficient source of utilities. The availability of this facility
allows the Kerteh industrial area to save up to 20% of its operating and investment costs since
they do not need to build any extra infrastructure to generate utilities.

In terms of closeness of the plant with the targeted markets, for the Kerteh Industrial Park, this
location is quite close with the Mardec Processing Sdn. Bhd. (MPSB) Kuala Berang Factory
which manufactures rubber (one of the product in which the process of the production uses
chlorobenzene). The distance between Kerteh and Kuala Berang is about 108km difference.
Another targeted market is the manufacturer of pesticide which is the Felda Agricultural Services
Sdn Bhd located Kuala Lumpur. The distance between Kerteh and Kuala Lumpur is about
326km difference.
One of the raw materials suppliers that provide benzene for production of chlorobenzene in
Kerteh Industrial Park is Aromatics Malaysia Sdn Bhd in conjunction with PETRONAS, MJPX
Co. Ltd. that was built in July 2000. It has a capacity of 188,000 tonnes per annum (tpa)
Benzene. Meanwhile, liquid chlorine may be supplied by Malay-Sino Chemical Industrial Sdn
Bhd which is located in Kemaman Terengganu. This somehow increases the transportation cost
of raw materials since raw materials are obtained from two different suppliers.
As a developed town, Kerteh is equipped with a good transportation facility. As for road
facilities, Kerteh Industrial Area is located within the East Coast Industrial Corridor (ECIC) of
Pennisular Malaysia and also Kerteh-Kuantan Port Railway Line is available for transportation
of goods via train. The railway is 77 km is a single-track line that links Kerteh Petrochemical
Complex in Terengganu with Kuantan Port in Pahang with a direct connection to Gebeng
Industrial Estate. East Coast Expressway is the highway that connects Kerteh, Terengganu with
Kuala Lumpur. As in terms of airport facility, Kerteh Airport is available, that is only 3.54 km to
Kerteh town center. This airport is owned and operated by Petroleum Nasional Berhad
(Petronas), and was built to serve the purpose of airlifting its employees and ExxonMobil
employees to their various oil platforms located 100200 km offshore South China Sea. Other
than that, this airport is also used to transport Petronas and ExxonMobil employee from Kerteh
to Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, Subang near to Kuala Lumpur. As for seaport facility, Kertih

Port Marine Terminal which is operated by Petronas Penapisan Sdn Bhd is available in the South
China Sea. The supporting Kerteh marine facilities include six berths that can accommodate
chemical tankers of up to 40,000 tonnes. Another port is the Kemaman Port which is situated
only 7 km from Kerteh, about 9 minutes of travel via road.

Comparison Among The Possible Sites (Using Concept Screening & Scoring)
For the concept screening of the potential sites, only five main criterions are considered and
evaluated. The criterions are as follow:
Criterion

Alternatives
1 (Gebeng)

Kuantan Town
(25 km)
Kuala Lumpur
(250 km)
Targeted markets are
mainly located in Kuantan,
Pahang
+

2 (Reference:Kertih)

supplied from
PETRONAS
Chemicals
Group Berhad (PCG) in
Gebeng itself.

Benzene

Kuala Berang (108km)


Kuala Lumpur (326km)

0
2 suppliers: Kemaman,
41.9km and in Kerteh
Increase in transportation
cost

East Coast Highway


Gebeng Bypass Road
Kuantan Bypass Road
Federal Road
Kerteh-Kuantan Port
Railway Line
Kuantan Airport
Kuantan Port

Kerteh-Kuantan Port
Railway Line
East Coast Expressway
Kerteh Airport
Kertih Port Marine
Terminal

Centralized Utility Facility


(CUF)
Centralised Tankage
Facilities

Centralized Utility
Facility (CUF)

RM12 RM16
--

48km from Tanjung


Langsat

Four-lane Pasir Gudang


Highway, a trunk road
and a railway line
Senai-Desaru
Expressway
Tanjung Langsat Port
Senai Airport
+

SAJH (water supply)


Petronas Gas Bhd.
(power supply)

+
5

Targeted markets are


located in Skudai,
Johor

+
4

-3

3 (Tanjung Langsat)

RM 9 RM 14
0

RM 12 - RM14
--

Total

Rank

Where the criterion are as follow:

1 = Location, with respect to the marketing area

2 = Raw material supply

3 = Transport facilities

4 = Availability of utilities

5 = Availability of suitable land

Based on the concept scoring, both proposed sites which are in Gebeng Industrial Estate, Pahang
and Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex, Johor has a higher ranking than the reference site in
Kerteh Industrial Area, Terengganu. Therefore, both proposed sites are further judged in the
concept scoring as shown below.
Alternatives
Criterion

Weight

35%

25%

15%

20%

5%

Total Score

4.10

3.70

Rank

By comparing both proposed sites that have passed the concept scoring, it was found that the
best alternative is the one with the highest score which is the Gebeng Industrial Estate with total
score of 4.10 against Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex with total score of 3.70. Thus, Gebeng
Industrial Estate has been chosen as the site location for the production of Chlorobenzene.

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)

PFD for the production of Chlorobenzene

Workbook
Heat and Material Balance Table
Stream ID

B--OUT

B-1

B-2

B-FEED

From

SEP1

SEP3

DC1

To

HEATER

DC1

Phase

LIQUID

LIQUID

LIQUID

B-IN

CL2-FEED CL2-OUT

COND-OUT DIST-1

HEATER

HEATER2 CONDNSER SEP2

MIXER

REACTOR1 HEATER2

SPLITER

SEP2

SEP3

LIQUID

VAPOR

VAPOR

MIXED

LIQUID

VAPOR

DIST-2

HCL-OUT

MIX-OUT

R1-OUT

DC1

SEP2

MIXER

REACTOR1 REACTOR2 SEP3

SPLITER

SEP1

REACTOR2 CONDNSER MIXER

REACTOR1 REACTOR2

LIQUID

MIXED

VAPOR

LIQUID

VAPOR

R2-OUT

RECYCLE SPLIT-1

MIXED

VAPOR

SPLIT-2

W-OUT

SPLITER

SEP1

VAPOR

LIQUID

Substream: MIXED
Mole Flow

lbmol/hr

C6H6

70.21297

0.0

0.0

62.34210

70.21297

0.0

0.0

7.870874

7.870874

0.0

0.0

70.21297

41.42565

7.870874

7.870874

0.0

0.0

0.0

CL2

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

139.0676

139.0676

73.01193

0.0

0.0

73.01193

0.0

40.74648

73.01193

0.0

69.53380

69.53380

0.0

HCL

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

66.05566

0.0

0.0

66.05566

0.0

28.78732

66.05566

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

C6H5CL

0.0

58.62853

.0165002

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

58.62853

58.62853

58.61203

0.0

0.0

28.78732

58.62853

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

P-DIC-01

0.0

3.713564

3.555722

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.713564

3.713564

.1578421

0.0

0.0

0.0

3.713564

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

H2O

0.0

0.0

0.0

.3132769

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

.3132769

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

.3132769

Total Flow

lbmol/hr

70.21297

62.34210

3.572202

62.65538

70.21297

139.0676

139.0676

209.2806

70.21297

58.76990

139.0676

70.52625

139.7468

209.2806

7.870874

69.53380

69.53380

.3132769

Total Flow

lb/hr

5484.591

7145.040

524.5567

4875.412

5484.591

9860.644

9860.644

15345.23

7759.862

6620.482

7585.372

5490.235

10414.91

15345.23

614.8226

4930.322

4930.322

5.643771

Total Flow

cuft/hr

104.9297

109.3135

7.829402

89.47071

33431.60

53581.76

60176.79

87193.84

121.4675

110.9598

65951.02

104.9700

12598.08

24653.12

3648.030

30088.40

30088.40

.0941140

Temperature

138.0930

184.7300

384.5992

76.73000

201.0930

67.73000

130.7300

184.7300

184.7300

306.0184

184.7300

138.0930

130.7300

130.7300

184.7300

130.7300

130.7300

138.0930

Pressure

psia

14.50377

14.50377

24.65642

14.50377

14.50377

14.50377

14.50377

14.50377

14.50377

24.65642

14.50377

14.50377

34.80906

34.80906

14.50377

14.50377

14.50377

14.50377

Vapor Frac

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.000000

1.000000

1.000000

.8830702

0.0

0.0

1.000000

0.0

.5022436

.6563256

1.000000

1.000000

1.000000

0.0

Liquid Frac

1.000000

1.000000

1.000000

1.000000

0.0

0.0

0.0

.1169298

1.000000

1.000000

0.0

1.000000

.4977564

.3436744

0.0

0.0

0.0

1.000000

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

23377.86

7694.139

3344.977

20857.45

38298.11

-108.7071

410.5660

-5323.835

9618.068

13315.22

-18048.10

22758.96

632.5283

-9539.589

37895.68

410.5660

410.5660 -1.2252E+5

299.2802

67.13311

22.77911

268.0454

-72.60725

87.02643

118.1989

-330.8876

292.3561

8.487232

-130.1023

Solid Frac
Enthalpy

Btu/lbmol

Enthalpy

Btu/lb

Enthalpy

Btu/hr

Entropy

Btu/lbmol-R

-56.41256

Entropy

Btu/lb-R

Density
Density

490.2871

-1.533129

5.790335

485.1353

5.790335

5.790335

-6800.626

11948.94 1.30683E+6 2.68902E+6

-15117.63

57096.43 -1.1142E+6 6.75313E+5 7.82534E+5 -2.5099E+6 1.60510E+6

88393.78 -1.9965E+6 2.98272E+5

28548.22

28548.22

-38381.17

-55.26235

-49.08018

-59.44399

-32.88386

-.1537557

.7762084

-9.876595

-54.42879

-48.51741

3.913583

-56.24713

-26.65722

-17.91827

-33.50052

.7762084

.7762084

-38.00291

-.7221858

-.4821766

-.3342333

-.7639324

-.4209746 -2.1685E-3

.0109471

-.1346985

-.4924839

-.4306881

.0717502

-.7225372

-.3576852

-.2443720

-.4288690

.0109471

.0109471

-2.109482

lbmol/cuft

.6691428

.5703057

.4562548

.7002893 2.10020E-3 2.59543E-3 2.31098E-3 2.40018E-3

.5780390

.5296502 2.10865E-3

.6718707

.0110927 8.48901E-3 2.15757E-3 2.31098E-3 2.31098E-3

3.328696

lb/cuft

52.26918

65.36284

66.99831

54.49171

.1640541

.1840299

.1638612

.1759899

63.88425

59.66557

.1150152

52.30290

.8267063

.6224461

.1685355

.1638612

.1638612

59.96739

78.11364

114.6102

146.8441

77.81315

78.11364

70.90540

70.90540

73.32374

110.5189

112.6509

54.54450

77.84668

74.52704

73.32374

78.11364

70.90540

70.90540

18.01528

99.54653

102.8150

6.490596

88.47795

99.54653

113.3212

113.3212

230.1390

113.9742

96.32442

116.1649

99.63711

163.8012

230.1390

11.15917

56.66059

56.66059

.0905787

Average MW
Liq Vol 60F

cuft/hr

1.64143E+6 4.79669E+5

Material Balance
Basis being used: 330 days/year of operation.
In which, it is required to produce 50000 metric tonne/year of monochlorobenzene (MCB)
with not less than 2000 metric tonne/year of dichlorobenzene (DCB).

Balance Around Reactors


The reaction that occurred around the reactor is as follow:
Reaction 1 : C6H6 + Cl2

C6H5Cl + HCl

Reaction 2 : C6H5Cl + Cl2

C6H4Cl2 + HCl

The balance around Reactor 1:

Cl2 = 69.53380 lbmol/hr


SPLIT-1

tot = 139.7468 lbmol/hr


B-IN
tot = 70.21297 lbmol/hr
B=1

Inlet streams:

R1

R1-OUT
o B
= 0.2964
0 Cl2 = 0.2916
o HCl = 0.2060
o MCB = 0.2060

B-IN

=1

SPLIT-1

Cl2

Components in outlet R1-OUT stream:


B

Cl2

HCl

MCB =

The balance around Reactor 2:

Cl2 = 69.53380 lbmol/hr


SPLIT-2

R1-OUT

R2-OUT

R2

tot = 139.7468 lbmol/hr

tot = 209.2806 lbmol/hr

B
= 0.2964
Cl2 = 0.2916
HCl = 0.2060
MCB = 0.2060

B
Cl2
HCl
MCB
DCB

Inlet streams:
For stream R1-OUT
=

Cl2

HCl

MCB

For stream SPLIT-2


=

Cl2

Components in outlet R2-OUT stream:


B

Cl2

HCl

MCB =
DCB

= 0.0376
= 0.3489
= 0.3156
= 0.2801
= 0.0177

Balance around Separator & DC

The balance around the first separator 1:

Assumption is that all the water contained in the liquid benzene fed to the inlet stream of this
separator goes to the top stream of the separator:

W-OUT
tot = 0.3132769 lbmol/hr
H2O = 1

Sep1

MIX-OUT
tot = 70.52625 lbmol/hr
B
= 0.9956
H2O = 0.0044

tot = 70.21297 lbmol/hr


B=1
B-OUT

Balance for each component is as follow:


B:

inlet = outlet

70.215935

70.21297

H2O: inlet = outlet

0.3103155

The balance around the separator 2:

0.3132769

Where hydrochloric acid and chlorine are removed in this step:

DIST-1
tot = 70.21297 lbmol/hr
B
= 0.1121
MCB = 0.8350
DCB = 0.0529

Sep 2

COND-OUT
tot = 209.2806 lbmol/hr
B
Cl2
HCl
MCB
DCB

tot = 139.0676 lbmol/hr

= 0.0376
= 0.3489
= 0.3156
= 0.2801
= 0.0177

HCl
Cl2
HCL-OUT

Balance for each component is as follow:


B:

inlet = outlet

7.86895
Cl2:

inlet = outlet

73.01800
HCl:

7.87087

73.01049

inlet = outlet

66.04896

66.05711

58.61950

58.62783

MCB: inlet = outlet

DCB:

inlet = oulet

= 0.4750
= 0.5250

3.70427

3.71427

The balance around the separator 3:

Assumption is that all the benzene remained in the inlet stream of the separator goes to the
top stream of this unit and is recycled back together with the feed:

RECYCLE
tot = 7.870874 lbmol/hr
B

Sep. 3

DIST-1
tot = 70.21297 lbmol/hr

tot = 62.34210 lbmol/hr

B
= 0.1121
MCB = 0.8350
DCB = 0.0529

MCB = 0.9404
DCB = 0.0596
B-1

Balance for each component is as follow:


B:

inlet = outlet

7.87087

7.87084

MCB: inlet = outlet

58.62783
DCB:

=1

58.62651

inlet = oulet

3.71427

3.71559

The balance around the Chlorobenzene column:

Based on the process description, it is required to produce product with 99.7 wt% of MCB
and 99.6 wt% of DCB:

DIST-2
tot = 58.76990 lbmol/hr
MCB = 0.997
DCB = 0.003

B-1

Distillation
Column

tot = 62.34210 lbmol/hr


MCB = 0.9404
DCB = 0.0596

tot = 3.572202 lbmol/hr


MCB = 0.0046
DCB = 0.9954
B-2

Balance for each component is as follow:


MCB: inlet = outlet

58.62651
DCB:

58.61002

inlet = oulet

3.71559

3.73208

Balance around Heat Exchangers & Mixer/Splitter

Balance around Mixer

RECYCLE
tot = 7.870874 lbmol/hr
B= 1

MIX-OUT
tot = 70.52625 lbmol/hr
B
= 0.9956
H2O = 0.0044

tot = 62.65538 lbmol/hr


B
= 0.995
H2O = 0.005
B-FEED

Balance for each component:


B:

inlet = outlet

70.21298

70.21593

0.31328

0.31032

H2O: inlet = outlet

Balance around the Splitter

SPLIT-1
Cl2 = 69.53380 lbmol/hr

CL2-OUT
tot Cl2 = 139.0676 lbmol/hr
Cl2 = 69.53380 lbmol/hr
SPLIT-2

Balance for each component:


Cl2 :

inlet = outlet

Balance around the HEATER:

B-OUT

B-IN
tot = 70.21297 lbmol/hr

tot = 70.21297 lbmol/hr

B=1

B=1

B:

inlet = outlet

Balance around the HEATER2:

CL2-FEED
Cl2 = 69.53380 lbmol/hr

B:

inlet = outlet

69.53380

Balance around CONDENSER:

CL2-OUT
Cl2 = 69.53380 lbmol/hr

R2-OUT

COND-OUT

tot = 209.2806 lbmol/hr


B
Cl2
HCl
MCB
DCB

tot = 209.2806 lbmol/hr

= 0.0376
= 0.3489
= 0.3156
= 0.2801
= 0.0177

B
Cl2
HCl
MCB
DCB

Balance for each component:

B:

inlet = outlet

7.86895

Cl2:

inlet = outlet

73.01800

HCl:

inlet = outlet

MCB:

inlet = outlet

DCB:

inlet = outlet

= 0.0376
= 0.3489
= 0.3156
= 0.2801
= 0.0177

Energy Balance
Energy Balance For Reactors

Energy Balance for reactor 1:

Overall chemical equation


C6H6 + C6H5Cl + 2Cl2 C6H5Cl + 2HCl + C6H4Cl2
(

= -184711 kJ/kmol

= 13.06 kmol/hr

= 13. 06 kmol/hr X (-184711 kJ/kmol)


=

Cl2 = 31.54 kmol/hr


T=328K
C6H6=31.85 kmol/hr

Reference C6H6, Cl2, HCl and MCB at 298


Component
nin (kmol/hr)
Hin (kJ/kmol)
C6H6
31.85
H1
Cl2
31.54
H2
HCl
MCB
-

H1= (Cp328 Cp298 )


= 142.96 -136
= 6.92 kJ/kmol

Total= 63.39 kmol/hr


0.2964 C6H6
0.2916 Cl2 T=328K
0.2060 HCl
0.2060 MCB

nout (kmol/hr)
18.79
18.48
13.06
13.06

Hout(kJ/kmol)
H3
H4
H5
H6

H2 =
= 11.59 10.49
= 1.0992 kJ/kmol
H3= H1
= 6.92 kJ/kmol

H4 = H2
= 1.0992 kJ/kmol
H5 =
= 0.879 kJ/kmol
H6 = (Cp328 Cp298 )
= 157.19 152
= 5.19 kJ/kmol

(18.79 6.92)+(18.48 1.0992)+(13.06 0.879)

+(13.06 5.19)) ( (31.85 6.92)+(31.54


229.60 255.07)
- 25.47
kJ/hr

=
=
=

Where

kJ/hr

1.0992))

Energy Balance for reactor 2:

Cl2 = 31.54 kmol/hr

Total= 94.93 kmol/hr

Total= 63.39 kmol/hr


0.2964 C6H6
0.2916 Cl2 T=328K
0.2060 HCl
0.2060 MCB

Reference C6H6, Cl2, HCl and MCB at 298


Component
nin (kmol/hr)
Hin (kJ/kmol)
C6H6
18.79
H1
Cl2
50.02
H2
HCl
13.06
H3
MCB
13.06
H4
DCB
-

H1 =(Cp328 Cp298 )
= 142.96 -136
= 6.92 kJ/kmol
H2 =
= 11.59 10.49
= 1.0992 kJ/kmol

H3 =
= 0.879 kJ/kmol
H4 = (Cp328 Cp298 )
= 157.19 152
= 5.19 kJ/kmol
H5 = H1
= 6.92 kJ/kmol

0.0376 C6H6
0.3489 Cl2
0.3156 HCl
0.2801 MCB
0.0177 DCB

nout (kmol/hr)
3.57
33.12
29.96
26.59
1.68

Hout(kJ/kmol)
H5
H6
H7
H8
H9

H6=H2
= 1.0992 kJ/kmol
H7 = H3
= 0.879 kJ/kmol
H8 = H4
= 5.19 kJ/kmol
H9 = (Cp328 Cp298 )
= 111.35 0
= 111.35 kJ/kmol

= 15.22 kmol/hr
(

= -184711 kJ/kmol

(3.57 6.92)+(33.12 1.0992)+(29.96 0.879)

+ (1.68

) ) ( (18.79 6.92)+(50.02

=
148.24
= -2809851.76 kJ/hr

Where

kJ/hr

1.0992)+ (13.06

+(26.59 5.19)
)+(13.06 5.19))

Energy Balance for DC

Energy Balance for Distillation Column


F 10 =129.7 kmol/h
0.9954 DME
0.0046 CH3OH
0
H2O

Total = F 9 =328.23 kmol/h


0.3976 DME
0.1976 CH3OH
0.4048 H2O
F 11 =198.6 kmol/h
0.0071 DME
0.3238 CH3OH
0.6692 H2O
Reference MCB and DCB at 298K
Component
nin (kmol/hr)
Feed
DME
129.1
Feed
CH3OH
64.9
Feed
Water
132.9
Distillate DME
Distillate CH3OH
Bottom
DME
Bottom
CH3OH
Bottom
Water
-

Cp at 298K :
MCB = 152 kJ/kmol
DCB = 0 kJ/kmol
H1 = Cp298 Cp298
= 0 kJ/kmol
H2 = Cp298 Cp298
= 0 kJ/kmol

Hin (kJ/kmol)
H1
H2
H3
-

nout (kmol/hr)
1.4
0.6
1.4
64.3
132.9

Hout(kJ/kmol)
-

H4
H5
H6
H7
H8

H3 = Cp425.4 Cp298
Value Cp425.4 by interpolation:
T
Cp
400
170
425.4
X
450
181
X= 175.588 kJ/kmol
H3 = 175.588 152
= 23.588 kJ/kmol

H4 = Cp425.4 Cp298
Value Cp425.4 by interpolation:
T
Cp
400
238
425.4
X
450
296
X= 267.464 kJ/kmol
H4 = 267.464 0
= 267.464 kJ/kmol
H5 = Cp468.92 Cp298
Value Cp468.92 by interpolation:
T
Cp
450
181
468.92
X
500
192
X= 185.162 kJ/kmol
H5 = 185.162 152
= 33.162 kJ/kmol
H6 = Cp468.92 Cp298
Value Cp468.92 by interpolation:
T
Cp
450
296
468.92
X
500
366

X= 322.488 kJ/kmol
H6 = 322.488 0
= 322.488 kJ/kmol

= ((26.58 23.588) + (0.08

= 1167.8 kJ/hr

Where

= 1167.8 kJ/hr

0.007 33.162)+( 1.61

Pinch Calculation
Table of data:
Stream

Condition

Tin (K)

Tout (K)

Hot

1.03

328

298

Cold

1.23

293

328

Cold

4.034 x 10-6

293

328

Cp (kW/K)

Step 1: The minimum approach temperature is chosen to be 10

Step 2: The Temperature Interval Diagram

Stream
65C (338 K)
55C (328K)
30C (303K)
25C (298K)

3
1
2
1.03
1.23
kW/K
(kW)
___________________________________________ 55C (328K)
-12.3
A
___________________________________________ 45C (318K)
-5.00
B
___________________________________________ 20C (293K)
5.15
C
___________________________________________ 15C (288K) _____
-12.15

Step 3: The Cascade Diagram

A
-12.30
COLD UTILITY

HOT UTILITY

QH = 12.30

Tpinch -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tpinch


QH = 5.00

B
-5.00

Tpinch --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Tpinch


QH = 5.15

A
5.15

Step 4: The Calculation for Minimum Number of Heat Exchanger


i.

Above the Pinch


H.U
17.3
17.3
1
43.05

3
25.75
25.75
2

Since there are two arrows, thus minimum number of heat exchanger above the pinch
is two. Nmin,a = 2.

ii.

Below the Pinch

3
5.15
5.15
C.U
5.15

Since there is only one arrow, thus minimum number of heat exchanger below the
pinch is one. Nmin,b = 1.
Step 5: Design of the heat exchanger network

Above The Pinch

Stream

1.03

1.23

2
4.034 x 10-6
328

338
QHU = 17.3

327.97

318

328
Q1 = 25.75

328

303

The calculation for change in temperature:


For stream 3:
For stream 1:
For Hot Utility:

313.9
1

293

Below The Pinch

Stream

1.03

1.23

2
4.034 x 10-6
293

303
298

288

298
C

293

QCU = 5.15

The calculation for change in temperature:


For stream 3:
For Cold Utility:

Major Equipment Design

The Distillation Column (Chlorobenzene Column):

inside diameter : 0.94 m

height of top disengaging section: 0.3 m

height of bottom separation section: 0.4 m

Design pressure: 1.7bar

The vessel is subjected to external pressure of :0.5405 kgf/cm2

Design temperature: 25

Shell material: carbon steel(sp. Gr.=7.7) (IS:2002-1962, GRADE I)

Permissible tensile stress: 950 kgf/cm2

Insulation material: asbestos

Density of insulation: 2700 kg/m3

Insulation thickness: 50 mm

Down comer plate material: stainless steel(sp. Gr.: 7.8)

The shell thickness calculation:


Assuming first that the thickness of the shell is 6mm
By using a stiffener channel of C-60, 18x4, of CSA=18 in2
With Wt =51.9 lb/ft
The data needed for the calculation of allowable P:
Do = 0.952 m
L = 0.305 m
B = 13100
Therefore;

= 0.3204

Thus, P allowable?

Pallowable =
1.7 bar =

t = 1.757 x 10-3m = 1.757mm

From the calculated value above, it shows that the thickness assumed (6mm) is allowable
under the operating condition. Taking into consideration the corrosion correction of 2mm,
therefore the thickness becomes: 6 + 2 = 8mm.

Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)

Plant Layout
The economic construction and operation of a process unit will depend on how well the plant
equipment specified on the process flow sheet and laid out. Plant layout for the plant will
consist of the process units involved, which is located in the main plant and other auxiliary
buildings. The layout, which refers to each department, must be arranged in order to
maximize efficiency and minimize the cost of ownership and plant operating; and also to
minimize the time spent by personnel in travelling between buildings.
The principal factors to be considered when designing the plant are:
1. Economic consideration: construction and operation cost.
2. The process requirement
3. Convenience of operation
4. Convenience of maintenance
5. Safety
6. Future expansion
Other than the lists above, it is also advisable to check up the insurance regulations from the
view of getting the best coverage at minimum cost for plant building and inventory. The
auxiliary buildings and services required on site, in addition to the main processing units
(buildings), will include:
i.

Storages for raw material and products : Tank farms and Ware house

ii.

Maintenance workshops.

iii.

Store for maintenance and operating supplies.

iv.

Control room.

v.

Laboratories for process control.

vi.

Fire stations and other emergency services.

vii.

Utilities: steam boilers, compressed air, power generation, transformer station.

viii.

Effluent disposal plant.

ix.

Offices for general administration.

x.

Canteens, surau and other amenity buildings, such as medical centres.

xi.

Car parks.

xii.

Guard house / security posts.

1. Costs
-

The cost required to build a plant need to be kept at possible minimum value

so that less modal will be used and more profits will be generated. The cost of
construction can be minimized by choosing a land site with cheapest price but has a
good facilities and utilities provided. Other than that, the layout needs to have the
shortest run of connecting pipes between all equipment and also least amount of
structural steel work. However, this will not necessarily be the best arrangement for
operation and maintenance. In plant layout, economic is considered mainly with
steelwork, concrete, piping and electric cabling.

2. Process Requirement
-

All the required equipment need to be placed properly and strategically so that

can achieves smooth flow for transportation from raw materials to final product
storage. The installation of the auxiliaries also need to be placed in such was so that it
will occupy the least space. Process units are normally spaced at least 30 meters apart.
Administration offices and laboratories, in which a relatively large number people
will be working, should be located well away from potentially hazardous process
control rooms. The siting of the main process units will determine the layout of the
plant roads, pipes, alleys and drains. Access roads will also be constructed for
operation and maintenance purpose. Utility building should be sited to give the most
economical run of the processing units. The main storage areas should be placed
between the loading and unloading facilities and the process units they serve. Storage
tanks containing hazardous materials should be sited at a safe distance from other
buildings which is at least 70 meter from site boundary.

3. Operation
-

Any equipment that required frequent operation should be located near to the

control room so that easier for the operators to monitor the operation. All valves,
sample points, and instruments should be located at convenient position and height.
The working space and headroom must be sufficient to allow easy access to
equipment. Since some of the equipment might need replacement if some parts is
broken, thus sufficient space must be provided to allow access for lifting the
equipment.

4. Maintenance
-

All equipment needs to be prepared with maintenance facilities so that if any

problems arise during the process, the source of problem will be detected and solved
at a fast rate. Heat exchangers need to be sited so that the tube bundles can be easily
withdrawn for cleaning and tube replacement. Vessels that require frequent
replacement of catalyst or packing should be located on the outside of buildings.
Equipment that requires dismantling for maintenance, such as compressors and large
pumps, should be placed under cover.

5. Safety
-

Since most chemicals are hazardous and have the potential to explode in

wrong condition, blast walls may need to be built in order to separate potentially
hazardous equipment and thus confine the effects of an explosion. Other than that, at
least two escape routes for operator must be provided from each level in the process
building and assembly point need to be built at an easy access and the emergency
route need to be stated clearly.

6. Plant Expansion
-

Equipment should be located so that it can be conveniently tied in with any

future expansion of the process. Space should be left on pipe alleys for future needs,
and service pipes should be over-sized to allow for future requirements. Free space for
plant expansion is important so that if the production rate need to be increased, more
equipment should be added to the plant, thus free space will allow future expansion to
be able to accommodate the equipment required. This expansion space is also very
important because the additions of equipment and pipes can be erected and tested with
the minimum interference to plant operations.
Plant Layout Description
As mentioned in the site selection section, the plant was decided to be built in Gebeng
Industrial Estate, Kuantan, Pahang that was estimated to cover about 10 hectares of industrial
lot ready land with price of RM16.00 per square feet.
Gebeng is located in Pahang in the East coast of Malaysia. Every year Pahang experiencing
Northeast Monsoon that brings rain and wind. Thus, the structure of the plant is placed in

upwind direction. The buildings need to be placed in such that the wind will not affect the
plant and brings any inconvenience. Strategic placement of the buildings relative to wind
direction can assist to cool down process equipment during the process.
By referring to the plant layout provided in the following figure, administration building is
the main and most visited building for many purposes in a plant. It should be located on the
public and safe side of security point and as close as possible to main entrance.
Administration offices and laboratories, in which a relatively large number of people will be
working, are located well an away from potentially hazardous process which is the main
processing plant. Stores for maintenance and operating supplies was placed near to the
administration buildings so that the staff will have easy access to the service.
There is a bottom expansion just below the main process plant and near to the waste
treatment plant. This free space is provided to be used for the placement of new equipment
and pipes in the future just in case the plant needs to be expanded. The waste treatment plant
will enable the direct transport of waste stream produced by the separation units. There is also
a pond that is placed next to the waste treatment plant.
Waste treatment plant, utilities plant and tank farm were placed near to the main process
plant. This placement also reduces the distance and length of supply pipes used in the
transporting process of raw materials, waste, and utilities to or from the plant area, making it
cost effective. Beside it, it should be beside a road which will make it easier for loading and
unloading of materials.
Control room was placed near to the main processing plant so that easier for the operators to
monitor the operation of the plant because if the is malfunction in any of the operating
process, troops can be send to the site immediately.
Maintenance workshops and others that did not link to process materials should be located
together at the safe area and within easy access to process units. Direct access should be
provided for traffic purposes, which if possible should not pass through any process area.
There is also a loading area placed for transport of goods and raw materials where only the
lorries and other form of transport to transfer these materials allowed entering the area.
Canteen and surau (prayer room) are also provided for the convenience of the staffs and were
placed near to the administration and maintenance workshop buildings because it is one of
the most used workplace and it is a must to have easy access to these places. These buildings

should be located in a safe area within a short distance of the main concentration of workers.
The surrounding should be attractive and relaxing for workers to release some stress from
hectic workloads.
For quality control of products, a plant needs a laboratory to inspect the products produced.
Work laboratories should be located at a safe area near the administration building where
most facilities are completed. Clinic is placed next to the laboratory to handle any emergency
case caused by chemicals. Fire house to handle emergency cases for example fire or
explosion of the plant is built near to the main processing plant.
Sufficient car parks facilities also provided for the convenience of the staff and personnel or
visitors to park their vehicles. Car parks are placed near to the main entrance to prevent any
unwanted hazard to the properties.
Guard houses or security post were placed at both entrances to the plant to monitor the flow
of in and out to the plant itself. There were three assembly point placed near to every section
of the plant so that in case of emergency, all the people in the site can be evacuated at faster
rate to these safer places.
Other than those mentioned above, free lands also available at the plant layout for future
needs. Trees also will be planted in the site to absorb the emission of carbon dioxide gases
and also to make the site pleasant to the eye. There is no smoking area provided in this plant
layout since chlorobenzene is volatile and explosive to ignition of fire, thus for safety of the
plant and all personnel, smoking in the plant area are strictly prohibited. Access road will be
needed to each building for construction and for operation and maintenance.
General Safety Procedures
For a new plant, it is very important to have sufficient site medical, fire and security services.
For ensuring safety, health and welfare of all workers at the plant, Occupational Safety and
Health Act (OSHA) was enacted. All contractors, employees and agents must tolerate and
understand the Site Safety Rules & Regulations before starting any work. Work cannot begin
until a complete site safety induction has been carried out. Safety is the most pressing issue
when being evaluated in a chemical plant. It must be made the highest priority as compared
to other factors such as profit. Prevention wills the best means of containing risk and danger.
The plant risk reduction must be followed as strictly as possible to ensure all precautions are
taken.

Some general manuals that should be followed to ensure the safety in work field and work
force are listed below:
1. Each employee is expected to know and observe all plant safety procedure. All
injuries, no matter how light, must be reported to the immediate Supervisor. This is to
ensure the protection of each worker and assure that proper records of the accidents
are made.
2. All employees are responsible for their colleagues and of their own. Broken
equipment, unsafe conditions and unsafe practices must be reported to Supervisor as
soon as discovered.
3. There shall be no smoking at any time within the plant area since most of the
chemicals are volatile. Matches or lighters shall not be carried into the plant and must
be left in locker rooms.
4. It is mandatory that all workers at the plant area to wear hard hats and safety glasses
all the time. In some plant area, other protection may be required such as hearing
protection. Person who do not wear this safety equipment are prohibited to enter the
plant area.
5. Possession or use of liquor and illegal drugs is not permitted on the plant premises.
Anyone under the influenced of either will is strictly prohibited from entering the
premises.
6. Visitor must apply permission at the main office or at the security post, sign a release,
and be instructed of plant safety rules before they are allowed to enter the plant.
Visitor will not be taken into the plant areas that are experiencing production
problems. Any visitors who do not possess the temporary entering pass cannot be
around the plant site.
7. All workers must know how to use all types of fire extinguishers, fire hoses, fire
blankets, and other personal protective equipment. (e.g. water must not be used on
fires around the electrical equipment since water is a conductor that may result an
electrocution of people).

Figure 1: Plant Layout

Economic Analysis
Estimation of Capital Cost
Generally, capital cost estimating has five classifications:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Order of magnitude Estimate also known as Ratio or Feasibility


Study Estimate, also known as Major equipment or Factored
Preliminary Design Estimate, also known as Scope
Definitive Estimate, also known as Project Control
Detailed Estimate, also known as Firm or Contractors

This five classifications roughly correspond to the five classes of estimate defined in the AACE
Recommended Practice No. 17R-97[4]. This part will discuss on Preliminary Design Estimate
which is Class 3. For the cost estimation of a chemical plant, a Class 3 estimate is typically
+10% to -40% accurate. This means by doing such an estimate, the true cost of building the plant
would likely be in the range of 0.1 higher than and 0.4 lower than the estimated price.
If greater accuracy is required in the capital cost estimate, then more money and time must be
expended in conducting the estimate.

Estimation Of Purchased Equipment Costs


The purchased cost and an attribute of the equipment are the most common simple relationship
related to units of capacity and it is given by
(

Where: A = Equipment cost attribute


C = Purchased cost
N = Cost exponent
Subscripts : a refers to equipment with the required attribute
b refers to equipment with the base attribute

Effect of Time on Purchased Equipment Cost


The cost of equipments are depend on past records or published correlations for price
information, it is essential to be able to update these costs to take into account changing
economic conditions(inflation). This can be achieved by using the following expression:
C2 = C1( )
Where: C= Purchased cost
I =Cost Index
Subcripts: 1 refers to base time when cost is known
2 refers to time when cost is desired
Calculation for Cost of Equipments
log10 Cp0= K1 + K2 log10 A + K3 (log10 A)2
The value of K1,K2, and K3 can be obtained from Table A.1 and A is the capacity of the
equipment.

FBM= B1 + B2FMFP
B1 and B2 can be obtained from Table A.4
FM can be obtained by referring the Table A.3 for the identification number for the material and
then refer the material factor at Figure A.8
FP can be obtained by two methods which are
1. For process vessel,
FP,vessel =

2. For other equipment


Log10 FP = C1 + C2log10P + C3(log10P)2
Value of C1,C2, and C3 can be obtained from the Table A.2 and P is the unit pressure of
bar gauge or barg.
CBM = CPOFBM

Sample of Calculations
Calculations for heater:
Characteristics:

2 units of heater with different types


H1 Duty = 1307 kW
H2 Duty = 1501 kW
Type = H1 - Steam boiler heater and H2 - Hot water heater
Type = Carbon Steel
Identification Number = 53

Based on the Figure A.4,

= 196 $/kW and

= 48.2$/kW

Based on Figure A.19, FBMH1 = FBMH2 = 2.1


Hence,
CBMH1 =

FBMH1

= (196 $/kW)(1307 kW)(2.1)


= $538120
CBMH2 =

FBMH2

= (48.2 $/kW)( 1501 kW)(2.1)


= $152097
Thus,
$H1(2013) = $538120(

= $765431.65 = RM 2,518270.12
$H2(2013) = $152097(

= $216, 345.53 = RM 711, 776.80

Calculations for reactor:


Characteristics:

Two reactors with same type

Length = 8 , diameter = 4m

Volume of tower = 100 m3

Type = carbon steel


Log10

= 3.4974 + 0.4485log10(100) + 0.1074[log10(100)]2


= $66680.68
$tower(2013) = $66680.68 (

= $94847.80
Based on Table A.4, B1 = 2.25, B2 = 1.82
Fpvessels =

4
[

4
4 ]

= 1.77
FBM = 2.25 + 1.82(1.77)(1)
= 5.47
CBM = ($94847.80)(5.47)
= $519,450.21
Thus,
$REACTOR(2013) = $519,450.21 (

= $738875.40 = RM 2,430,900.00
For two reactors = RM 4,861,800.00

Calculations for separator


3 units
Characteristic = Flash distillation
Diameter

= 1.8 m

Height

=5m

Volume

= 50.89 m3

log10 Cp

= 3.4974 + 0.4485 (log10 50.89) + 0.1074 (log10 50.89)2


Cp0= $37644.95

Fpvessels =

= 0.5021

FP = 0.84
Based on Table A.4, B1 = 2.25, B2 = 1.82 and FM = 1.0 (carbon steel)
FBM = 2.25 + 1.82(0.84)(1)
= 3.779
CBM = ($37644.95)(3.779)
= $142252.74
$SEP(2013) = $142252.74(

= $202342.87 = RM 605,708.00

Calculation for storage tank


Characteristics:
4 units of different types of storage tanks:

Dimensions for benzene, Length=10 , Diameter= 4.8


For 3 days storage,Volume = 182 m3
Type = floating roof

Log10

= 5.9567 0.7587log10(182) + 0.1749[log10(182)]2


= $136571.32
$tower(2013) = $136,571.32 (

= $194,261.52 = RM 639,120.00

Dimension for chlorine, Length =10m , Diameter =4.8m


Volume = 182m3
Type = fixed roof

Log10

= 4.8509 0.3973log10(182) + 0.1445[log10(182)]2


= $49,098.53
$tower(2013) = $49,098.53 (

= $69,838.64 = RM 229,769.00

Dimesion for chlorobenzene, Dimensions , Diameter = 4.4 m, Length = 10


Volume for storage 3 days of = 150 m3
Type= floating roof

Log10

= 5.9567 0.7587log10(150) + 0.1749[log10(150)]2


= $136,118.24
$tower(2013) = $136,118.24 (

= $193,617.05 = RM 637,000.00

Dimension for Dichlorobenzene, Dimensions = , Diameter = 2m, Length = 5 m


Volume = 15 m3
Type = floating roof
Log10

= 5.9567 0.7587log10(15) + 0.1749[log10(15)]2


= $39,810.70
$tower(2013) = $39,810.70 (

= $56,627.49 = RM 186,304.00

Calculation for distillation column


One unit of distillation column

Dimensions, Diameter = 3m, Length = 30m

Volume = 212.1 m3
Log10

= 3.4974 + 0.4485log10(212.1) + 0.1074[log10(212.1)]2


= $132500

(2013) = $132500 (564.7/397)


= $188,470.40

Based on Table A.4, B1 = 2.25, B2 = 1.82


Fpvessels =

= 1.26
Hence,
FBM = 2.25 + 1.82(1.26)(1)
= 4.54
CBM = ($188470.40)(4.54)
= $856,258.72
Tray tower area = 7.0686 m3
Log10

= 2.9949 + 0.4465log10(7.0686) + 0.3961[log10(7.0686)]2


= $4570
(2013) = $4570(564.7/397)
= $6,500.45

Thus,
CBMtray = CpNFBMfq
= ($6500.45)(24)(1)(1.0)
= $156010.82

CBM,tower + trays = $856,258.72 + $156010.82


= $1,012,269.54

$DC(2013) = $1012269.54(

= $1,439,870.55 = RM4,737,174.00

Equipment identification

No.

Actual bare module cost, CaBM 00 (RM)

Heater

H1

2,518,270.00

H2

711,776.00

Cooler

CO1

417,463.00

Separator

S1

605,708.00

S2

605,708.00

S3

605,708.00

R1

2,430,900.00

R2

2,430,900.00

Distillation column

D1

4,737174.00

Tank

T1

639,120.00

T2

229,769.00

T3

637,000.00

T4

186,304.00

Reactor

Total bare module cost, CBM (RM)

16,755,800.00

= 1.18 x (RM16,755,800.00)

= RM 19,771,844.00
Grass roof capital cost, (GRC) = RM28,493,713.00
Table: Estimation of fixed and total capital investment cost

Range

Cost (RM)

Purchased equipment cost

12% GRC

3,419,245

Instrumentation and control

6% GRC

1709622.80

Piping (installed)

15% GRC

4274056.95

Electrical and material (installed)

3% GRC

854795.20

Building

8% GRC

2279497.04

Yard improvements

1% GRC

284937.13

Service facilities

5% GRC

1424685.65

Land

2% GRC

569874.26

Direct cost
Onsite

Offsite

Total

14,816,714.03

Indirect cost
Engineering and supervision

3% GRC

854795.20

Construction expenses

6% GRC

1709622.80

Contractors fee

1% GRC

284937.13

Contingency

8% GRC

2279497.04

Total
Fixed Capital Investment (FCI)

5,128,852.17
TOTAL + GRC

48,439,279.20

Manufacturing Cost
Factors affecting the cost of manufacturing (COM), for a chemical Product
Factor
1.Direct cost
A. Raw materials

Description of Factor
Factors that vary with the rate of production
Costs of chemical feed stocks required by the process.
Flowrates obtained from the PFD

B. Waste treatment

Cost of waste treatment to protect environment

C. Utilities

Costs of utility streams required by process. Includes but not


limited to:
a. Fuel gas
b. Electric power
c. Steam(all pressures)
d. Cooling water
e. Process water
f. Boiler feed water
g. Instrument air
h. Inert gas (nitrogen) etc.
i. Refrigeration

D. Operating labor

Costs of personnel required for plant operations

E.Direct supervisor and


clerical labor
F.Maintenance
and
repairs

Cost of administrative/ engineering and support personnel

G. Operating supplies

H. Laboratory charges

Costs of labor and materials associated with the maintenance


Costs of miscellaneous supplies that support daily operation
not considered to be raw materials. Examples include chart
paper, lubricants, miscellaneous chemicals, filters, respirators
and protective clothing for operators, etc.
Costs of routine and special laboratory tests required for
product quality control and troubleshooting.
Costs of using patented or licensed technology.

I. Patents and royalties


2. Fixed costs
A. Depreciation

B. Local taxes and


Insurance

Factors not affected by the level of production


Costs associated with the physical plant (buildings, equipment,
etc.). Legal operating expense for tax purposes.
Costs associated with property taxes and liability insurance.
Based on plant location and severity of the process.

C. Plant overhead costs


(sometimes referred to
as factory expenses)

3. General expenses
A. Administration costs

B. Distribution
selling costs
C. Research and
development

and

Catch-all costs associated with operations of auxiliary facilities


supporting the manufacturing process. Costs involve payroll
and accounting services, fire protection and safety services,
medical services, cafeteria and any recreation facilities, payroll
overhead and employee benefits, general engineering, etc.
Costs associated with management level and administrative
activities not directly related to the manufacturing process
Costs for administration. Includes salaries, other
administration, buildings, and other related activities.
Costs of sales and marketing required to sell chemical
products. Includes salaries and other miscelleaneous costs.
Costs of research activities activities related to the process and
product. Includes salaries and funds for research related
equipment and supplies, etc.

The equation used to evaluate the cost of manufacture using these costs becomes:
Costs of Manufactures (COM) = Direct Manufacturing Costs (DMC) +
Fixed Manufacturing Costs(FMC) + General Expenses (GE)
The cost of manufacturing, COM, can be determined when the following costs are known or can
be estimated :
1. Fixed capital investment (FCI) : (CTM or CGR)
2. Cost of operating labor (COL)
3. Cost of utilities (CUT)
4. Cost of waste treatment (CWT)
5. Cost of raw materials (CRM)
The table above gives data that are need to calculate to estimate the individual cost items that are
identified above. With the exception of the cost of raw materials, waste treatment, utilities, and
operating labor all the data need to be calculate by using certain equations. If no other
information is avalaible, the midpoint values for each of these ranges is used to estimate the costs
involved. Hence, all the summation of the datas for the calculation of manufacturing cost ca be
simplified into these equations :
DMC = CRM+ CWT + CUT + 1.33COL + 0.069FCI + 0.03COM
FMC = 0.708COL + 0.069FCI + depreciation
GE = 0.177COL + 0.009FCI + 0.16COM
We can obtain the total manufacturing cost by adding these three categories together and solving
for the COM and the result is :

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)


The cost of manufacture without depreciation :
COMd = 0.180FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)

Cost of operating labor, COL


The technique used to calculate operating labor requirements is based on data obtained from five
chemical companies and correlated by Alkayat and Gerrard. According to this method, the
equation for the operating labor requirement for a chemical processing plant is given by:
NOL= (6.29 + 3.17P2 + 0.23Nnp)0.5
Where NOL is the number of operators per shift, P is the number of processing step involving the
handling of particulate solids, and Nnp is the number of nonparticulate processing steps handling
steps includes compression, heating and cooling, mixing, and reaction.
Nnp =
Equipment
Compressor
Tower
Reactor
Heater
Exchanger
Total

Quantity
0
1
2
2
3
8

Hence, when Nnp is equal to , the number of operating labor requirement is


NOL= [
NOL =2.85

]0.5

The value of NOL is the number of operators required to run the process unit per shift. A single
operator works on the average 49 weeks (3 weeks time off for vacation and sick leave) a year,
five 8-hour shift a week.
= 49 week/yr

5 shift/week

= 245 shifts per operator/year


A chemical plant operates 24 hours per day. This requires (365 days/year 3 shift/day) 1095
operating shifts per year. The number of operators needed to provide this number of shifts is

= 1095 shift/year

245 shifts per operator/year

= 4.5 operators
Hence,
the operating labor = NOL
=2.85

4.5 operators

4.5

= 12.8
The cost of operating labor, COL is equal to the salary given to each of operator yearly which in
this case the yearly salary given is RM18,000
COL = RM18,000

13

=RM 234,000.00

Cost Of Utilities
Utility
Stream

Description
Dry saturated
a. 8 bar
b. 28 bar

Cooling water

Process cooling water:


550C to 200C

Other water

High purity water for


process use at 20 0C

Caustic soda solution

5 wt % NaOH at 20 0C

Cost (RM/GJ)

Cost RM/Common
Unit

20.003
22.602

41.717/1000kg
45.106/1000kg

1.165

48.69/1000m3
1.03/m3

1414.7/tonnes

Waste treatment and Non-hazardous


disposal (water)

118.44/tonnes

Production of waste water = 0.142 kmol /hr x 18 kg/kmol = 2.558 kg/hr


= 2.588 kg/hr x 24 hr/day x 365 day/year x 1 tonnes/1000kg
= 22.6709 tonnes/year
Cost for waste water treatment and disposal = 22.6709 tonnes/year x $36/tonnes
= $816.15/year = RM 2,685.15

Raw Material Costs


The cost of raw materials can be estimated by using the current price listed in such publications
as the Chemical Market Reporter (CMR) at the middle of 2013.
Chemical

Cost (RM/kg)

Benzene

1.3681

Typical Shipping Capacity or


Basis for Price
Barge, Gulf Coast

Chlorine

0.2156

Railroad tank car

Yearly cost for raw materials = (Mass flow rate of raw materials per year) x (cost, RM/kg)
Yearly cost for benzene = (2216.76 kg/h x 24 x 330) x (1.3681) = RM 24,019,374.90
Yearly cost for chlorine = (0.6212 kg/h x 24 x 330) x (0.2156) = RM 1060.73
Total cost for raw materials, CRM = RM 24,019,374.90 + RM 1060.73
= RM 24,020,435.63

Yearly Cost and Stream Factor


Manufacturing and associated costs are most often reported in terms of RM/yr. The fraction of
time that the plant is operating in a year must be known in oreder to calculate the yearly costs of
raw materials or utilities. This fraction is known as the Stream Factor(SF), where :
Stream Factor (SF) =
=

= 0.904

COM = 0.280FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)


= 0.280(48,439,279.20) + 2.73(234,000.00) +1.23(24,020,435.63 +2,685.15 + 1,738953.39 )
= RM 45,889,169.41
COMd = 0.180FCI + 2.73COL + 1.23(CRM+ CWT + CUT)
= 0.180(48,439,279.20) + 2.73(234,000.00) +1.23(24,020,435.63 + 2,685.15 + 1,738953.39)
= RM 41,045,241.49

Profitability analysis
Assumption
Land: RM 17,222,400.00
Salvage value: RM 10,000000
Taxation rate: $45%
Plant life: 10 years

Non discounted cash flow


Working capital = labor cost + utility cost + raw material cost + waste treatment
Working capital = RM 234,000.00 + RM 1,738953.39 + RM 24,020,435.63 +RM 2,685.15
= RM 25,996.074.17

Total fixed capital investment, FCI: RM 48,439,279.20

END
OF
YEAR
(K)

INVESTM
ENT
RM

RM

R
RM

RM

CASH
FLOW
RM

RM

CUMULA
TIVE
CASH
FLOW
RM

RM
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

-17222400
-48439279
-25996074
-9687856
-15500569
-9300342

-48439279
-48439279
-48439279
-38751423
-23250854
-13950512

-5580205
-5580205
-2790102

-8370307
-2790102
0

38912874

1316000000
1316000000
1316000000

41045241
41045241
41045241

45889169
45889169
45889169

694201422
691585701
694375803

-12916800
-48439279
-25996074
694201422
691585701
694375803

1316000000
1316000000
1316000000
1316000000
1316000000
1316000000
1317000000

41045241
41045241
41045241
41045241
41045241
41045241
41045241

45889169
45889169
45889169
45889169
45889169
45889169
45889169

696049865
696049865
697305411
698560957
698560957
698560957
699110957

696049865
696049865
697305411
698560957
698560957
698560957
738023831

Payback period
Find the value of $PBP =

in cumulative cash flow


4
4

Cumulative cash Position


CCP= RM 7012801172
Cumulative cash ratio

-1342.2413
ROROI

-14.3775

4
4

Discounted cash flow


END OF YEAR

NON DISCOUNTED
CASH FLOW
$

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

DISCOUNTED
CASH FLOW
$

-17222400
-48439279
-25996074
694201422
691585701
694375803
696049865
696049865
697305411
698560957
698560957
698560957
738023831

-17222400
-44035708
-21484359
521563803
472362339
431152742
392902003
357183639
325298120
296258038
269325489
244841354
235157137

Discount rate: 10% p.a


Discounted payback period
Discounted value of land + working capital

Find the value -

in the cumulative cash flow


Discounted payback period

Net present value


NPV= RM 3552745510
Present value ratio
PVR

-665.68777

CUMULATIVE
DISCOUNTED CASH
FLOW
$
-17222400
-61258108
-82742467
438821336
911183675
1342336417
1735238420
2092422059
2417720179
2713978217
2983303706
3228145060
3463302197

Hazard Analysis
Handling and Storage
Chlorobenzene need to be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area in tightly sealed containers
that are labelled according to the OSHAs hazard communication standard [29 CFR 1910.1200].
Outside or detached storage is highly preferable; however, if inside storage is to be used, the
storage should be in a standard flammable liquids storage room that meet OSHA requirements.
The containers used to store chlorobenzene need to be protected from any possible physical
damage and should be stored separately form oxidizers, dimethyl sulfoxide, silver perchlorate,
other incompatible chemicals, heat, sparks and open flame as cholorobenzene is categorized as
rate 3 flammability which is severe fire hazard. All source of ignition must be eliminated. Thus,
only non-sparking tools can be used to handle chlorobenzene as static electricity and formation
of sparks must be prevented. The optimum temperature condition for the storage of
chlorobenzene is between 16C and 26C; and it must be stored away from direct sunlight and
moisture. The containers should also be grounded and bonded together for transfer in order to
prevent static sparks. In addition, the containers previously used to store chlorobenzene need to
be handle or disposed appropriately as it may still hold product residues.
Health Effect
According to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), the current permissible
exposure limit for chlorobenzene is 75 ppm (350 mg/m3). The routes for the exposure of
chlorobenzene mainly occur through inhalation, ingestion, and eye or skin contact.
Chlorobenzene also mainly absorbed through the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts, and
dermal absorption. Chlorobenzene is lipophilic and has a tendency to accumulate in lipid-rich
tissues in animal and humans. The effect of chlorobenzene to animals is irritation, narcosis, liver
and kidney damage. However, fatal effect may occur at high concentration of chlorobenzene. For
humans, if chlorobenzene is exposed at the concentration of 200 ppm, eye and nose irritation will
occur and at high concentration, central nervous system depression will take place. If liquid
chlorobenzene is just briefly in contact with skin, mild irritation occur, however if prolonged or
repeated contact happened, burning of the skin will occur. The toxic effects of chlorobenzene on

humans were exhaustion, nausea, lethargy, headache and irritation to the upper respiratory tract
and eye. Chlorobenzene is considered toxic and many studies conducted have found that the
toxic effect of chlorobenzene on organisms in the environment includes mortality,
immobilization and growth inhibition. The targeted organs for exposure of chlorobenzene are
mainly kidneys and liver.
Environmental Release
Chlorobenzene does not occur naturally. It enters the atmosphere as fugitive emissions from the
pesticide industry and from other industries that use it as a solvent (Howard 1989). Release of
the chemical also occurs during the disposal of industrial wastes (Howard 1989). Concentrations
of chlorobenzene in the atmosphere have typically ranged from < 0.02 ppb for remote areas to
0.8 ppb in cities; the maximum reported value measured was 12 ppb (Howard 1989).
Chlorobenzene is volatile (vapor pressure, 11.7 mm Hg) and slightly soluble in water (466.3
mg/L). The most important transport process for chemical from water and soil is evaporation. If
chlorobenzene is released to moist soil, it will evaporate to the atmosphere; and if it is released to
sandy soil, chlorobenzene will leach into the groundwater. Chlorobenzene will biodegrade very
slow and might not degrade at all and remains in the environment.
If exposed to the air, the half-life of chlorobenzene is to be about 9 days or sometimes 20 to 40
hours under simulated atmospheric conditions. Usually, the chlorobenzene is removed from the
atmosphere through reaction with hydroxyl radicals forming microbiophenyl and photolysis
reaction. When exposed to the water, the chlorobenzene will have a half-life about 0.3 days in a
river, and about 1 to 12 hours in a rapidly flowing stream. Chlorobenzene is removed from the
water through vaporization and biodegradation processes. And if exposed to the soil, it will have
a half-life f 0.3 days is exposed to soil at depth 1 cm and 12.6 days at depth 10 cm. Main removal
of chlorobenzene from the soil surface is through evaporation.
Disposal
Since it is possible for chemicals waste to enter the environment if waste incinerated, land filled
or just drained, it is important to keep them out of municipal waste stream. Since, chlorobenzene
is known as hazardous and toxic chemicals, proper treatment and disposal method need to be

made. The waste disposal facility should be approved by the local authorities; and care should be
taken to ensure the disposal meet the regulatory requirements or local environmental laws.
Chlorobenzene is listed as a hazardous substance, thus the disposal of it is very strict and is
controlled by the federal regulations. Disposal of chlorobenzene into the soil (landfill) is very
restricted, except under specific conditions. It is not suitable for disposal by either landfill or via
local sewers, drains, natural streams or rivers. Wastes containing chlorobenzene may be disposed
by liquid injection, rotary kiln, or fluidized bed incineration. Since chlorobenzene is widely used
as a solvent in many chemical processes and it is a volatile compound, most of the waste is
released to the atmosphere, few wastes were found in wastewater and land. Thus, the air plays a
large role in the environmental transport and degradation of chlorobenzene.
For container disposal, the container must be first drained thoroughly. After draining, it should
be store in a safe place away from sparks and ignition of fire because the residues of
chlorobenzene that still attach to the wall of the container may cause an explosion hazard.
Disposal of container and unused contents must be in accordance to local regulatory
requirements and environmental laws.

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Appendices